PHN 652 When addressing an identified community health need, an intervention may already be in place for a similar population

PHN 652 When addressing an identified community health need, an intervention may already be in place for a similar population

PHN 652 When addressing an identified community health need, an intervention may already be in place for a similar population

The goal of community-based programs is to rigorously work with health needs within the community and requires an insider’s understanding of the community to identify and work with these naturally occurring units of solution to address community problems. When addressing the community health needs the goal is to strengthen the knowledge in the community by assisting in programs to meet the needs of community members. According to McLeroy, Pg. 93(4), 529–533, (2003), “The importance of community-based interventions is that they reflect different conceptions of the nature of community, the role of public health in addressing community problems, and the relevance of different outcomes. In fact, it may be argued that contemporary public health has 2 broad goals: strengthening the health of our communities and building community capacity to address health related.”

In 2015, one intervention in place that has already been utilized particularly in my community to address the obesity in adults is HEAL (Healthy Eating Active Living). The City became HEAL in 2015 and receives technical support from the Heal Cities Campaign to develop and implement more health-related policies. Additionally, the city collaborates with The Whole Child’s Champions for change to offer nutrition classes(The City of Santa Fe Springs, 2015). This program is a yearlong evidence-based program designed for people with prediabetes and/or those at high risk for type 2 diabetes. The goal of the program is for members to achieve moderate weight loss by eating well and being active ad focuses on long-term changes and lasting results.


McLeroy, K. R., Norton, B. L., Kegler, M. C., Burdine, J. N., & Sumaya, C. V. (2003). Community-based interventions. American journal of public health, 93(4), 529–533.

The City of Santa Fe Springs (2015), Health and Wellness Imitative.

The e-cigarettes are the most popular tobacco products among the youth. There are more high school students that uses e-cigarettes than regular cigarettes. They also used flavored tobacco products with their e-cigarettes and hookahs which fruit flavor is the most common with current users (Gentzk et al., 2022). Nicotine products affects the development of brain which continue to develop up to age of 25 years old (Office of the U.S. Surgeon General, n.d.). E-cigarettes contains nicotine as well harmful chemical products that can damage the health of the students. The current intervention for this community health need is the new legislation “Tobacco 21”.

PHN 652 When addressing an identified community health need, an intervention may already be in place for a similar population
PHN 652 When addressing an identified community health need, an intervention may already be in place for a similar population

The first intervention I recommend is talk to student. Talking to student can influence their decision whether to use or continue using tobacco products. It is also important to be clear that tobacco products are unsafe, and it has negative effect to their bodies. The second intervention is to support Tobacco 21. Tobacco 21 is a new legislative raising the age limit for tobacco use from 18 years old to 21 years old (American Lung Association, n.d.). Lastly, promote programs to support intervention with youth engaged in using tobacco products Supporting programs and policies to help the youth quit smoking can also make an impact in promoting their health and prevent them from developing chronic diseases.


American Lung Association. (n.d.). Tobacco 21 laws. Retrieved from

Click here to ORDER an A++ paper from our Verified MASTERS and DOCTORATE WRITERS PHN 652 When addressing an identified community health need, an intervention may already be in place for a similar population:

Gentzk, A.S., Wang, T.W., Cornelius, M., Park-Lee, E., Ren, C., Sawdey, M.D., Cullen, K.A.,

               Loretan, C., Jamal, A., & Homa, D.M. (2022). Tobacco product use and associated factors among

middle school and high school students- National youth tobacco survey, United States, 2021.

MMWR Survell Summ 2022, 71(5), 1-29. DOI:

Office of the U.S. Surgeon General. (n.d.). The facts on e-cigarette use among youth and young adults.

Retrieved from https://e-cigarettes.surgeongeneral.gove.default.htm

Populations can face health issues despite the implementation of population-based interventions. Communities face social inequities (low income, poor education and cultural diversity) that limit access and optimal utilization of health promotion interventions (Desai et al., 2020). An example of a population health need is diabetes care. The populations with reduced physical activity and limited access to healthy diets and healthcare services have a high risk for diabetes (Kumah et al., 2021). An existing intervention to address diabetes care is the Diabetes self-management education and support (DSMES) program.

DSMES aims to improve self-management and encourage patients diagnosed with diabetes to participate in treating and managing diabetes symptoms. DSMES intervention is implemented during patient diagnosis, when symptoms exacerbate (complications such as persistent and non-healing wounds or heart complications occur), annually, during the transition of care and when not meeting treatment targets (Powers et al., 2020). Caregivers focus on increasing referral and utilization of the DSMES program. However, there is a lack of improvement in achieving goals despite advanced treatment technologies such as blood glucose level monitors and insulin patch pumps (Powers et al., 2020). In addition, residents in diabetes belts in the United States (non-metropolitan states) have an 11.7% prevalence of diabetes (Rural Health Information Hub., 2021). The rationale is that patients in underserved regions face access and utilization barriers that result in poor patient outcomes.

