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NRS 451 Topic 4: Organizational Culture and Values Tasks

Topic 4: Organizational Culture and Values Tasks

Organizational values and vision are important for the successful operational processes. Vision and values define the objectives and policies of the entire organization. When employees and the entire stakeholders adhere to the organizational values, there is always high likelihood of achieving an integrated operational environment. Communication of values is always critical for both the external and internal stakeholders. Values often define the expected levels of the performance and whatever is required in the entire operational processes. Values often inform the behaviors and the cultural conduct of the people within an organization. Vision statements often determine the future operational processes and whatever that needs to be done to facilitate the attainment of goals and objectives of an organization. Vision facilitates communication and expression of the organizational purposes for the stakeholders. Vision also informs goals and objectives that are applied to determine whether the formulated objectives are on track. In other words, the vision statement informs the objectives of the organization and the intents or the desires.

NRS 451 Organizational Culture and Values

Prepare a 10-15 slide PowerPoint presentation, with speaker notes, that examines the significance of an organization’s culture and values. For the presentation of your PowerPoint, use Loom to create a voice-over or a video. Refer to the Topic Materials for additional guidance on recording your presentation with Loom. Include an additional slide for the Loom link at the beginning, and an additional slide for References at the end.

  1. Outline the purpose of an organization’s mission, vision, and values.
  2. Explain why an organization’s mission, vision, and values are significant to nurse engagement and patient outcomes.
  3. Explain what factors lead to conflict in a professional practice. Describe how organizational values and culture can influence the way conflict is addressed.
  4. Discuss effective strategies for resolving workplace conflict and encouraging interprofessional collaboration.
  5. Discuss how organizational needs and the culture of health care influence organizational outcomes. Describe how these relate to health promotion and disease prevention from a community health perspective.

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While APA style format is not required for the body of this assignment, solid academic writing is expected, and in-text citations and references should be presented using APA documentation guidelines, which can be found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center.

This assignment uses a rubric. Please review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the expectations for successful completion.

You are required to submit this assignment to Lopes Write. Refer to the Lopes Write Technical Support articles for assistance.

Topic 4 DQ 1

Discuss how nurse leaders serve as advocates for their employees. Describe how advocacy for employees affects patient care and outcomes. Topic 4: Organizational Culture and Values Tasks

Re: Topic 4 DQ 1
Every day, nurses face new challenges that come in all shapes and sizes. Employees must rely on leaders to advocate for them so that they are satisfied with their jobs, just as leaders rely on their employees to help them implement new changes designed to improve the

Topic 4 Organizational Culture and Values Tasks

Topic 4 Organizational Culture and Values Tasks

unit. Workers come to leaders with complaints, ideas, and areas for improvement, hoping that the leader will act and address the issue to improve the workplace. This could be due to staff not having enough of a specific item needed to succeed, a workplace or even personal issue, or an idea to improve the unit. If an employee feels well cared for and has the tools for success, it will transfer to their patient care because their problems are being addressed. Nurses’ ability to fully act as advocates is hampered if they feel powerless and unsupported (Grand Canyon University GCU], 2018). Our text specifically mentions this, saying, “Indeed, Oliveira and Tariman (2017) discovered that the most significant barrier to advocacy was a lack of administration support. A culture that does not support its nurses through education, training, and debriefing of high-risk practice behaviors may result in increased errors, decreased accountability, and poor patient outcomes.” (GCU, 2018) This sentiment suggests an easily digestible idea: if employees feel supported and heard by leadership, they will perform better in their roles. Tasks for Topic 4: Organizational Culture and Values

Topic 4: Organizational Culture and Values Tasks

DQ 1 for Topic 4
Advocacy, according to the textbook, is the act of supporting or pleading for a cause or proposal. We go to our nurse leaders or nurse managers when there is a problem with the patients, physicians, families, medications, or anything else. We have expressed all of our concerns to this individual. It is critical for employees to believe that their needs or suggestions will be considered by the nurse leader and forwarded to the appropriate person. There is a lot going on on the floor with patient interaction. In a profession where patients’ needs are frequently prioritized over nurses’, we need someone to advocate for our colleagues. Having a nurse leader or manager to advocate for the employees will reduce confusion and promote a more productive and less stressful environment for the staff and patients. Point-of-care nurses must develop and apply advocacy skills in order to address workplace concerns, promote positive work environments, and advocate for the profession. (2012) Tomajan K. If employees do not feel heard, or if their suggestions or input on certain issues concerning them is not met, this can lead to more call-ins, nursing burnout, and even higher rates of nurse turnover. When there aren’t enough nurses to handle the patient load, patient care suffers as a result. K. Tomajan, “Advocating for Nurses and Nursing,” OJIN: The Online Journal of Issues in Nursing, Vol. 17, No. 1, Manuscript 4, January 31, 2012. J. Thomas 2018. Nursing leadership and management entails both leading and serving. http://lc.gcumedia.com/nrs451vn/nursing-leadership-and-management-leading-and-serving/v1.1

