PHN 652 Why are public health models important in providing quality health care?
PHN 652 Why are public health models important in providing quality health care?
Public health models are essential to guide health programs that are focus on health promotion and disease prevention. It helps us understand and explain the behavior which guide us in identification, development, and implementation of intervention (Rural Health Information Hub, 2018). Therefore, it also improves the quality of healthcare.
One example of public health models is the Ecological Model. Ecological model acknowledge different levels of influence that affect the health behavior including intrapersonal or individual factor, interpersonal factor, organizational factor, community factor, and public policy factor (Rural Health Information hub, 2018). This framework is useful in understanding the different factors that makes an impact on the health and well-being of an individual. It can assist in providing the complete outlook of the factors that influence specific health behavior. In addition, it is used to integrate with other health theories and models which provide a comprehensive health promotion and disease prevention.
Another example of public health model is the Stages of Change Model or also known as Transtheoretical Model which emphasize the readiness of an individual to change their behavior. This model explains the process of change behavior as occurring stages which start in pre-contemplation, contemplation, preparation, action, maintenance, and termination (Rural Health Information Hub, 2018). This model is useful when there are new programs or policy that helps individual or organization to integrate new behavior.
Boston University School of Public Health. (2019). The transtheoretical model (stages of change).
Retrieved from https://sphweb.bumc.bu.edu/otlt/MPH-
Rural Health Information Hub. (2018). Health promotion and disease prevention theories and models.
According to Friedman & Starfield, (2003) 366–369 “Active discussion of models of population health can enhance public health programs in the United States as it has in other countries. Models of population health can help identify the multiple arenas in which public health must act and collaborate to effect improvements in population health. Rather than concentrating on narrowly conceived public health programs, models of population health can remind us of the differences between focusing on improvements in the health of the population and population subgroups and focusing on improvements in the health of individuals”. Public Health Models also cultivate public health practice by providing structure for program design and implementation . Two great Models that can have a great impact on patient centered quality care are : The Health Belief Model and Ecological Model. The Health Belief model is used to guide health promotion and disease prevention programs and is one of the most common models used by healthcare providers , as it assists in understanding healthy behaviors (The Rural Health Information Hub,2018). Additionally, the Ecological model, this particular model focuses on the individuals interactions with their physical and sociocultural environments. This Model looks at all factors that influence healthy behaviors. Both Models focus on the influences and healthy behaviors and if properly utilized , greater outcomes in health promotion or disease prevention programs will reflect.
Friedman, D. J., & Starfield, B. (2003). Models of population health: their value for US public health practice, policy, and research. American journal of public health, 93(3), 366–369. https://doi.org/10.2105/ajph.93.3.366
The Rural Health Information Hub (2018). Health Promotion and Disease Prevention Theories and Models. Retrieved from https://www.ruralhealthinfo.org/toolkits/health-promotion/2/theories-and-models/health-belief
Click here to ORDER an A++ paper from our Verified MASTERS and DOCTORATE WRITERS PHN 652 Why are public health models important in providing quality health care?:
Public health models provide a framework for addressing social and health issues affecting an entire population. These models guide public health practitioners in identifying the cause of population health issues and developing possible interventions (Richard et al., 2021). In addition, the models enable health providers to identify health gaps that require collaboration to improve population health. Furthermore, the models guide caregivers in analyzing and explaining human behavior in relation to health interventions. Public health models focus on human factors and environmental aspects that affect population health outcomes and well-being. The models are crucial in providing quality healthcare by guiding the planning and implementation of health interventions that change community health outcomes (Richard et al., 2021). In essence, public health models enhance public health programs and efforts to manage health and prevent diseases. Healthcare providers rely on public health models to successfully prevent disease, prolong life and promote health among populations. Indeed, public health models bridge the gap between quality healthcare and population health outcomes.
The Health Belief Model (HBM) and the Trans theoretical model (TTM) are public health models applied in practice. The HBM guides caregivers in analyzing human attitudes and beliefs that explain and predict short- and long-term human health behaviors. The model has six concepts; perceived susceptibility, severity, barriers and benefits, cues to action, and self-efficacy (Lau et al., 2020). Perceived susceptibility and severity predict that individuals will take health interventions if they perceive being at risk of a very severe infection or injury. Individuals also consider a recommended health action if they perceive its beneficial in preventing a disease or reducing its severity (Lau et al., 2020). Individuals can face barriers that deter them from adopting healthy behaviors. For instance, a low-income family faces challenges adopting healthy eating behaviors due to the limited affordability of a balanced diet. The TTM theory evaluates an individual’s readiness to adopt healthy behaviors. The model defines individual behavior using six stages; pre-contemplation, contemplation, preparation, action, and maintenance (Hashemzadeh et al., 2019). Individuals can progress through the stages or relapse.
