PUB 540 Define endemic, epidemic, and pandemic, and provide an example of each
PUB 540 Define endemic, epidemic, and pandemic, and provide an example of each
Epidemic is defined as a disease that affects many individuals within a given community, population or region. The Center of Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is defined as unexpected increase in the number of diseases within a geographical location. According to public health yellow fever, measles, polo and smallpox are prime examples of epidemics. The criteria of contagious is not a criterion for an epidemic. Primary prevention is simply intervening before health effects occurs. Secondary would be screening and tertiary prevention would be post diagnosis to slow or stop. Primary prevention for yellow fever is preventing mosquitos’ bites during the day and night. For example, use insect repellents, wear long sleeves. Most importantly receive the vaccination. In 2021 we have reported human laboratory confirmed cases of yellow fever in African Region ( Cameroon, Chad, Central African Republic, and the Democratic Republic of Congo).
A pandemic is defined as an epidemic of infectious disease that affects the human population across the continents, regions or globally. Pandemics can transition into disasters when they cause many deaths. The rate is rapid, and cases appear every day. It has been determined that pandemics arise from international travel. An example of the pandemic would be the Spanish influenza of 1918. Approximately 50 million people was killed.
Is a condition that presents a predictable pattern amongst a certain population when the infectious disease is maintained at a current baseline without any spikes. For example, and endemic would have been chickenpox within the United Kingdom, but malaria wouldn’t be considered. However, in other regions malaria would be considered an endemic.
Grennan D. What Is a Pandemic? JAMA. 2019;321(9):910. doi:10.1001/jama.2019.0700
Kelly H. (2011). The classical definition of a pandemic is not elusive. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 89(7), 540–541. https://doi.org/10.2471/BLT.11.088815
Outbreaks, epidemics and pandemics-what you need to know. APIC. (n.d.). Retrieved April 26, 2022, from https://apic.org/monthly_alerts/outbreaks-epidemics-and-pandemics-what-you-need-to-know/
Click here to ORDER an A++ paper from our Verified MASTERS and DOCTORATE WRITERS PUB 540 Define endemic, epidemic, and pandemic, and provide an example of each:
As described by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), an epidemic is an unanticipated rise and increase in disease case rates within a specified geographical area. In most cases, epidemics do not have to be contagious, for example, polio (CDC, 2022). On the other hand, a pandemic, as identified by the World Health Organization (WHO), refers to the exponential growth of disease through elevated rates of spread within days. In such a case, the WHO declares a pandemic and institutes preventable measures. Among the prime examples of pandemics include COVID-19. Further, an endemic relates to the instance where the outbreak of a disease is present consistently but limited within a particular region (CDC, 2022). For example, in the case of malaria, it may increase spontaneously in certain regions without necessarily being contagious.
Notably, a current epidemic affecting global health is the Rift Valley Fever affecting many regions across sub-Saharan Africa and the Arabian Peninsula. The disease is caused by the Rift Valley Fever virus, which normally arises from domesticated animals like camels, sheep, and goats (CDC, 2022). As an emerging mosquito-borne zoonotic viral infection, it has presented significant threats to global public health at large.
Prevention measures for RVF are essential to limit its occurrence and growth rate. Primary preventive measures include sustained programs on animal vaccination due to the inexistence of an acceptable vaccination for humans. Secondary treatment approaches include avoiding contact with animal blood, fluids, or tissues infected with the RVF zoonotic virus (World Health Organization, 2018). Also, wearing protective equipment for people working with animals in RVF-stricken areas is encouraged by the WHO. Also, avoiding unsafe animal products like milk and meat during such an epidemic is further advised. At the same time, tertiary prevention means for RVF focus on decreasing the severity of the disease through thoroughly cooking animal products before consuming and avoiding outdoor activities during peak times when vector species bite.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, CDC. (2022). Section 11: Epidemic Disease Occurrence. CDC. https://www.cdc.gov/csels/dsepd/ss1978/lesson1/section11.html.
World Health Organization. (2018). Rift Valley Fever. WHO. https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/rift-valley-fever.
Friis and Sellers (2021) states that Dorland’s Illustrated Medical Dictionary defines the word epidemic as “attacking many people at the same time, widely diffused and rapidly spreading.”
