PHI 413 The four principles, especially in the context of bioethics in the United States, has often been critiqued for raising the principle of autonomy to the highest place, such that it trumps all other principles or values

Sample Answer for PHI 413 The four principles, especially in the context of bioethics in the United States, has often been critiqued for raising the principle of autonomy to the highest place, such that it trumps all other principles or values Included After Question

Topic 3 DQ 1

The four principles, especially in the context of bioethics in the United States, has often been critiqued for raising the principle of autonomy to the highest place, such that it trumps all other principles or values. How would you rank the importance of each of the four principles? How do you believe they would be ordered in the context of the Christian biblical narrative? Refer to the topic Resources in your response.

A Sample Answer For the Assignment: PHI 413 The four principles, especially in the context of bioethics in the United States, has often been critiqued for raising the principle of autonomy to the highest place, such that it trumps all other principles or values

Title: PHI 413 The four principles, especially in the context of bioethics in the United States, has often been critiqued for raising the principle of autonomy to the highest place, such that it trumps all other principles or values

The four principles are respect for autonomy, beneficence, nonmaleficence, and justice. My belief is nonmaleficence is most important because no one should harm anyone else. Next I would say beneficence because preventing harm to others is important. Justice would be third because fair benefits and risks should be distributed throughout society. Autonomy would be last because without the other three no one would respect anyone’s autonomy. For the Christian narrative they’d be ranked in the order of beneficence, nonmaleficence, autonomy, and justice. Beneficence because all actions are intended to help others. Nonmaleficence because above all is to do no harm. Autonomy because people have a right to choose based on their beliefs. Justice because distributing with fairness whether it distributive, remedial, or retributive justice. Everyone has their one views on how they should be ranked. It is important though that all are part of a healthy society and importantly a safe society.

Hoener, P. (2020). Practicing Dignity: An Introduction to Christian Values & Decision Making in                

Health Care (1st ed.). Retrieved from: Practicing Dignity: An Introduction to Christian Values and Decision Making in Health Care (gcumedia.com)

A Sample Answer 2 For the Assignment: PHI 413 The four principles, especially in the context of bioethics in the United States, has often been critiqued for raising the principle of autonomy to the highest place, such that it trumps all other principles or values

Title: PHI 413 The four principles, especially in the context of bioethics in the United States, has often been critiqued for raising the principle of autonomy to the highest place, such that it trumps all other principles or values

“Ethical theories informed by a worldview will, in turn, determine what specific principles will be appropriate or useful in approaching moral problems” (Hoehner, 2020). If I were to rank the four biomedical ethics principles, I would say nonmaleficence should be on the top list. Do no harm is the first and foremost important rule to practice in the medical field. Then respect for autonomy. While taking care of patients, you must respect their decisions based on their worldviews and wants. We must inform the patient of the benefits and risks of treatment and get consent. Beneficence and Justice would come next. In the medical field you must care for your patients with their best interest and prevent any harm to them. This refers to beneficence. This “requires that one prevents harm to others, provides benefits, and balances those benefits against risks and costs” (Hoehner, 2020). And lastly, Justice, each patient shall be treated with respect no matter their situation. Fair and equitable treatment for all patients. 

Hoehner, Paul J. (2020). Biomedical Ethics in the Christian Narrative. In Practicing dignity: An introduction to Christian values & decision making in health care (1st ed.), https://lc.gcumedia.com/phi413v/practicing-dignity-an-introduction-to-christian-values-and-decision-making-in-health-care/v1.1/#/chapter/3

The definition of harm may be relative to the type of care given. Especially surgery and other invasive medical interventions invoke unintentional harm to the patient. However, the long-term intention is to promote the patient’s best interests in recovery and well-being (Hobden, 2008). Non-maleficence requires that the care provider or the research “does no harm” to their patients or participants. The understanding of harm may differ between the care professional or the researcher and the patient or participants.

Reference:

Hobden, A. (2008). Ethics. In A. Bryan, E. Mason-Whitehead, A. McIntosh, & et. al. (Eds.), Key concepts in nursing. Sage UK. Credo Reference: https://lopes.idm.oclc.org/login?url=https://search.credoreference.com/content/entry/sageuknurs/ethics/0?institutionId=5865

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A Sample Answer 3 For the Assignment: PHI 413 The four principles, especially in the context of bioethics in the United States, has often been critiqued for raising the principle of autonomy to the highest place, such that it trumps all other principles or values

Title: PHI 413 The four principles, especially in the context of bioethics in the United States, has often been critiqued for raising the principle of autonomy to the highest place, such that it trumps all other principles or values

In the Principles of Biomedical Ethics publication, the authors Beauchamp and Childress principle-based approach to bioethics identified four fundamental principles: non-maleficence, beneficence, justice, and autonomy. These four principles play an essential role in medical ethics and a behavioral guide for healthcare professionals when caring for patients and their families and “do not function as moral absolute or laws” (Hoehner, 2020, para. 56).