Hashemzadeh, M., Rahimi, A., Zare-Farashbandi, F., Alavi-Naeini, A. M., & Daei, A. (2019). The transtheoretical model of health behavioral change: A systematic review. Iranian journal of nursing and midwifery research, 24(2), 83. doi: 10.4103/inner.IJNMR_94_17. PMID: 30820217; PMCID: PMC6390443.
Lau, J., Lim, T. Z., Wong, G. J., & Tan, K. K. (2020). The health belief model and colorectal cancer screening in the general population: A systematic
review. Preventive medicine reports, 20, 101223.
Richard, L., & Filiatrault, J. (2021). Theories and Models in Health Promotion: Key Landmarks on the Road Map to Optimal Practice and Research with Older Adults. Promoting the Health of Older Adults: The Canadian Experience, 41. ISBN 1773382403, 9781773382401
Public health nursing is deﬁned as “the practice of promoting and protecting the health of populations using knowledge from nursing, social, and public health sciences” (APHA, 2013, p. 2). One reason theory and models are so useful is that it helps us articulate assumptions and hypotheses concerning our strategies and targets of intervention, (RHIhub, 2022). Public health models are important in providing quality care by helping identify the multiple arenas in which public health must act and collaborate to effect improvements in population health. Theories and models are used in program planning to understand and explain health behavior and to guide the identification, development, and implementation of interventions.
The Minnesota Model is now called the Intervention Wheel Framework. The public health nursing practice model’s impact on the quality of health care involves evidence-based practice from a nursing viewpoint. The model depicts how public health improves population health through interventions with communities, the individuals and families that make up communities, and the systems that impact the health of communities. The Wheel was derived from the practice of public health nurses (PHNs) and is intended to support their work, (Stanhope & Lancaster, 2019). The model gives PHNs a means to describe the full scope and breadth of their practice.
The ecological perspective emphasizes the interaction between, and interdependence of, factors within and across all levels of a health problem. This model deals with the intrapersonal or individual factors; interpersonal factors; institutional or organizational factors; community factors; and public policy factors. Each level of this model influence can affect health behavior. Health promotion and disease prevention programs that seek to address health problems across this spectrum employ a range of strategies and operate on multiple levels, (National Cancer Institution, n.d).
National Cancer Institute, (n.d). Theory at a Glance: Application to Health Promotion. Retrieved from:
RHIhub. (2022). Theoretical Support behind Networks and Coalitions. Retrieved from: https://www.ruralhealthinfo.org/toolkits/networks/1/theories
Stanhope, M. & Lancaster, J. (2019). Public health nursing: Population-centered health care in the community (10th ed.). St. Louis, MO: Elsevier. ISBN-13: 9780323582247
Theories and models are used in program planning to understand and explain health behavior and to guide the identification, development, and implementation of interventions (Health Promotion and Disease Prevention Theories and Models – Rural Toolkit, n.d.).
Models of population health can help to identify the multiple arenas in which public health must act and collaborate to effect improvements in population health. Rather than concentrating on narrowly conceived public health programs, models of population health can remind us of the differences between focusing on improvements in the health of the population and population subgroups and focusing on improvements in the health of individuals. Population health models illustrate the need for intersectoral activities in developing and implementing programs to improve the population’s health, and make obvious the inherent limits of public health programs undertaken without explicit attention to contextual influences and community influences. Models of population health can also improve the practice of public surveillance and health statistics in the United States (Friedman & Starfield, 2003).
Health belief model (HBM) is a guide to research on tuberculosis screening. It distilled concepts from an established body of psychological and behavioral research and set the stage for the theories that followed. HBM is an expectancy-value model. As an example, people, tatake medication to control their cholesterol because they value avoiding cardiovascular disease. Social Cognitive theory (SCT) conceptualizes individuals as rational actors. A chief advancement of SCT is its focus on personal agency and the importance of context as a determinant of health. Moreover, while SCT has been useful in understanding why people perform a specific health behavior, it has also had a major effect on interventions for behavior change. SCT offers inventionists clear targets for improving efficacy beliefs, supporting self-regulation, minimizing external barriers, bolstering positive outcome expectancies (Rejeski & Fanning, 2019).
