PUB 540 Compare and contrast the key differences between descriptive and analytic epidemiological studies

PUB 540 Compare and contrast the key differences between descriptive and analytic epidemiological studies

PUB 540 Compare and contrast the key differences between descriptive and analytic epidemiological studies

Contrasting characteristics of descriptive epidemiology will answer the questions: time, place and person as discussed on the website lesson 6 of the (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2013). The importance of describing the data benefits public health by allowing the epidemiologist to look at the data by seeing what is or is not there in terms of ages represented or not represented. The second part of descriptive epidemiology can look at patterns and trends where disease outbreaks occur, what time of the year, and who is being affected more than others, the time. Thirdly, this way of analysis helps public health by mapping everything out to look at as the larger picture, the place. And the fourth benefit is, as this is all laid out, the determination as to what groups are affected compared to other groups can be identified by race, gender, neighborhood; the person. This allows staging of resources by severity. 

Analytic epidemiology compares using a control group of people that were not affected. This allows the epidemiologist to root out certain characteristics that are specifically associated with the disease as opposed to not being associated with the disease. Just like in the church outbreak, the people that belonged to the church, but had not had dinner on that night were excluded from the pool to be investigated. When characteristics can be identified that are associated with the disease, it gives public health the chance to start working on interventions. It can also lead to determining what a specific cause may be. This is done by studying the associated and non-associated groups by either an experimental study or observational study.  

References 

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2013). Descriptive and Analytic Studies.  

https://www.cdc.gov/csels/dsepd/ss1978/lesson1/section6.html

Dicker et al. (2012). Principles of Epidemiology in Public Health Practice: An Introduction to Applied  

Epidemiology and Biostatistics. Centers for Disease Control and  

Prevention.  https://www.cdc.gov/cels/dsepd/ss1978/lesson1/section7.html 

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Descriptive epidemiological studies uses observational studies of the distribution of disease in terms of person, place and time. The study describes the distribution of a set of variables, without regard to causal or other hypothesis. Birth and mortality rates, distributions of disease, and incident rates are good examples of descriptive epidemiology. The purpose of descriptive epidemiological studies is to interpret disease distribution and identifying risk factors that directly affects the health outcome. Descriptive epidemiological studies take a look at the person, time, and place. Centers of Disease Control and Prevention (2019) mentions that person aspect of the observational study is to look at the age, ethnic group/race, and socioeconomic factors. Time is one of the center factors of descriptive epidemiology because the disease patterns are very time specific. For example, most people never heard of the coronavirus until there was an epidemic outbreak in December 2019. So the time after 2019 is important when it comes to the coronavirus.

Analytic epidemiological studies look at the relationship between exposure and diseases.

The purpose of analytic study in epidemiology is to identify and quantify the relationship between an exposure and a health outcome. Analytical epidemiological studies compare the exposed versus the unexposed in odds ratio.

References

Principles of Epidemiology. (2019). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. https://www.cdc.gov/csels/dsepd/ss1978/lesson1/section6.html

Survey and Experimental Methods

There are some necessary components a researcher must use when planning a method procedure for a survey or experimental study. According to Creswell (2009, p. 145) “a quantitative or numeric description of trends, attitudes, or opinions of a population by studying a sample of that population” is what a survey design provides. In experimental designs participants are identified in the study along with variables, treatment (or invention) on an outcome and instruments that may control or influence that outcome (Creswell, 2009).

There are standard formats that survey and experimental methods follow. The survey method begins with the survey design introducing readers to the purpose and rational of the study, identifying characteristics about the population and sample, instruments that will be used in the study, variables in the study, research questions, and steps involved in data analysis and interpretation in the study (Creswell, 2009). In the design of an experiment the standard format consists of participants, materials, procedures, and measures. Also in the methods section readers will need to know how and what methods were used to choose participants along with identifying what procedures will used such as quasi-experimental, random sampling, true experiment, matching participants, or single subject design. In addition measures are obtained using instruments used for pre-tests and post-tests and what materials are used are discussed in the experiment. The researcher will need to identify internal and external threats of their experiment and design as well (Creswell, 2009).

PUB 540 Compare and contrast the key differences between descriptive and analytic epidemiological studies
PUB 540 Compare and contrast the key differences between descriptive and analytic epidemiological studies

Reference

Creswell, J.W. (2009). Research design: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches (3rd Ed.). Los Angeles, CA: Sage Publications, Inc.

Epidemiological studies are applied in health issues to identify the cause of health problems and to find an effective treatment to the diseases. There are two main classifications of Epidemiology which are descriptive epidemiology and analytical epidemiology. Descriptive epidemiology cites about individuals, place, and time associated with the onset of disease (Udayangani, 2018). Analytical epidemiology focuses on finding the cause of the disease or infection to determine the interventions for the disease (Udayangani, 2018). Descriptive epidemiology is the basic information and able to provide hypotheses while analytical epidemiology is able to test the hypotheses.

The main point of study in descriptive studies are person, time, and place (Udayangani, 2018). The time describes the onset of the disease which depends on the climate, seasons, and environment conditions which results to unpredictable occurrence of the disease. The place of disease is another important factor. The place of occurrence of disease can help in predicting the spread of the disease. The individual or person in descriptive epidemiology provides information or link to occurrence of the disease such as immune characteristics, activities, and their condition. The characteristics of data collected from descriptive studies can be utilized for case reports, case-control studies, and other research.

Reference

Udayangani, S. (2018). Difference between descriptive and analytic epidemiology. Retrieved from

Epidemiology is the study of determinants of health-associated events in a particular population. It is widely used in controlling health issues around the globe. Epidemiologic studies are performed on health issues to help determine the causes of an illness and to identify the effectiveness of likely interventions for the illness (Hernadez & Kim, 2021). They are divided into two categories, including analytic and descriptive epidemiology. Descriptive epidemiology is defined as studies that develop a hypothesis and answer the when, who, where and what of a disease. The major difference between descriptive and analytic epidemiology is the strategy to address the specified health problem. Descriptive epidemiology generates hypotheses, while analytic epidemiology tests for a hypothesis to develop conclusions. 

Descriptive studies design systematically gathers information to define a situation, population or phenomenon. Specifically, it helps answer the question of when, how, where, and what concerning research rather than the why. One characteristic of descriptive studies is quantitative (Hernadez & Kim, 2021). This means that they involve collecting systematic and quantifiable data that can be utilized for statistical analysis of a research problem. Another notable characteristic is that its variables cannot be controlled. Unlike experimental research, variables in descriptive research are identified, observed and measured. Moreover, the data gathered in descriptive research gives a base for further research as it helps attain an all-inclusive understanding of the research question to be appropriately answered (Hernadez & Kim, 2021). Lastly, a descriptive research design is generally performed through cross-sectional studies. Cross-sectional studies are observational studies that involve collecting information on various variables at the individual level at a specified time frame. 

Descriptive studies can be used in public health, including health care planning. They provide knowledge on which populations are least or most affected by a disease. This allows public health administrators to focus on certain population segments for education or prevention programs and can assist in allocating resources more efficiently. 

Reference 

Hernandez, J. B., & Kim, P. (2021). Epidemiology morbidity and mortality. StatPearls