PUB 540 Discuss the different types of transmission
PUB 540 Discuss the different types of transmission
Becker et al. (2021) discusses the importance of transmission modeling. This modeling can help guide public health policy. As disease changes, as did the novel Corona virus, biologic data must be integrated specific to the pathogen to lead to more qualitative and quantitative data on how to better treat the outbreak. Knowledge of transmission, spread, and treatment comes from clinical data and epidemiologic data. We must know where to start. Modes of transmission knowledge is an essential part in preventing further spread.
As stated by Friis and Sellers (2020) methods for control during a pandemic the agent, host, and environment must be evaluated. Transmission can be direct or indirect by having a way of getting out and into the host. Direct transmission is spread from person to person, and indirect transmission is through some types of vehicles. These vehicles are fomites, (non-living like a doorknob) items, or vectors (living items like mosquitos) such as sewage or food.
Becker, A., D., Grantz, K.H., Hegde, S., T., Bérubé, S., Cummings, D., AT, Wesolowski, A. (2020) Development and dissemination of infectious disease dynamic transmission models during the COVID-19 pandemic: What can we learn from other pathogens and how can we move forward? Lancet Digit Health. 3(1), e41-e50. https://doi: 10.1016/S2589-7500(20)30268-5.
Friis, R. H., & Sellers, T. (2020). Epidemiology for public health practice (6th ed.). Jones & Bartlett Learning.
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I would agree with your statement. In my translational research class, I chose the topic regarding the maternal mortality rate in Georgia. Georgia ranks as one of the states with the highest maternal mortality rates. And, with that, African American women are three times more likely to have bad outcomes during pregnancy. Hypertensive disorders in pregnancy one of the top causes for mortality and morbidity. Part of my intervention was to screen for risk factors, but after that would be education. Education that would incorporate lifestyle changes directed to diet, exercise, and stress reduction. This would result in a change in behavior. Not only that, the concept of being at optimal health or as close to it before getting pregnant would require a change in behavior and attitude of the women in this community. One risk factor is having a family history of hypertension. If factors that lead to hypertension were reduced by a change in behavior, like cooking with less salt and less frying of foods. And, diet was addressed with an appeasing alternative, perhaps behavior could change related to some aspects of the African American diet. I have seen evidence of healthier ways to cook soul food in published cookbooks and social media influencers, like Tabitha Brown, who is a vegan. Change is slow, but it is happening.
Maternal mortality is growing in the United States, this is a public health issue. Although this is a segment of the African American community, making this segment healthy would touch so much of the rest of this community. The mindset must change. And, as you have stated, we must find what will influence communities to be more conscious and health cautious.
There are many factors that contribute to morbidity and mortality, and effective interventions must address as many of these factors as possible in order to be successful. The following interventions could be very helpful when taken into account.
There are many ways to improve access to healthcare, but some are more effective than others. One way to improve access to healthcare is to raise the number of primary care providers. This can be done by training more nurse practitioners and physician assistants. Another way to improve access to healthcare is to raise the number of community health centers. These provide care for underserved populations and often offer sliding scale fees based on income.
Many people do not seek out healthcare because they are not aware of their health risks. One way to increase awareness of health risks is to provide information through public education campaigns. These campaigns can be targeted toward specific groups, such as women or seniors. Another way to increase awareness of health risks is to make sure that people have access to their medical records. This way, people can see for themselves what their risks are and make informed decisions about their healthcare.
Many health problems can be prevented or managed through lifestyle choices. One way to encourage healthy lifestyle choices is to provide information about healthy living. This can be done through public education campaigns, as well as through healthcare providers. Another way to encourage healthy lifestyle choices is to provide incentives for making healthy choices. For example, some employers offer wellness programs that give employees discounts on health insurance premiums if they meet certain health goals.
