PUB 540 Discuss three of the seven uses and applications of epidemiology

PUB 540 Discuss three of the seven uses and applications of epidemiology

PUB 540 Discuss three of the seven uses and applications of epidemiology

The screening is utilized to determine early signs and symptoms of illness or health conditions to provide early treatment or intervention to prevent health complications from the disease in an individual (Oleske, 2009). Surveillance is described as an organized process to collect data about disease or health problems, analyze these data, and conduct an evaluation to provide this information to those who are actively involved in the health problem (Oleske, 2009). Screening may be conducted through technology such as x-ray, questionnaires or surveys, clinical assessments such as breast examination, and laboratory testing to identify health issues while surveillance is a continuous process of monitoring health problems.

A good example of a screening procedure is a home test kit for COVID-19 to identify if the individual is positive for

COVID-19. Surveillance is conducted by providing information to local public health departments such as a number of positive cases in schools or communities to identify protocols or improve protocols that will promote the health of the communities. According to Friis and Sellers (2021), a good screening test must be acceptable, simple, rapid, safe, and inexpensive.


Friis, R.H. & Sellers, T.A. (2021). Epidemiology for public health practice (6th ed.). Burlington, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning.

Oleske, D. M. (2009). Screening and Surveillance for Promoting Population Health. Epidemiology and the Delivery of Health Care Services: Methods and Applications, 131–150.

Click here to ORDER an A++ paper from our Verified MASTERS and DOCTORATE WRITERS PUB 540 Discuss three of the seven uses and applications of epidemiology:

The late Jerry Morris articulated the seven uses of epidemiology. The broad overview touches many aspects as it pertains to the health sciences. Epidemiology is a methodology used to find the cause of health outcomes and diseases within populations. Through the use of “The Seven Uses of Epidemiology” we are able to ask some questions in medicine.  According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) epidemiology is the study of the distribution and determinants of health-related states and events among a specified population.

Seven Uses of Epidemiology:

1.)   Study history of health populations. 2) Diagnose the health of the community. 3.) Study the effectiveness of health services. 4.) Individual risks on average of diseases 5.) Identify syndromes 6.) Define clinical picture of disease and nature of history 7.) Viewing experiences amongst groups and search for the cause of health and diseases.

Examining 3 out 7 Uses of Epidemiology:

The study of history of health population’s look at the secular trends as it relates to illness that causes mortality that afflict humanity. It has been noted that there has been a shifter from the beginning of modern medicine to present day. Simply chronic conditions have begun to replace acute diseases. In historical study of health, the community and the rise and fall of disease in the population are examined and useful projections into the future are often determined.  The Study of working health services begins by determine the needs, resources, and then proceeds to an analysis of the health service in action. These studies can be comparative between various populations. Lastly, the search for causes of health and disease, looks for discovery amongst groups with high and low rates. Examining the differences in ways of living, and testing notions in actual practice amongst populations. Lastly, observing the individual risk on average of disease is done from the common experience. Looking at the individual’s chance and risk. What makes the susceptible or places at a higher risk of contraction.

PUB 540 Discuss three of the seven uses and applications of epidemiology
PUB 540 Discuss three of the seven uses and applications of epidemiology


Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2016, June 17). What is epidemiology? Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved April 27, 2022, from

Friis, R.H. & Sellers, T.A. (2021). Epidemiology for public health practice (6th ed.). Burlington, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning.

Smith, G. D. (2001). The uses of ‘uses of epidemiology’. International Journal of Epidemiology, 30(5), 1146–1155.

Epidemiology is an interdisciplinary field of study, which derives from many different moving parts. There are several uses of epidemiology in support of public health practice, and two main approaches: are descriptive and analytical. The application includes the investigation of outbreaks, surveillance, and study of chronic diseases.

Diagnosing the health of the community and the condition of the people is one epidemiological use. Community assessment is the foundation for improving and promoting the health of community members, (Friss & Sellers, 2021). By identifying and quantifying factors that affect the health of the community as a whole and determining the resources needed to adequately address these factors. To complete the clinical picture of chronic diseases, when investigating a disease outbreak, epidemiologists rely on healthcare providers and laboratories to establish the proper diagnosis of individual patients, whenever their present, understanding of the clinical picture and natural history of the diseases to detect early subclinical to reverse or prevent diseases, (Friis & Sellers, 2021). The last use of epidemiology is to search for causes of health and disease that influence one’s risk of disease. Researching one’s exposure, behaviors, and environment to identify particular causes of chronic disease so that appropriate public health action might be taken, (Friis & Sellers, 2021).