Topic 4 DQ 2

Discuss barriers caused by an organizational culture that can be encountered by nursing leaders that can make them feel powerless.

Re: Topic 4 DQ 2
Organizational culture refers to the values, beliefs or behaviors displayed within an organization. It has a direct impact on staff engagement, quality of care, and patient outcomes (Thomas, 2018). Shared values among employees and their employers increase engagement and dedication to the organization, and support a positive working culture that contributes to successful outcomes. When an organization’s culture supports and appreciates input and ideas from stakeholders, including employees, respect and value are observed within the organization and in daily operations (Thomas, 2018). Organizational culture in nursing and healthcare influences leadership style and behavior and is an important determinant of job satisfaction, staff retention and patient outcomes. Various barriers exist that can make nurse leaders feel powerless, identification of these barriers can help provide nurses with strategies to overcome them and influence decisions in the workplace.Nursing leadership plays a significant role in creating motivation and thus enabling nurses to provide high quality care, therefore, barriers that affect nurse leaders also affect staff and patients. In some organizations, nurses are not seen as important decision makers when it comes to making healthcare decisions within the organization. As compared to physicians, nurses are not seen as revenue generators hence receive less attention and their needs may not be attended to as needed. These obstacles make it hard for nurse leaders to influence healthcare policy and reform. It further has a negative impact on the self-confidence and motivation of nurse leaders which makes it difficult for them to play their leading and supportive role as may be expected (Barkhordari-Sharifabad et al. 2017). When nurse leaders lack authority in recruitment of nurses or to make decisions about their staffing needs, they are forced to work with less manpower. Staff turnover increases when nurses are overworked which makes the situation even worse with minimal control from the leaders who feel powerless. It is therefore essential that nurse leaders are able to effectively influence change in organizational systems. Topic 4: Organizational Culture and Values TasksSome organizational cultures do not have a respect for nurses; decisions are made for the nursing department without considering their leaders’ opinions, and nurses are asked to implement those decisions without any explanations or clarifications on the process. This can make nurse leaders feel powerless as they find themselves torn between their teams’ needs and organization’s needs. When an organization has inappropriate procedures and guidelines in the clinical environment that make it hard for leaders to establish democracy and justice, they may feel powerless (Barkhordari-Sharifabad et al. 2017). For example, a climate of blame, confusion, job insecurity, manipulation, bullying and poor communication. Organizational culture can make nurse leaders work in a restrictive work environment within specific boundaries making them feel “boxed” and powerless, for example not being involved in decision making. According to one study, being denied opportunities for promotion, professional development and career advancement can make leaders feel powerless and demotivated (Mbuthia et al. 2017). Organizational culture that does not provide for open communication between different management levels can be an obstacle for nurse leaders who may not have a channel to address their issues and concerns.

References:Barkhordari-Sharifabad, M., Ashktorab, T., & Atashzadeh-Shoorideh, F. (2017). Obstacles and problems of ethical leadership from the perspective of nursing leaders: A qualitative content analysis. Journal of Medical Ethics and History of Medicine, 10(1). Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5432950/#_ffn_sectitle

Mbuthia, G. M., Brownie, S., & Holroyd, E. (2017). “My hands are tied”: Nurses’ perception of organizational culture in Kenyan private hospitals. Journal of Hospital Administration, 6(6). Retrieved from: https://doi.org/10.5430/jha.v6n6p1

Thomas, J. S. (2018). Nursing Leadership and Management: Leading and Serving. Grand Canyon University. Retrieved from: https://www.gcumedia.com/digital-resources/grand-canyon-university/2018/nursing-leadership-and-management_leading-and-serving_1e.php. Topic 4: Organizational Culture and Values Tasks

Organizational Culture and Values – Rubric

Criteria Description

Purpose of Organizational Mission, Vision, and Values

5. Excellent

10.4 points

Purpose of organizational mission, vision, and values is accurate and clearly outlined.