Friedman, D. J., & Starfield, B. (2003, March). Models of population health: Their value for US public health practice, policy, and research. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1447744/#__sec2title
Health Promotion and Disease Prevention Theories and Models – Rural Toolkit. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.ruralhealthinfo.org/toolkits/health-promotion/2/theories-and-models
Rejeski, W. J., & Fanning, J. (2019, May 30). Models and theories of health behavior and clinical interventions in aging: A contemporary, integrative approach. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6549388/
The E-Source (n.d.) identified that a theory/model presents a systematic way of understanding events, behaviors, and situations and that any interventions to improve health behavior needs an understanding of relevant theories of behavior change. It is also identified by E-Source (n.d.) that public health models/theories are important in providing quality health because they help to explain behavior’s, suggest how to develop more effective ways to influence and change behavior, provide insight into how public health programs are to be developed, identify information that is needed to design effective interventions, and most importantly, help to understand why people do or do no practice health promoting behaviors.
Two public health models that have had an impact on quality health care is the Health Belief Model and the Social Ecological Model. the Health Belief Model was developed in the 1950’s to help understand why people did or did not use preventative services when they were offered by the various public health departments. The theory has since developed to address concerns in prevention and detection such as mammography screening and influenza vaccines, lifestyle behaviors, and injury prevention (E-source, n.d.). The social ecological model helps to understand factors affecting behavior and provides guidance for developing successful programs through social environments. According to E-sources (n.d.). the social environment but is also shaped by social environment.
The impact this model has on quality care comes from the identification of factors that affects health and the creation of programs to address these factors so that all individuals will have access to the same quality health care.
E-Source. (n.d.). Social and Behavioral Theories.
Public health models are used to plan programs, which help to understand and explain health behavior and guide in identifying, developing, and implementing public health interventions. The public health models are essential in providing quality health care since they help to identify the various arenas in which public health must act and collaborate to achieve improvements in population health (Brady et al., 2020). Besides, they help focus on improvements in the health of the population and population subgroups rather than just focusing on improvements in the health of individuals. In addition, public health models are important because they help to focus on the significance of considering the full range of influences on a population’s health (Brady et al., 2020).
Examples of public health models include the Community Organization Model and PRECEDE/PROCEED Model. The Community Organization Model is a collaborative decision-making process that empowers communities to improve health. It stresses active involvement by the community in identifying major health issues and approaches to address them. In this model, communities concentrate on their strengths and jointly mobilize to develop programs to attain health goals (Fernandez et al., 2019). The Community Organization Model positively impacts quality healthcare by empowering community members, increasing community members’ ownership of their health, and enhancing social support for achieving healthy changes.
The PRECEDE/PROCEED Model is an all-inclusive structure for evaluating health needs for developing, executing, and assessing public health programs to meet them. PRECEDE offers a structure for planning a targeted and focused public health program, while PROCEED provides one for executing and evaluating the program (Saulle et al., 2020). The model positively impacts quality healthcare by providing a structure that supports the planning and execution of health promotion/disease prevention programs. It effectively supports one-time interventions or long-term health programs and increases the community ownership of the programs.
Brady, S. S., Brubaker, L., Fok, C. S., Gahagan, S., Lewis, C. E., Lewis, J., … & Prevention of Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms (PLUS) Research Consortium. (2020). Development of conceptual models to guide public health research, practice, and policy: synthesizing traditional and contemporary paradigms. Health promotion practice, 21(4), 510-524. doi: 10.1177/1524839919890869
Fernandez, M. E., Ruiter, R. A., Markham, C. M., & Kok, G. (2019). Intervention mapping: theory-and evidence-based health promotion program planning: perspective and examples. Frontiers in Public Health, 7, 209. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpubh.2019.00209
Saulle, R., Sinopoli, A., De Paula Baer, A., Mannocci, A., Marino, M., De Belvis, A. G., Federici, A., & La Torre, G. (2020). The PRECEDE-PROCEED model as a tool in Public Health screening: a systematic review. La Clinica terapeutica, 171(2), e167–e177. https://doi.org/10.7417/CT.2020.2208