Descriptive epidemiology studies and reports on the distribution, occurrence, and pattern of disease, (Frey & LI, 2020). The method of describing disease patterns falls into one or more of the following three categories, person, place, and or time, which reflect underlying factors. The person reflects on who is being affected as far as age group, young or old, as well as socioeconomic status. The exposure to environmental risk factors, behaviors patterns, and understanding of the time it takes place. Was there a sudden increase over a short period of time, Is the problem more frequent doing what season, Is the problem gradually increasing over long periods of time or increasing greatly over just a few years, are these patterns directly or indirectly related to the occurrence of illnesses by affecting a wide range of exposures associated with lifestyle and or healthcare access, in addition, to a combination of variables, (Friss & Sellers, 2021). Understanding the distribution and occurrence of these patterns helps public health predict future trends and or outbreaks of diseases in geographic areas (rural areas, cities, country), populations (race, immigrants, indigenous people), and time periods, (summer, winter, fall).


Frey, R. J., & Li, M. (2020). Epidemiology. In Gale (Ed.), The Gale encyclopedia of public health (2nd ed.). Gale. Credo Reference:

Friis, R. H., & Sellers, T. A. (2021). Epidemiology for public health practice (6th ed.). Jones and Bartlett Learning. ISBN-13: 9781284175431 

Epidemiology is focused on the frequency and pattern of health conditions in a population (Center for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC], 2020). It is the foundation of public health through the support it provides in addressing public health issues and providing data that will allow the building of prevention policies for any health-related problems.

The three out of seven uses of epidemiology are as follows: study the history of the health of the population, diagnose the health of the community and search for causes. Studying the history of the health of a population allows epidemiologists to study and compare the prevalence of diseases and their characteristics in different populations. Diagnosing the health of the community provides information relevant to public health problems and data needed for epidemiological research through measuring the true dimensions, and distribution of diseases concerning incidence, prevalence, and mortality (Friis & Sellers, 2021). Lastly, the search for the cause of health and disease is a very critical use of epidemiology as it confirms the definite cause of certain diseases and the possible risk to the communities that are exposed.

Descriptive epidemiology is a type of epidemiological research that utilized descriptive statistics which present information on disease patterns considering the characteristics of person, place, and time (Friis & Sellers, 2021). It develops hypotheses about the underlying causes of health problems or disease by identifying the patterns of disease occurrence and their association to lifestyle, healthcare access, behavioral patterns, and exposure to environmental hazards. Therefore, it also identifies populations that are at risk for health problems.


Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2020). Principles of epidemiology. Lesson 1 – Section 1. Retrieved


Friis, R.H. & Sellers, T.A. (2021). Epidemiology for public health practice (6th ed.). Burlington, MA: Jones

The relevance and application of epidemiology cuts across various fields in public health and the delivery of related services to the population. The participatory nature of epidemiology to clinical processes ranges from studying the history of the health of populations from the rise and fall of infections to the changes in the character of the said diseases (Frérot et al., 2018). Often, this study also helps in determining the useful projections of such infections in the future.

Secondly, epidemiology is essential in measuring the real diagnosis in a community as well as the condition of the people (Lau et al., 2019). In this light, measuring cuts across evaluating the dimension and distribution of ill health in relation to prevalence, disability, and mortality rates. Through this approach, health care systems can set priority on defining health problems based on perspective and relative importance, a factor that helps in identifying the most vulnerable population groups requiring special attention. Thirdly, epidemiology helps in estimating the individual risks of disease, accidents, defects, and the approaches to avoiding such (Lau et al., 2019).

On another note, descriptive epidemiology, often explored through the lenses of person, place, and time is usually useful in determining disease predictiveness and possible future trends. Particularly, personal characteristics like diet, age, family disease history and background, and leisure activities predict possible exposures to disease risk factors. Place, on the other hand, relates to the work, residence, and travel patterns of an individual that describe the possible risk of exposure to diseases, including the frequent variance of diseases from country to country or city. Lastly, the time variance helps in determining the surveillance of healthcare systems within the frequency of occurrence of health problems. Examination of frequency, in this case, includes the possible changes of disease patterns within the last decades, number of years, or even number of days. For example, the outbreak of foodborne diseases may sometimes occur in days as opposed to epidemics that surge for several years like polio.


