PSY 699 Assignment Chart Personality Disorders and Schizophrenia Etiology and Treatments

PSY 699 Assignment Chart Personality Disorders and Schizophrenia Etiology and Treatments

PSY 699 Assignment Chart Personality Disorders and Schizophrenia Etiology and Treatments

Personality Disorders Chart

PerspectivesEtiologyTreatment Approaches
Genetic/NeuroscienceFindings from twin and adoption studies indicate that personality disorders are moderate to strongly heritable.Heritability approximates 30%- 80% (Gescher et al., 2018).Paranoid and Schizotypal Personality disorders are genetically linked with schizophrenia.Biologic factors, like abnormal monoaminergic functioning, particularly in serotonergic function and prefrontal neuropsychological dysfunction, have been implicated in Borderline Personality disorder (Gescher et al., 2018).Psychodynamic psychotherapy It examines how patients perceive events, based on the assumption that perceptions are influenced by early life experiences (Kramer et al., 2022).Psychodynamic psychotherapy seeks to identify perceptual distortions and their historical sources and to facilitate the development of more adaptive modes of perception and response.The treatment is usually extended over several years at a frequency ranging from several times a week to once a month (Kramer et al., 2022).
Behavioral/cognitive/emotionalCognitive: There is an association between personality disorders and altered thought patterns. Persons with personality disorders often develop inaccurate perceptions of others (Marčinko et al., 2021).Behavioral: Avoidance of certain social situations can lead to the development of personality disorders (Marčinko et al., 2021).Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT)This is founded on the idea that cognitive errors rooted in long-standing beliefs influence the meaning attached to interpersonal events (Kramer et al., 2022). It deals with how people think about their world and their perception of it. CBT for Personality disorders is usually limited to once-weekly treatments over 6-20 weeks (Kramer et al., 2022).  
cultural/social/interpersonalSociocultural: Trauma and abuse play major roles in possible causes of all personality disorders.Child abuse and neglect have consistently shown up as risk factors for the development of personality disorders in adulthood (Marčinko et al., 2021).In addition, there is a strong link between low parental/neighborhood socioeconomic status and personality disorders (Marčinko et al., 2021).Interpersonal therapy: This is founded on the idea that difficulties in personality disorder result from a limited range of interpersonal problems (Setkowski et al., 2023).Interpersonal therapy is usually weekly for 6-20 sessions.  
PSY 699 Assignment Chart Personality Disorders and Schizophrenia Etiology and Treatments
PSY 699 Assignment Chart Personality Disorders and Schizophrenia Etiology and Treatments

Schizophrenia Chart

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PerspectivesEtiologyTreatment Approaches
GeneticTwin Studies: The rate of schizophrenia among monozygotic twins is 4 times that of the dizygotic twins and 50% times that of the general population. Identical twins reared apart have the same rate (Trifu et al., 2020).Adoption studies: Children born to schizophrenic parents and brought up by non-schizophrenic parents have a similar rate to their controls (Trifu et al., 2020). Children brought up by schizophrenic patients but born of non-schizophrenic patients do not exhibit high rates of developing schizophrenia (Trifu et al., 2020).First-generation antipsychotics: They are effective in the treatment of positive symptoms of schizophrenia.
Biochemical/Anatomical Abnormalities in the neurotransmitters norepinephrine, serotonin, acetylcholine, and GABA are implicated in the development of Schizophrenia.Positive psychotic symptoms are caused by increased limbic dopamine activity, while negative symptoms are due to decreased frontal dopamine activity (Kesby et al., 2018). Decrease GABA activity causes increased dopamine activity, which results in psychotic symptoms. Additionally, increased norepinephrine levels in psychosis cause increased sensitization to sensory input.The dopaminergic pathology may be due to abnormal receptor number, sensitivity, or dopamine release (Kesby et al., 2018).Neuroimaging studies reveal differences between the brains of people with psychosis and those without the disorder. Brain imaging in psychosis reveals several anatomical abnormalities, including ventricular enlargement, sulci enlargement, and cerebellar atrophy (Mehta, 2020).There is also a decrease in the cerebral and intracranial size and a decrease in the frontal lobe. Second-generation antipsychotics: Have a broader spectrum of receptor activity, with effect on Serotonin, dopamine, and GABA.Are better at alleviating negative symptoms and cognitive dysfunction (Correll & Schooler, 2020).
EnvironmentalSocial-cultural view: Schizophrenia is more prevalent in the lower socioeconomic class.It is linked to poverty, inadequate nutrition, lack of prenatal care, few resources to deal with stressful situations, and hopelessness about changing one’s lifestyle of poverty (Mehta, 2020).Stressful Life events contribute to the severity and course of schizophrenia.They precipitate signs and symptoms in individuals with genetic vulnerability (Mehta, 2020).Psychosocial treatment interventions: Milieu therapyIndividual psychotherapyBehavioral therapySocial skills training


Correll, C. U., & Schooler, N. R. (2020). Negative Symptoms in Schizophrenia: A Review and Clinical Guide for Recognition, Assessment, and Treatment. Neuropsychiatric disease and treatment16, 519–534.

 Gescher, D. M., Kahl, K. G., Hillemacher, T., Frieling, H., Kuhn, J., & Frodl, T. (2018). Epigenetics in personality disorders: today’s insights. Frontiers in psychiatry9, 579.

Kesby, J. P., Eyles, D. W., McGrath, J. J., & Scott, J. G. (2018). Dopamine, psychosis, and schizophrenia: the widening gap between basic and clinical neuroscience. Translational psychiatry8(1), 1-12.

Kramer, U., Eubanks, C. F., Bertsch, K., Herpertz, S. C., McMain, S., Mehlum, L., Renneberg, B., & Zimmermann, J. (2022). Future Challenges in Psychotherapy Research for Personality Disorders. Current psychiatry reports 24(11), 613–622.

 Marčinko, D., Jakšić, N., Filipčić, I. Š., & Mustač, F. (2021). Contemporary psychological perspectives of personality disorders. Current Opinion in Psychiatry34(5), 497-502. DOI: 10.1097/YCO.0000000000000732

Mehta, U. M. (2020). The social neuroscience of psychosis: From neurobiology to neurotherapeutics. Indian journal of psychiatry62(5), 470–480.

Setkowski, K., Palantza, C., van Ballegooijen, W., Gilissen, R., Oud, M., Cristea, I. A., Noma, H., Furukawa, T. A., Arntz, A., van Balkom, A. J. L. M., & Cuijpers, P. (2023). Which psychotherapy is most effective and acceptable in the treatment of adults with a (sub)clinical borderline personality disorder? A systematic review and network meta-analysis. Psychological medicine53(8), 3261–3280.

Trifu, S. C., Kohn, B., Vlasie, A., & Patrichi, B. E. (2020). Genetics of schizophrenia (Review). Experimental and therapeutic medicine20(4), 3462–3468.