Pandemic, which refers to an epidemic on a worldwide scale; during a pandemic, large numbers of persons may be affected, and a disease may cross international borders (Friis & Sellers, 2021).
An endemic as Friis & Seller (2021) is a disease or infectious agent that is habitually present in a community, geographic area, or population group. For instance, malaria is to some tropical areas of Asia, and cholera is endemic to countries that lack sanitation, especially during war and disaster times.
A current epidemic in our country is mental health disorders. Mental health disorders have led to numerous losses of lives and could be caused by disease outbreaks like the Covid-19 pandemic.
Friis and Sellers (2021) explain that primary prevention includes health promotion and specific protection against diseases. An example of primary prevention that involve specific protection against disease-causing hazards are wearing protective devices to prevent occupational injuries (Friis & Seller, 2021). Secondary prevention on another hand encompasses early diagnosis and prompt treatment, as well as disability limitation (Friis & Sellers, 2021). In tertiary prevention as Friis and Seller (2021), disease already has occurred and has been treated clinically, but rehabilitation is needed to restore the patient to an optimal functional level. Examples include sheltered homes for the developmentally disabled.
Friis, R. H., & Sellers, T. A. (2021). Epidemiology for public health practice (6th ed.)
As discussed in the text by authors Friis & Sellers (2021) Epidemiology is an interdisciplinary science that has intersections of human physiology and medicine, sociology, demographics, and more that all work together to explain quantifications of prevalence from one population to another as disease becomes an epidemic, endemic, or pandemic. We, as the world, are currently in the middle of the COVID-19 pandemic. Starting with the largest in terms of people affected geographically, to the least an endemic that may only affect a certain population of people.
An example of the most recent pandemic is the COVID-19 virus that has killed almost a million people in the United States to date and in the millions worldwide. What makes this a pandemic is the fact that the disease spread rapidly across the world causing mortality. Thank goodness, just like the smallpox epidemic, vaccines have been developed for the treatment of these diseases.
A pandemic is an epidemic that causes disease at a higher rate of transmission that goes from continent to continent, whereas the epidemic progresses within a country not necessarily going from its country of origin exceedingly more than what studies show should be the progression of such a disease. An endemic disease outbreak is specific to a certain population of people or place. And, as discussed by Dawson et al. (2021), Human Melioidosis is a disease that is caused by the bacteria Burkholderia pseudomallei found specifically in the water or dirt of tropical or subtropical areas such in South America and Central American. Continentally, it may only be in Texas. The cases in the United States are related to international travel to these areas affecting individuals that are immunocompromised.
Prevention types that are both primary and secondary would be the administration of a vaccine, especially when we discuss the COVID-19 virus. The Delta and Omicron variants caused severe disease and death in mostly patients that were unvaccinated. And wearing masks for protection for those that had higher risk factors and vaccines once again served as both primary and secondary means of prevention. Tertiary control measures for individuals that have had severe presentations have required rehabilitative therapies such as physical therapy and occupational therapy due to the overall deconditioning of the disease with extended hospital stays.
Friis, R. H., & Sellers, T. A. (2021). Epidemiology for public health practice (6th ed.). Jones and
Bartlett Learning. ISBN-13: 9781284175431
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Public Health and Epidemiology
Public Health is the discipline of protecting and improving the health of communities through education, promotion of healthy lifestyles, and research for disease and injury prevention with focus on the entire population rather than individuals (Scheider, 2006). This is done by creating partnerships locally and statewide and monitoring the programs that provides services to the public to see how effective they are, delineating the three core functions of public health which are assessment, assurance, and policy development (Rowitz, 2003).
The core functions of public health are carried out by assessing the health needs of the community, investigating health effects and health hazards in the community and also analyzing the determinants of health needs of the community; advocating the needs of the community by building constituents and identifying resources in the community; implementing and evaluating programs by working with organizations, agencies and individuals to assure programs in the community fit community priorities in addition to informing and educating the public.
Rowitz, L. (2003). Public health leadership: Putting principles into practice. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett Publishers.
Scheider, J.M. (2006). Introduction to public health. Sudbury: Jones and Bartlet.
WHAT IS AN EPIDEMIC?