Frérot, M., Lefebvre, A., Aho, S., Callier, P., Astruc, K., & Aho Glélé, L. S. (2018). What is epidemiology? Changing Definitions Of Epidemiology 1978-2017. Plos One13(12), e0208442.

Lau, B., Duggal, P., Ehrhardt, S., Armenian, H., Branas, C. C., Colditz, G. A., … & Celentano, D. D. (2020). Perspectives On The Future Of Epidemiology: A Framework For Training. American Journal Of Epidemiology189(7), 634-639.

The definition of epidemiology is indicated in its uses. Epidemiology to my understanding is the discipline that is concerned with factors that relate to the occurrence of the disease to death.  Three of the seven uses and applications of epidemiology include;

“To diagnose the health of the community and the condition of the people, to measure the true dimensions and distribution of ill-health in terms of incidence, prevalence, disability, and mortality; to set health problems in perspective and define their relative importance; to identify groups needing special attention. Ways of life change, and with them the community’s health; new measurements for monitoring them must therefore constantly be sought.

To study the history of the health of populations, and of the rise and fall of diseases and changes in their character. Useful projections into the future may be possible.

To estimate from the group experience what are the individual risks on average of disease, accident and defect, and the chances of avoiding them” (Friis & Sellers, 2021).

Descriptive epidemiology as Friis& Sellers (2021) states is a foundational and vital component of epidemiologic research and public health practice.

“The person category encompasses who is being affected: young versus old? males versus females? rich versus poor? migrants versus nonimmigrants? more educated versus less educated? Place relates to where the problem is occurring: in cities more than in rural areas? some states more than others? in the United States versus other countries? at high altitudes versus low altitudes? where there is plentiful rainfall or little rainfall? in polluted areas more than unpolluted areas? Time refers to when the problem is occurring: Was there a sudden increase over a short period of time? Is the problem more frequent in winter than in summer? Is the problem gradually increasing over long periods of time or increasing greatly over just a few years?” (Friis &Sellers, 2021).

Gathering from the information above descriptive studies aid in assessing the health status of a population and helps sets health goals. According to Truglio-Londrigan & Lewenson (2018) completing the clinical picture is identifying what the infectious agent is, why and how the disease is transmitted to the host, where the disease is most prevalent in terms of the place or location, when the disease most makes itself known about time, and who the individual is who is affected by the disease.

Based on the statistics obtained through descriptive epidemiology it is likely to identify the needed resources and competently allocate resources accordingly.  


Friis, R. H., & Sellers, T. A. (2021). Epidemiology for public health practice (6th ed.)

Truglio-Londrigan, M., & Lewenson, S. (2018). Public health nursing: Practicing population-based care. Jones & Bartlett Learning. 

Epidemiology involve the study of the distribution (frequency, pattern) and determinants (causes, risk factors) of health-related states and events (not just diseases) in identified populations. uses of epidemiology includes

It helps to control diseases by studying diseases causes and how to prevent them from spreading. used to search for determinants that influences the occurrence of health related events. it serve the link in the analyzing diseases such as chain of communicable disease transmission and to reduce non-communicable diseases. it focuses on determining the disease-causing exposure or source;

It used to identify the health status of individuals or groups. it helps in finding the common health problems that a particular community of population is facing. it eases assessing the likelihood or probability of disease occurring in the population. Epidemiological information aids in knowing the number of other individuals who may have been similarly exposed to a particular disease.

It helps to recognize and bridge gaps in the history of diseases in nature.

Used in managing health services better. through use of evidence-based coordination of health services and setting of health goals can improve . Epidemiological information is used by management to plan and evaluate strategies on how to prevent illnesses and handle patients better

Descriptive epidemiology defines patterns of incidence of health-related status or events in groups is concerned. it provides a way to organize and interpret health and disease data in order to explain how the disease has behaved geographically and over time differences in disease occurrence and also how disease varies between individuals based on a host of personal characteristics (person, place, and time).it uses vital statistics (rates of birth and death), disease trends, or disease occurrence at a particular point in time (‘cross-sectional’ studies) in exposed and unexposed populations and also this can be used to predict future trends.


Principles of epidemiology | Lesson 1 – Section 1. (2020, May 11). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

Characteristics of person, place, and time. (n.d.).