4. Good

9.26 points

Purpose of organizational mission, vision, and values is outlined. Some detail is needed for clarity or accuracy.

3. Satisfactory

8.22 points

Purpose of organizational mission, vision, and values is summarized. Some information is needed. There are minor inaccuracies.

2. Less than Satisfactory

7.8 points

Purpose of organizational mission, vision, and values is partially summarized. There are omissions and inaccuracies.

1. Unsatisfactory

0 points

Purpose of organizational mission, vision, and values is omitted.

Criteria Description

Significance of Mission, Vision, and Values on Nurse Engagement and Patient Outcomes

5. Excellent

10.4 points

A detailed explanation of why organizational mission, vision, and values are significant to nurse engagement and patient outcomes is presented. Sound rationale is provided for support. The significance is clearly established.

4. Good

9.26 points

An explanation of why organizational mission, vision, and values are significant to nurse engagement and patient outcomes is presented. Some rationale or information is needed for support. The significance is generally established.

3. Satisfactory

8.22 points

A summary of why organizational mission, vision, and values are significant to nurse engagement and patient outcomes is presented. More information is needed. There are minor inaccuracies. The significance is partially established.

2. Less than Satisfactory

7.8 points

An incomplete explanation of why organizational mission, vision, and values are significant to nurse engagement and patient outcomes is presented. There are omissions and inaccuracies. The significance is not established.

1. Unsatisfactory

0 points

Explanation of why organizational mission, vision, and values are significant to nurse engagement and patient outcomes is omitted.

Criteria Description

Factors Leading to Conflict in Professional Practice and Influence of Organizational Values and Culture in Addressing Conflict

5. Excellent

10.4 points

An explanation of factors leading to conflict in a professional practice is clearly presented. How organizational values and culture influence the way conflict is addressed is described in detail. Strong rationale and evidence are provided for support.

4. Good

9.26 points

An explanation of factors leading to conflict in a professional practice is presented. How organizational values and culture influence the way conflict is addressed is described. Some information or rationale is needed for support.

3. Satisfactory

8.22 points

A general explanation of factors leading to conflict in a professional practice is presented. A summary of how organizational values and culture influence the way conflict is addressed is presented. Some aspects are unclear. More information and rationale are needed.

2. Less than Satisfactory

7.8 points

Factors leading to conflict in a professional practice are partially presented. A vague summary of how organizational values and culture influence the way conflict is addressed is presented. There are significant omissions.

1. Unsatisfactory

0 points

Factors leading to conflict in a professional practice are omitted.

Criteria Description

Effective Strategies for Resolving Workplace Conflict and Encouraging Interprofessional Collaboration

5. Excellent

10.4 points

Effective strategies for resolving workplace conflict and encouraging interprofessional collaboration is discussed. Strong support and rationale are provided to support each strategy.

4. Good

9.26 points

Effective strategies for resolving workplace conflict and encouraging interprofessional collaboration is discussed. Some detail or rationale is needed for clarity or support.

3. Satisfactory

8.22 points

Strategies for resolving workplace conflict and encouraging interprofessional collaboration are generally discussed. The proposed strategies are relevant and would be generally effective for resolving workplace conflict and encouraging interprofessional collaboration. More evidence and rationale are needed.

2. Less than Satisfactory

7.8 points

Strategies for resolving workplace conflict and encouraging interprofessional collaboration are partially discussed. It is unclear how the proposed strategies would be effective; the proposed strategies are not relevant.

1. Unsatisfactory

0 points

Effective strategies for resolving workplace conflict and encouraging interprofessional collaboration are omitted.

Criteria Description

Influence of Organizational Needs and Culture of Health Care on Organizational Outcomes

5. Excellent

10.4 points

How organizational needs and the culture of health care influence organizational outcomes is clearly discussed. How these relate to health promotion and disease prevention from a community health perspective is described in detail. The relationship among these is established. Rationale and evidence is provided for support.

4. Good

9.26 points

How organizational needs and the culture of health care influence organizational outcomes is discussed. How these relate to health promotion and disease prevention from a community health perspective is described. The relationship among these is generally established. Some information or rationale is needed.