Epidemic as an unexpected increase in the number of disease cases in a specific geographical area. Yellow fever, smallpox, measles, and polio are prime examples of epidemics. An epidemic disease doesn’t necessarily have to be contagious. West Nile fever and the rapid increase in obesity rates are also considered epidemics. Epidemics can refer to a disease or other specific health-related behavior (e.g., smoking) with rates that are clearly above the expected occurrence in a community or region.
WHAT IS A PANDEMIC?
A pandemic when a disease’s growth is exponential. This means the growth rate skyrockets, and each day cases grow more than the day prior. In being declared a pandemic, the virus has nothing to do with virology, population immunity, or disease severity. It means a virus covers a wide area, affecting several countries and populations.
WHAT DOES ENDEMIC MEAN?
A disease outbreak is endemic when it is consistently present but limited to a particular region. This makes the disease spread and rates predictable. Malaria, for example, is considered endemic in certain countries and regions.
WHAT ARE THE DIFFERENCES BETWEEN PANDEMICS AND EPIDEMICS?
The WHO defines pandemics, epidemics, and endemic diseases based on a disease’s rate of spread. Thus, the difference between an epidemic and a pandemic isn’t in the severity of the disease, but the degree to which it has spread.
A pandemic cuts across international boundaries, as opposed to regional epidemics. This wide geographical reach is what makes pandemics lead to large-scale social disruption, economic loss, and general hardship. It’s important to note that a once-declared epidemic can progress into pandemic status. While an epidemic is large, it is also generally contained or expected in its spread, while a pandemic is international and out of control.
The endemic is defined as the stable presence of disease in the certain regions such as the prevalence of malaria in some areas of Africa (“Global Health, Infectious Disease, Public Health Education”, 2015). The epidemic was described by the Center for Disease Control and Prevention as the sudden rise in the number of disease cases more than what is usually expected in a specific population (“Global Health, Infectious Disease, Public Health Education”, 2015). Some examples of epidemics are smallpox, measles, and polio. Epidemics can also be referred to as health-related behavior and not just specific to diseases such as the smoking rate in a certain community. A pandemic is defined as the increase in the rate of disease and rapid spread affecting other countries (“Global Health, Infectious Disease, Public Health Education”, 2015).
A current epidemic in the state of Paraná, Brazil is Dengue fever. A total of 80,000 affected by Dengue fever and 5 deaths from this disease were reported in Paraná from August 2021 up to the present (“Brazil: Dengue epidemic”, 2022). Dengue fever or also known as Dengue virus and Dengue Hemorrhagic fever is spread to people by a bite of the infected Aedes species (Ae. aegypti or Ae. albopictus) mosquito. According to the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (n.d.-a), there are four types of viruses related to Dengue, therefore people can be affected by it up to four times. The common symptoms of the Dengue virus are fever, rash, nausea, vomiting, and body aches. The primary prevention for Dengue is to avoid having Dengue. Dengue mosquitos breed through clear stagnant water, therefore cleanliness and getting rid of stagnant water is one of the primary preventions (De La Salle University Medical Center, 2020). Self-protection can also help with the prevention of Dengue by wearing long sleeves and long pants to cover skin and by using mosquito repellants. In addition, another primary prevention is fogging during peak biting times which are daytime and two hours before sunset (De La Salle University Medical Center, 2020). The secondary prevention for Dengue is to prevent further complications of the disease, therefore the secondary prevention for dengue is to advise patients to hydrate and avoid medications with anticoagulant properties such as aspirin-containing drugs and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (Center for Disease Control and Prevention, n.d.-b). Tertiary prevention is preventive measures done after severe illnesses (Disease Prevention and Healthy Lifestyle, n.d.). People infected with Dengue can possibly get reinfected again with worse symptoms (Center for Disease Control and Prevention, n.d.-b). Tertiary prevention for Dengue can be done by educating infected people on how to prevent from acquiring Dengue again such as cleanliness, using mosquito repellant, and Dengue vaccines.
Brazil: Dengue epidemic declared in Paraná state. (2022, April 22). Retrieved from http://outbreaknewstoday.com/brazil-dengue-epidemic-declared-in-parana-state-96932/
Center for Disease Control and Prevention. (n.d.-a). About Dengue: What You Need to Know. Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/dengue/about/index.html.