Many health problems can be treated more effectively if they are detected early. One way to promote early detection and treatment of health problems is to provide screenings. Screenings can be offered for free or at a reduced cost. Another way to promote early detection and treatment of health problems is to make sure that people have access to their medical records. This way, people can see for themselves what their risks are and make informed decisions about their healthcare.
One way to improve the quality of healthcare is to raise the number of primary care providers. This can be done by training more nurse practitioners and physician assistants. Another way to improve the overall healthcare quality is to set up more community health centers. These provide care for underserved populations and often offer sliding scale fees based on income.
Many health problems are caused by social and economic factors, such as poverty or lack of access to healthcare. One way to address social and economic determinants of health is to provide social services. Social services can include things like job training, financial assistance, and housing. Another way to address social and economic determinants of health is to advocate for policy change. This can be done by working with elected officials or by testifying at public hearings.
Health improvement requires a multifaceted approach because what works in one place may not work in another. To be effective, community-specific treatments must be developed. By working together, we can create a healthier world for everyone.
There are a few mechanisms of transmission, Direct and Indirect are two common modes. In direct the two types are Droplet and Contact. Droplet spread is transmitted by coughing and sneezing droplets in close proximity to another individual, for example influenza, colds and RSV. In contact transmission the primary source of transmission is from skin to skin contact for example, Kissing and sexual intercourse. In Indirect transmission microorganism are the source for example, improper hand washing and improper use of contaminated items used in the hospitals and clinics (Healthline,2016). Additionally, during indirect modes of transmission some agents can spread over long distances and remain the air for extended periods of time, no human to human contact is needed, some examples include mosquitos, ticks and fleas bites(Cortez& Weitz, 2021).
Healthline (2016). How are diseases Transmitted? Retrieved from
Cortez, M & Weitz, J., (2021). Distinguishing Between Indirect and Direct Modes of Transmission using Epidemiological Time Series. Retrieved from https://www.journals.uchicago.edu/doi/full/10.1086/668826
thanks for the excellent resources that explain the modes of transmission in regard to disease transmission. In using your resource from Healthline.com, “How are diseases transmitted”, there is clear explanation between direct person to person transmission. The example used for direct transmission from mother to baby via the placenta is a great example. Education that describes modes of transmissions, for obvious reasons is so important. With so much misinformation that has been published on the spread of COVID-19, the spread of sexually transmitted disease has increased. The resource discusses the mode of direct transmission of airborne disease via droplets from coughing and sneezing. We have been well educated on this mode due to the current pandemic we continue to live through. What an excellent education piece to use for family and friends related to indirect modes of transmission.
As one pandemic such as the HIV, to the Coronavirus, we have learned through surveillance what trends may become concerning. Beck et al. (2020) discusses gender disparities in HIV infection amongst teenagers in South Africa. From this study, a multistage cross-sectional designed survey, shows that the HIV prevalence in South African teens has increased among females 12-19 from 3.0 % to 4.1% from 2008 to 2017. The point, I am making is that epidemiology is vital to public health. HIV still has no cure and as we continue from one pandemic to another, public health is constantly reminded that ongoing tracking allows us to target communities that need enhanced targeted interventions.
Healthline (2016). How are diseases Transmitted? Retrieved from
Becker, A., D., Grantz, K.H., Hegde, S., T., Bérubé, S., Cummings, D., AT, Wesolowski, A. (2020) Development and dissemination of infectious disease dynamic transmission models during the COVID-19 pandemic: What can we learn from other pathogens and how can we move forward? Lancet Digit Health. 3(1), e41-e50. https://doi:10.1016/S2589-7500(20)30268-5.
There are two types of transmission: Direct and Indirect. It is vital to identify modes of transmission for they provide a better understanding of pathogens and how they spread.
According to Friis & Sellers (2021) the mode of direct transmission of diseases refers to the spread of infection through physical (person-to-person) contact while the mode of indirect transmission involves the spread of infection through an intermediary source: vehicles, fomites, or vectors.