3. Satisfactory

8.22 points

How organizational needs and the culture of health care influence organizational outcomes is generally discussed. How these relate to health promotion and disease prevention from a community health perspective is summarized. The relationship among these is not clearly established. More information is needed. There are some inaccuracies.

2. Less than Satisfactory

7.8 points

How organizational needs and the culture of health care influence organizational outcomes is partially presented. There are major omissions and inaccuracies.

1. Unsatisfactory

0 points

How organizational needs and the culture of health care influence organizational outcomes is not discussed.

Criteria Description

Presentation of Content

5. Excellent

52 points

The content is written clearly and concisely. Ideas universally progress and relate to each other. The project includes motivating questions and advanced organizers. The project gives the audience a clear sense of the main idea.

4. Good

46.28 points

The content is written with a logical progression of ideas and supporting information exhibiting a unity, coherence, and cohesiveness. Includes persuasive information from reliable sources.

3. Satisfactory

41.08 points

The presentation slides are generally competent, but ideas may show some inconsistency in organization or in their relationships to each other.

2. Less than Satisfactory

39 points

The content is vague in conveying a point of view and does not create a strong sense of purpose. Includes some persuasive information.

1. Unsatisfactory

0 points

The content lacks a clear point of view and logical sequence of information. Includes little persuasive information. Sequencing of ideas is unclear.

Criteria Description

Layout

5. Excellent

6.5 points

The layout is visually pleasing and contributes to the overall message with appropriate use of headings, subheadings, and white space. Text is appropriate in length for the target audience and to the point. The background and colors enhance the readability of the text.

4. Good

5.79 points

The layout background and text complement each other and enable the content to be easily read. The fonts are easy to read and point size varies appropriately for headings and text.

3. Satisfactory

5.14 points

The layout uses horizontal and vertical white space appropriately. Sometimes the fonts are easy to read, but in a few places the use of fonts, italics, bold, long paragraphs, color, or busy background detracts and does not enhance readability.

2. Less than Satisfactory

4.88 points

The layout shows some structure, but appears cluttered and busy or distracting with large gaps of white space or a distracting background. Overall readability is difficult due to lengthy paragraphs, too many different fonts, dark or busy background, overuse of bold, or lack of appropriate indentations of text.

1. Unsatisfactory

0 points

The layout is cluttered, confusing, and does not use spacing, headings, and subheadings to enhance the readability. The text is extremely difficult to read with long blocks of text, small point size for fonts, and inappropriate contrasting colors. Poor use of headings, subheadings, indentations, or bold formatting is evident.

Criteria Description

Language Use and Audience Awareness (includes sentence construction, word choice, etc.)

5. Excellent

6.5 points

The writer uses a variety of sentence constructions, figures of speech, and word choice in distinctive and creative ways that are appropriate to purpose, discipline, and scope.

4. Good

5.79 points

The writer is clearly aware of audience, uses a variety of appropriate vocabulary for the targeted audience, and uses figures of speech to communicate clearly.

3. Satisfactory

5.14 points

Language is appropriate to the targeted audience for the most part.

2. Less than Satisfactory

4.88 points

Some distracting inconsistencies in language choice (register) or word choice are present. The writer exhibits some lack of control in using figures of speech appropriately.

1. Unsatisfactory

0 points

Inappropriate word choice and lack of variety in language use are evident. Writer appears to be unaware of audience. Use of primer prose indicates writer either does not apply figures of speech or uses them inappropriately.

Criteria Description

Mechanics of Writing (includes spelling, punctuation, grammar, language use)

5. Excellent

6.5 points

Writer is clearly in control of standard, written, academic English.

4. Good

5.79 points

Slides are largely free of mechanical errors, although a few may be present.

3. Satisfactory

5.14 points

Some mechanical errors or typos are present, but they are not overly distracting to the reader.

2. Less than Satisfactory

4.88 points

Frequent and repetitive mechanical errors distract the reader.

1. Unsatisfactory

0 points

Slide errors are pervasive enough that they impede communication of meaning.

Criteria Description

Documentation of Sources (citations, footnotes, references, bibliography, etc., as appropriate to assignment and style)

5. Excellent

6.5 points

Sources are completely and correctly documented, as appropriate to assignment and style, and format is free of error.

4. Good

5.79 points

Sources are documented, as appropriate to assignment and style, and format is mostly correct.