Center for Disease Control and Prevention. (n.d.-b). Dengue: Treatment. Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/dengue/healthcare-providers/treatment.html
Disease Prevention and Healthy Lifestyle. (n.d.) Three Levels of Health Promotion/Disease Prevention. Retrieved from https://courses.lumenlearning.com/diseaseprevention/chapter/three-levels-of-health-promotiondisease-prevention/
De La Salle University Medical Center. (2020). Dengue Prevention Tips. Retrieved from https://www.dlshsi.edu.ph/dlsumc/health-advisory/dengue-prevention-tips
Global Health, Infectious Disease, Public Health Education. (2021). Epidemic, Endemic, Pandemic: What are the Differences? Retrieved from https://www.publichealth.columbia.edu/public-health-now/news/epidemic-endemic-pandemic-what-are-differences
Endemic is a disease or condition that is geographically present in a certain area, community, and or population among a particular people with a continuous incident, (Friis & Sellers, 2021). Malaria is an endemic disease that is consistently present but limited to location, region, or population.
An epidemic is a sudden increase in infectious disease and or outbreak in a certain geographical area in excess than expected attacking many people, widely diffused, and rapidly spreading, (Friis & Sellers, 2021). An epidemic can be in a form of the flu, which can occur seasonally, however, cases are seen all year round.
A pandemic is an outbreak of disease across many countries and or continents, which refers to an epidemic that spread worldwide, (Friis & Sellers, 2021). Covid-19 has officially declared a pandemic due to the global impact and severity.
According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), a current epidemic is the global Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Tuberculosis. These two infectious diseases are the world’s most deadly diseases. Global HIV is still the leading cause of death and health threat to millions in the world, (CDC, 2020). Applying the three preventive types, primary, secondary, and tertiary could control HIV globally from the worldwide spread of this epidemic. Primary intervention to control the outbreak of HIV begins with health promotion and specific protection before the occurrence of the disease. Educating and promoting safe sex, drug prevention, and avoiding high-risk behaviors. Secondary prevention is early diagnosis and treatment, which follows tertiary prevention to limit and decrease debilitation from disease and restore optimal functional living, (Friis & Sellers, 2021).
Center for Disease Control and Prevention, (2020). Controlling the global HIV epidemic. Controlling the Global HIV Epidemic (cdc.gov)
Friis, R. H., & Sellers, T. A. (2021). Epidemiology for public health practice (6th ed.). Jones and Bartlett Learning. ISBN-13: 9781284175431
According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC ) characterize an epidemic as a unexpected increase in disease cases within a specific geographic area. For example Yellow fever , smallpox ,measles and polio are great example of epidemic. During an epidemic the disease itself doesn’t have to be contagious . Additionally, other diseases and or specific health -related behaviors can be categorized under epidemic. An endemic is when the diseases or outbreaks are consistently present but limited to a particular region . Malaria is an example of an endemic as its present only in certain counties & regions. Lastly, a pandemic in which we are currently living in with COVID-19. The World Health Organization (WHO) suggest a pandemic is when a disease growth is aggressive and case skyrocket by the days and the virus covers a wide area , affecting numerous countries and regions.
One epidemic is poliomyelitis which is a disabling disease caused by the polio virus that is transmitted from person to person and can affect the individuals spinal cord causing paralysis. The primary prevention would include prevention of disease , currently there are vaccines for that. In the secondary prevention the goal is to detect the disease early and reduced the symptoms from progressing ( Robbins & Nightingale,1983). In Tertiary prevention the goal is to improve the quality of life and reduce the symptoms of polio post diagnoses. Currently , in my organization we have a post-polio clinic in which today we treat a small population of patients with polio and continue to do so, for well over a half century.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2020, May 11). Principles of epidemiology | Lesson 1 – Section 11. https://www.cdc.gov/csels/dsepd/ss1978/lesson1/section11.ht
Global Health , Infectious Disease, Public Health Education (2021). Epidemic , Endemic and Pandemic: What are the differences? Retrieved from:https://www.publichealth.columbia.edu/public-health-now/news/epidemic-endemic-pandemic-what-are-differences
Robbins, F. C., & Nightingale, E. O. (1983). Selective primary health care: strategies for control of disease in the developing world. IX. Poliomyelitis. Reviews of infectious diseases, 5(5), 957–968. https://doi.org/10.1093/clinids/5.5.957