PSY 325 Assignment Discuss Descriptive Statistics in Research
PSY 325 Assignment Discuss Descriptive Statistics in Research
Studies on online behaviors are extensive and test many variables. How people behave online and motivational factors are among the most studied areas. Researchers use different methods to examine behaviors and present their findings differently. Descriptive statistics briefly summarize a data set, representing a sample or the entire population. Measures of central tendency or variability are commonly used to break down statistics. The purpose of this paper is to summarize an article on the association between narcissism and selfie-posting behaviors.
Purpose of the Research, Hypotheses, and Methods
People post different images on social media for varying reasons. Sorokowski et al. (2015) examined whether narcissism predicts selfie-posting behaviors among men and women. The implication is that narcissism influences the type and frequency of images people post on social media. Broadly, narcissism is a personality disorder characterized by people having a high sense of self-importance (Yakeley, 2018; Gabbard, 2022). Consequently, such people are likely to admire themselves excessively with little concern for others’ feelings. In this article, Sorokowski et al. (2015) hypothesized that narcissism is positively correlated with selfie posting and that the behavior varies with gender. To prove hypotheses, the authors tested the prediction that higher narcissism scores will likely influence people to post more selfies on social media by pooling results from two studies.
Variables and Levels of Measurement
Researchers typically study the dependent and independent variables. In causal research studies, the independent variable is the cause, while the dependent variable is the outcome of the manipulation (Nayebi, 2020). In this study, the dependent variable is the selfie-posting behavior since it is influenced by narcissism (the cause), the independent variable. Regarding the measurement levels, narcissism is categorized into some ordered sub-scales, while selfie posting is provided into general categories. The narcissism sub-scales (self-sufficiency, vanity, leadership, and admiration demand) match the ordinal measurement level since it is an ordered relationship. Contrastingly, the nominal measurement level only classifies data (Grove & Cipher, 2019). As a result, selfie posting behavior is at the nominal level since it is categorized as own selfies, selfies with romantic partners, and group selfies.
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Sample Used in the Research
To test the relationship between variables, Sorokowski et al. (2015) used a sample of 1296 individuals recruited from various universities. The first study had 748 individuals comprising 355 women and 393 men. They were recruited from Polish universities. The second study has 548 Facebook users consisting of 330 women and 218 men. To enrich data and diversity, the first study’s participants aged between 17 and 47 years, while those in the second study aged between 14 and 47 years.
Ethical Guidelines in Recruitment and Testing
Research ethics is critical when conducting studies with human participants. In this article, Sorokowski et al. (2015) observed the ethical principles of informed consent and anonymity. The participants provided informed consent before inclusion in the study. Informed consent ensures that participants understand a study’s risks and benefits and participate willingly (Manti & Licari, 2018). Anonymity was observed during data collection, where all responses were recorded in an anonymous database using codes that did not identify participants.
Summary of the Results and Conclusions
The primary finding of the research was that women post more selfies on social media than men in all categories- own selfies, selfies with partners, and group selfies. In order to determine the influence of narcissism, researchers performed two-tailed partial correlations with an alpha of .05. They found that the link between narcissism and selfie posting is stronger among men than women (Sorokowski et al., 015). As a result, it can be deduced that narcissism predicts selfie posting, and the relationship is stronger in men than women. In general, women post many selfies but not primarily due to the influence of narcissism.
Measures of Central Tendency
The authors reported measures of central tendency and variability in terms of participants’ characteristics and study outcomes. As Sorokowski et al. (2015) asserted, the mean age in the first study was 21.64 years with a standard deviation of 3.41. This indicates data that is highly spread out. The second study’s mean age was 23.72, with a standard deviation of 4.39. The deviation also illustrates highly spread-out data. The mean of own selfies among women versus men in the first study was 26.64 against 19.02. The gender difference was confirmed in the second study, where women’s mean was 7.52 against men with 5.5.
Researchers study different variables and present results varyingly. In the summarized article, the hypothesis was that narcissism influences selfie posting on social media sites. Both men and women were included in the study and their behaviors studied. Sorokowski et al. (2015) found that narcissism influences men more than women as far as selfie posts on social media are concerned. However, women post more frequently than men.
Gabbard, G. O. (2022). Narcissism and suicide risk. Annals of general psychiatry, 21(1), 1-4. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12991-022-00380-8
Grove, S. K., & Cipher, D. J. (2019). Statistics for nursing research-e-book: a workbook for evidence-based practice. Elsevier Health Sciences.
Manti, S., & Licari, A. (2018). How to obtain informed consent for research. Breathe (Sheffield, England), 14(2), 145–152. https://doi.org/10.1183/20734735.001918
Nayebi, H. (2020). Advanced statistics for testing assumed casual relationships. Springer International Publishing.
Sorokowski, P., Sorokowska, A., Oleszkiewicz, A., Frackowiak, T., Huk, A., & Pisanski, K. (2015). Selfie posting behaviors are associated with narcissism among men. Personality and Individual Differences, 85, 123-127. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2015.05.004
Yakeley, J. (2018). Current understanding of narcissism and narcissistic personality disorder. BJPsych Advances, 24(5), 305-315. https://doi.org/10.1192/bja.2018.20