3. Satisfactory

5.14 points

Sources are documented, as appropriate to assignment and style, although some formatting errors may be present.

2. Less than Satisfactory

4.88 points

Documentation of sources is inconsistent or incorrect, as appropriate to assignment and style, with numerous formatting errors.

1. Unsatisfactory

0 points

Sources are not documented.

Total 130 points

Organizational Culture and Values – Rubric

Rubric Criteria

Total 130 points

Criterion

1. Unsatisfactory

2. Less than Satisfactory

3. Satisfactory

4. Good

5. Excellent

Presentation of Content

Presentation of Content

0 points

The content lacks a clear point of view and logical sequence of information. Includes little persuasive information. Sequencing of ideas is unclear.

39 points

The content is vague in conveying a point of view and does not create a strong sense of purpose. Includes some persuasive information.

41.08 points

The presentation slides are generally competent, but ideas may show some inconsistency in organization or in their relationships to each other.

46.28 points

The content is written with a logical progression of ideas and supporting information exhibiting a unity, coherence, and cohesiveness. Includes persuasive information from reliable sources.

52 points

The content is written clearly and concisely. Ideas universally progress and relate to each other. The project includes motivating questions and advanced organizers. The project gives the audience a clear sense of the main idea.

Language Use and Audience Awareness (includes sentence construction, word choice, etc.)

Language Use and Audience Awareness (includes sentence construction, word choice, etc.)

0 points

Inappropriate word choice and lack of variety in language use are evident. Writer appears to be unaware of audience. Use of primer prose indicates writer either does not apply figures of speech or uses them inappropriately.

4.88 points

Some distracting inconsistencies in language choice (register) or word choice are present. The writer exhibits some lack of control in using figures of speech appropriately.

5.14 points

Language is appropriate to the targeted audience for the most part.

5.79 points

The writer is clearly aware of audience, uses a variety of appropriate vocabulary for the targeted audience, and uses figures of speech to communicate clearly.

6.5 points

The writer uses a variety of sentence constructions, figures of speech, and word choice in distinctive and creative ways that are appropriate to purpose, discipline, and scope.

Influence of Organizational Needs and Culture of Health Care on Organizational Outcomes

Influence of Organizational Needs and Culture of Health Care on Organizational Outcomes

0 points

How organizational needs and the culture of health care influence organizational outcomes is not discussed.

7.8 points

How organizational needs and the culture of health care influence organizational outcomes is partially presented. There are major omissions and inaccuracies.

8.22 points

How organizational needs and the culture of health care influence organizational outcomes is generally discussed. How these relate to health promotion and disease prevention from a community health perspective is summarized. The relationship among these is not clearly established. More information is needed. There are some inaccuracies.

9.26 points

How organizational needs and the culture of health care influence organizational outcomes is discussed. How these relate to health promotion and disease prevention from a community health perspective is described. The relationship among these is generally established. Some information or rationale is needed.

10.4 points

How organizational needs and the culture of health care influence organizational outcomes is clearly discussed. How these relate to health promotion and disease prevention from a community health perspective is described in detail. The relationship among these is established. Rationale and evidence is provided for support.

Layout

Layout

0 points

The layout is cluttered, confusing, and does not use spacing, headings, and subheadings to enhance the readability. The text is extremely difficult to read with long blocks of text, small point size for fonts, and inappropriate contrasting colors. Poor use of headings, subheadings, indentations, or bold formatting is evident.

4.88 points

The layout shows some structure, but appears cluttered and busy or distracting with large gaps of white space or a distracting background. Overall readability is difficult due to lengthy paragraphs, too many different fonts, dark or busy background, overuse of bold, or lack of appropriate indentations of text.

5.14 points

The layout uses horizontal and vertical white space appropriately. Sometimes the fonts are easy to read, but in a few places the use of fonts, italics, bold, long paragraphs, color, or busy background detracts and does not enhance readability.

5.79 points

The layout background and text complement each other and enable the content to be easily read. The fonts are easy to read and point size varies appropriately for headings and text.

6.5 points

The layout is visually pleasing and contributes to the overall message with appropriate use of headings, subheadings, and white space. Text is appropriate in length for the target audience and to the point. The background and colors enhance the readability of the text.

Effective Strategies for Resolving Conflict

Effective Strategies for Resolving Workplace Conflict and Encouraging Interprofessional Collaboration

0 points

Effective strategies for resolving workplace conflict and encouraging interprofessional collaboration are omitted.