Public health nurses can advocate for financial incentives to improve the utilization of diabetes prevention and management programs with lifestyle interventions (Desai et al., 2020). Financial incentives promote participation and outcomes in diabetes management. In addition, financial incentives improve the affordability of insurance covers, thus reducing the financial burden of healthcare costs and improving quality of life. Patients can access social education and coaching services to improve adherence to medication, physical activity, healthy diets and lifestyle habits. Desai et al.’s study (2020) in the BMC Public Health journal provides evidence of the efficiency of incentives in improving the utilization of diabetes management services. Therefore, this intervention can eliminate barriers to healthcare utilization and improve patient outcomes.


Desai, J. R., Vazquez-Benitez, G., Taylor, G., Johnson, S., Anderson, J., Garrett, J.           E., … & O’Connor, P. J. (2020). The effects of financial incentives on diabetes prevention program attendance and weight loss among low-income patients:  The We Can Prevent Diabetes cluster-randomized controlled trial. BMC            Public Health20(1), 1-11.

Kumah, E., Otchere, G., Ankomah, S. E., Fusheini, A., Kokuro, C., Aduo-Adjei, K.,        & A. Amankwah, J. (2021). Diabetes self-management education            interventions in the WHO African Region: A scoping review. PloS one16(8),         e0256123.

Powers, M. A., Bardsley, J. K., Cypress, M., Funnell, M. M., Harms, D., Hess-Fischl,       A., … & Uelmen, S. (2020). Diabetes self-management education and support    in adults with type 2 diabetes: a consensus report of the American Diabetes      Association, the Association of Diabetes Care & Education Specialists, the            Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, the American Academy of Family     Physicians, the American Academy of PAs, the American Association of        Nurse Practitioners, and the American Pharmacists Association. Diabetes Care43(7), 1636-1649.

Rural Health Information Hub. (2021, January 7). Telehealth Use in Rural            Healthcare.      th%20allows%20small%20rural%20hospitals,distances%20to%20access%20s       pecialty%20care

A community needs assessment provides community leaders with a snapshot of local policy, systems, and environmental change strategies currently in place and helps to identify areas for improvement. With this data, communities canmap out a course for health improvement by creating strategies to make positive and sustainable changes in their communities (Community Needs Assessment, 2013). A need that has already been addressed by an intervention is maternal and neonatal care. A mother’s health and wellbeing during pregnancy and around the time of delivery, including access to appropriate care, are critical determinants of maternal mortality and neonatal and child health in the early years of life, and possibly for much longer. Preventive interventions before or during pregnancy including family planning, treatment of infections, such as syphilis and malaria, good nutrition, including micronutrients, good antenatal monitoring and care, and access to skilled care at time of delivery and postpartum (Smith, 2015).

The intervention I would implement for this community to enhance outcomes is to ensure constant reminders on prenatal and neonatal care through education. Provide pamphlets in different languages, and that are simple to read and understand, making it interesting for the mothers to read. Educate them on what to expect during and after pregnancy. This to ensure a safe and healthy pregnancy.


Community Needs Assessment. (2013). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

Smith PG (2015). Field Trials of Health Interventions: A Tool Box. Types of intervention and their development (3rd ed) Oxford (UK). 

A community health need that is already being address is the need to promote healthy eating in the American communities. To promote healthy eating, there are several different interventions that have been introduced in many different populations. Interventions currently being used to promote healthy eating are restaurant interventions, mindful eating interventions, fast food intervention, dining intervention, healthy choices interventions and healthy dining interventions (Valdivia et al., 2015).

To implement a health intervention in the African American community to address the health need of promoting healthy eating, it is important to identify intervention strategies such as calorie labeling and providing healthy choices on restaurant menus in the African American community will be more effective for this population than other types of interventions due to the vast number of fast-food restaurants in their communities. To enhance outcomes of the above health interventions in promoting healthy eating in the African American community, it is necessary to provide continuous education on how to read menu labels to effectively calculate calories. Also, providing graphical examples of low-calorie meals and advertising low calories food choices in addition to other foods on the menu will provide positive health outcomes when it comes to community members making healthy food choices. Valdivia et al.,(2015) identifies that the availability of fast food and restaurant eating are associated with high caloric intake. Thus, using interventions that uses education via the use of banners, table tents, or advertising in print or other media will promote individuals to make healthy food choices. (Valdivia et al., 2015).


Valdivia, E, Guerrero N, Rhoads N, Simon N, Escaron AL, Meinen A, Nieto, J. Martinez-Donate, A. (2015). Community-Based Restaurant Interventions to Promote Healthy Easting: A Systematic Review. Prev Chronic Dis 2015;12:140455. 0455.htm