Sample Answer for PHI FPX 3200 Assessment 1: Matrix of Ethical Theories Included After Question
Identify the professional code of ethics for your professional specialty or a specialty that you are interested in, describe the decision criteria, and analyze each theory using examples and the Ethical Theory Matrix Template.
Drawing from the material covered in the resources as well as your own research, complete this assessment using the Ethical Theory Matrix Template [DOC] (ATTACHED)
- For each theory, first describe the decision criteria. The decision criteria are the instructions the theory gives for how to reach the morally correct choice in a situation that requires action.
- Then, provide your own example of how someone might act using the decision criteria of the theory.
- Finally, briefly describe the strengths and weaknesses of each theory using the last two columns of the Ethical Theory Matrix Template.
The suggested resources for this assessment could help you get a start on completing the matrix, but do not hesitate to use any outside resources that you can find online, the Capella library, or elsewhere.
This matrix is a tool you will use throughout the rest of the course. Submit your completed matrix as an attachment to this assessment.
Refer to the Matrix of Ethical Theories Scoring Guide for more information on how this assessment will be graded.
A Sample Answer For the Assignment: PHI FPX 3200 Assessment 1: Matrix of Ethical Theories
Title: PHI FPX 3200 Assessment 1: Matrix of Ethical Theories
Ethical Theory Matrix
|Your Own Example
|The decision criteria for using the utilitarianism theory is based on possessing a moral compass. The implication is that it entails having knowledge of what is right and what is wrong through the value of right actions and happiness (Häyry, 2021)
|A philanthropist wanted to offer help to a group of students having financial difficulties. Five students had incurred overdue fees and, therefore, could not be given lunch. The man had a total of $5000 to donate, and a group of five students had an outstanding balance of $1000 each, while the sixth had an outstanding balance of $5000. Therefore, based on utilitarianism, the $5000 should be divided among the five students. Such a step will enable the five students to obtain food rather than giving the whole amount to one student. Such an approach will also give well-being and happiness to the five students.
|One of the strengths is that it treats each person equally without social or emotional attachments. It is also easy and simple to follow as it has a basic principle of the greatest happiness for the greatest number.
|-The theory focuses on predicting the consequences of an action that may not be possible. It focuses on happiness, but happiness is subjective. -it does not take into account the happiness or feelings of the minority.
|The decision criterion for this theory is that people have a responsibility to stay honest irrespective of the consequences and that the will to do good is the right thing. A person should not be treated as an object for natural interests (Baron, 2018).
|A young man had just married the love of his life. After two years, his wife was diagnosed with a chronic condition that needed a substantial amount of money to manage. After another year, he lost his job and could not take care of his family anymore. The man visited a supermarket, and when he went to the parking lot, he saw a guy accidentally drop his wallet, which had several thousand dollars. The man had a choice of taking the money, but he chose to be honest and gave the money back to the owner and continued searching for money and employment. This is in line with Kantian ethics, which indicates that stealing is always wrong.
|–In this theory, human beings are believed to be moral agents; hence they are valued. -It theory possesses the quality of universality as it suggests that everyone needs to be treated equally under the same ethical system hence limited discrimination.
|–Fails to account for the complexities of human life. -It does not explain the steps to be taken whenever two absolutes clash.
|The decision criteria for this theory is that our main duty is to do things that are morally right as dictated by the duties that are most crucial in a specific situation (Butts & Rich, 2022)
|Jane, a single mom of two children, works in a distant town; hence she requested that her mother lives with the two children as they go to school. Therefore, during weekdays, the mother cooks for the children, washes their clothes, and prepares them for school. Jane only cooks and washes clothes during weekends when she is around. As such, Ross’s ethics suggests that Jane should appreciate, show gratitude, and thank her mom for the good work she is doing. She should show gratitude for the effort and work the mother is doing to keep the children safe and ensure that they eat and go to school on time.
|-can lead to the provision of exceptional care by following reparation, fidelity, beneficence, and gratitude. -The theory is helpful as it enhances understanding of ethical issues in professional practice.
|-It may not be appropriate in clinical settings in cases where there are conflicting principles -It mainly relies on duties and rules and may deal with patients as strangers -It has also been described in some quarters as detached, abstract, and impartial.
|Natural Law Ethics
|The decision criterion is that human beings have intrinsic values that oversee behavior and reasoning. The theory originates from the belief that human morality comes from nature (McEwan & Wills, 2021). As such, this theory urges individuals to take good care of their health and restrain from endangering their lives. In addition, it expects people to be kind to others and be polite and humble, and not rude in any way.
|During the peak of the Covid-19 pandemic, many people needed to use ventilators. Hence they were limited as the number of people kept on rising. Many patients may be in need of ventilators to stay alive, but the ventilators may not be enough. The patients may be children, adolescents, and elderly. Some can argue that children and adolescents should be given ventilators since they have a whole future ahead of them. The implication is that the old people can be left to die. However, according to the natural law ethics, no person should be killed.
|–This theory recognizes the self-defense moral and legal concepts. -It also stresses that every individual has a right to live their life
|–The definition of what is wrong and what is right may not be the same for each individual in the face of an ethical dilemma. The implication is that the theory is not simple. -The morals can be compromised by a decision that an individual makes.
Baron, M. W. (2018). Kantian ethics almost without apology. Cornell University Press.
Butts, J. B., & Rich, K. L. (2022). Nursing ethics: Across the curriculum and into practice. Jones & Bartlett Learning.
Häyry, M. (2021). Just better utilitarianism. Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics, 30(2), 343-367. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0963180120000882
McEwan, M., & Wills, E. M. (2021). Theoretical basis for nursing. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.