7.8 points

Strategies for resolving workplace conflict and encouraging interprofessional collaboration are partially discussed. It is unclear how the proposed strategies would be effective; the proposed strategies are not relevant.

8.22 points

Strategies for resolving workplace conflict and encouraging interprofessional collaboration are generally discussed. The proposed strategies are relevant and would be generally effective for resolving workplace conflict and encouraging interprofessional collaboration. More evidence and rationale are needed.

9.26 points

Effective strategies for resolving workplace conflict and encouraging interprofessional collaboration is discussed. Some detail or rationale is needed for clarity or support.

10.4 points

Effective strategies for resolving workplace conflict and encouraging interprofessional collaboration is discussed. Strong support and rationale are provided to support each strategy.

Significance of Mission, Vision, and Values on Nurse Engagement and Patient Outcomes

Significance of Mission, Vision, and Values on Nurse Engagement and Patient Outcomes

0 points

Explanation of why organizational mission, vision, and values are significant to nurse engagement and patient outcomes is omitted.

7.8 points

An incomplete explanation of why organizational mission, vision, and values are significant to nurse engagement and patient outcomes is presented. There are omissions and inaccuracies. The significance is not established.

8.22 points

A summary of why organizational mission, vision, and values are significant to nurse engagement and patient outcomes is presented. More information is needed. There are minor inaccuracies. The significance is partially established.

9.26 points

An explanation of why organizational mission, vision, and values are significant to nurse engagement and patient outcomes is presented. Some rationale or information is needed for support. The significance is generally established.

10.4 points

A detailed explanation of why organizational mission, vision, and values are significant to nurse engagement and patient outcomes is presented. Sound rationale is provided for support. The significance is clearly established.

Purpose of Organizational Mission, Vision, and Values

Purpose of Organizational Mission, Vision, and Values

0 points

Purpose of organizational mission, vision, and values is omitted.

7.8 points

Purpose of organizational mission, vision, and values is partially summarized. There are omissions and inaccuracies.

8.22 points

Purpose of organizational mission, vision, and values is summarized. Some information is needed. There are minor inaccuracies.

9.26 points

Purpose of organizational mission, vision, and values is outlined. Some detail is needed for clarity or accuracy.

10.4 points

Purpose of organizational mission, vision, and values is accurate and clearly outlined.

Factors Leading to Conflict in Professional Practice

Factors Leading to Conflict in Professional Practice and Influence of Organizational Values and Culture in Addressing Conflict

0 points

Factors leading to conflict in a professional practice are omitted.

7.8 points

Factors leading to conflict in a professional practice are partially presented. A vague summary of how organizational values and culture influence the way conflict is addressed is presented. There are significant omissions.

8.22 points

A general explanation of factors leading to conflict in a professional practice is presented. A summary of how organizational values and culture influence the way conflict is addressed is presented. Some aspects are unclear. More information and rationale are needed.

9.26 points

An explanation of factors leading to conflict in a professional practice is presented. How organizational values and culture influence the way conflict is addressed is described. Some information or rationale is needed for support.

10.4 points

An explanation of factors leading to conflict in a professional practice is clearly presented. How organizational values and culture influence the way conflict is addressed is described in detail. Strong rationale and evidence are provided for support.

Mechanics of Writing (includes spelling, punctuation, grammar, language use)

Mechanics of Writing (includes spelling, punctuation, grammar, language use)

0 points

Slide errors are pervasive enough that they impede communication of meaning.

4.88 points

Frequent and repetitive mechanical errors distract the reader.

5.14 points

Some mechanical errors or typos are present, but they are not overly distracting to the reader.

5.79 points

Slides are largely free of mechanical errors, although a few may be present.

6.5 points

Writer is clearly in control of standard, written, academic English.

Documentation of Sources

Documentation of Sources (citations, footnotes, references, bibliography, etc., as appropriate to assignment and style)

0 points

Sources are not documented.

4.88 points

Documentation of sources is inconsistent or incorrect, as appropriate to assignment and style, with numerous formatting errors.

5.14 points

Sources are documented, as appropriate to assignment and style, although some formatting errors may be present.

5.79 points

Sources are documented, as appropriate to assignment and style, and format is mostly correct.

6.5 points

Sources are completely and correctly documented, as appropriate to assignment and style, and format is free of error.

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