Ina addition to the modes of transmissions, CDC.gov (2012) classifies direct transmission involving; direct contact (skin to skin, kissing and sexual intercourse) and droplet spread (direct spray with relatively large, short-range aerosols through sneezing, coughing, or talking), while Indirect mode includes airborne (droplet nuclei), vehicle borne (transmitted through an infectious agent like food, water, blood, and fomites) and vector borne (mosquitoes, fleas and ticks) (CDC.gov, 2012)
CDC.gov (2012). Principles of Epidemiology in Public Health Practice, Third Edition
An Introduction to Applied Epidemiology and Biostatistics. Retrieved from Principles of Epidemiology | Lesson 1 – Section 10 (cdc.gov)
Friis, R. H., & Sellers, T. A. (2021). Epidemiology for public health practice (6th ed.)
Dengue in the last 20 years according to Nelson (2007) along with dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) and dengue shock syndrome (DSS) “has emerge as the most important arthropod borne viral diseases of humans worldwide” (p. 1027) with more than one-third of the world’s population living in areas at risk and in the tropics and subtropics areas dengue is the leading cause of illness (Center for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC], 2011a). A factor favoring dengue emergence includes the increase use and disposal of nonbiodegradable containers creating harborage and breeding grounds for mosquitoes close to humans. Annually there are as many as 100 million infected by dengue fever and approximately 250, 000 cases are reported each year (Nelson, 2007). According to the World Health Organization (WHO) (2011) in the last 50 years dengue incidence has increased 30-fold with an estimated 2.5 billion people living in areas where the virus can be transmitted and annually there are 50 million infections occurring with 500 000 cases of dengue hemorrhagic fever and 22,000 deaths mainly among children.
The West Nile Virus (WNV) was introduced to North American in the summer of 1999. It is a human mosquito borne viral infection and is antigenically related to Japanese encephalitis virus, St. Louis encephalitis virus, and the Murray Valley fever virus (Nelson, 2007). There were 1,021 reported cases of WNV reported by 40 states and the District of Columbia in 2010. Out of the reported cases 629 were classified as WNV neuroinvasive disease, for a national incidence of 0.20 per 100,000 population. The states that had a high incidence included: Arizona (1.60), New Mexico (1.03), Nebraska (0.55), and Colorado (0.51). The WNV is believed to be a seasonal epidemic in North America that occurs in the summer and continues into fall (Center for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC], 2011c).
Since the first recognition of Lyme disease in 1975, the number of cases has increased more and more included the geographic areas of the coastal northeastern and mid-Atlantic states, several states in the Midwest (Minnesota, Wisconsin, and Michigan), and the coastal California (Nelson, 2007). The bacterium Borrelia burgdorfer is the infectious agent that causes Lyme disease and is transmitted to human through the bite of infected blacklegged ticks (or deer tick, Ixodes scapularis, Ixodes pacificus). In the United States, Lyme disease is the most commoly reported vectorborne illness and was the 5th most common nationally notifiable disease in 2009. There were 12 states that reported 94 % of Lyme disease cases in 2010: Connecticut, Delaware, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Minnesota, New Jersey, New Hampshire, New York, Pennsylvania, Virginia, and Wisconsin. In 2010 the United States reported cases of Lyme disease incidence was 7.3 per 100, 000 population (Center for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC], 2011b).
Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (2011a). Dengue. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/dengue/
Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (2011b). Lyme disease. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/lyme/index.html
Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (2011c). West Nile Virus and other arboviral diseases – United States, 2010. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 60(30), 1009-1013
Nelson, E.K. (2007). Emerging vector-borne infections. In Nelson, E.K., Williams, M.C (2nd Eds), Infectious disease epidemiology: Theory and Practice (1023-1158). Sudbury, MS: Jones and Bartlett
World Health Organization (WHO). (2011). Impact of dengue. Retrieved from http://www.who.int/csr/disease/dengue/impact/en/