In the Christian biblical narrative, the most important of all these principles would be non-maleficence, where the action is not to engender undue or unjustified harm to another (Hoehner, 2020); next would be beneficence, where the action is to promote a patient’s health and well being while balancing the benefits against the harms and risk; followed by justice which is the “distribution of benefits, risks, and costs” (Hoehner, 2020, para. 55) of nursing care justly; and lastly, autonomy or self-determination, respecting the rights of patients or their surrogates to make health care decisions. In my opinion, all four principles are essential a well as the principles of fidelity, veracity, confidentiality, and privacy. The order of importance of the four principles in the Christian biblical narrative is the steps I take in my approach in taking care of all patients. First, cause no harm, promote patient’s benefits in health and well being, and be sensitive to all people because each may identify benefits and harms differently, provide culturally respectful patient-centered care to all, and respect individual’s self-determination. 

Reference

Hoehner, P. L. (2020). Biomedical ethics in the Christian narrative. In Practicing dignity: An introduction to Christian values and decision making in health care. Grand Canyon University. https://lc.gcumedia.com/phi413v/practicing-dignity-an-introduction-to-christian-values-and-decision-making-in-health-care/v1.1/#/chapter/3

A Sample Answer 4 For the Assignment: PHI 413 The four principles, especially in the context of bioethics in the United States, has often been critiqued for raising the principle of autonomy to the highest place, such that it trumps all other principles or values

Title: PHI 413 The four principles, especially in the context of bioethics in the United States, has often been critiqued for raising the principle of autonomy to the highest place, such that it trumps all other principles or values

The principal approach that includes medicine ethics is known as principlism. This ethical principle promotes moral values as a guide for health care professionals when making ethical decisions (Hanssen, 2004). Principlism empowers individuals to make decisions based on their knowledge and skills. According to the Bible, ethics are arranged in the following order: autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence, and justice. Autonomy is the most important of the four principles. Because it gives the individual the right to make his or her own treatment decisions. It gives the individual the option to accept or reject the treatment. Because the level of conflict in this principle is low, it is ranked first. Next in line is beneficence, which is defined as the act of assisting others. The principle of Good Samaritan law is based on this. It focuses on medical professionals’ kindness. Beneficence is the act of benefiting individuals and allocating resources equitably. The third-place goes to the principle of nonmaleficence, or not causing harm to others (van Thiel & van Delden, 2001).

PHI 413 The four principles, especially in the context of bioethics in the United States,
PHI 413 The four principles, especially in the context of bioethics in the United States,

References

Hanssen, I. (2004). An intercultural nursing perspective on autonomy. Nursing ethics, 11(1), 28-41.

van Thiel, G. J., & van Delden, J. J. (2001). The principle of respect for autonomy in the care of nursing home residents. Nursing Ethics, 8(5), 419-431.

A Sample Answer 5 For the Assignment: PHI 413 The four principles, especially in the context of bioethics in the United States, has often been critiqued for raising the principle of autonomy to the highest place, such that it trumps all other principles or values

Title: PHI 413 The four principles, especially in the context of bioethics in the United States, has often been critiqued for raising the principle of autonomy to the highest place, such that it trumps all other principles or values

Bioethics as we know it today was developed in the US in the 70s during a time where the law and the legal profession began playing a more intricate part in overseeing social change. During that time advancements in healthcare delivery, technology, and sciences had become enshrouded in a new range of contentious social and moral issues. The emergence of bioethics played a central role in providing moral principles that enabled healthcare professionals to tackle the numerous healthcare related dilemmas that they had to face in the workplace (Rothstein). There were many strategies that had been used by healthcare professionals to navigate through ethical issues that they encountered in the medical field but the development of the four ethical principles namely; justice, beneficence non-maleficence, and autonomy by Childress and Beauchamp marked a major turning point in medical bioethics (Hoehner, 2020).

                From my analysis of the four bioethical principles, I think that the autonomy principle ranks above the other three principles because I believe that the ability of letting a patient to make their own decision is critical. I would rank beneficence as the second most important principle because it requires healthcare professionals to prevent any harm from befalling their patients by ensuring the benefits of any medical procedure are weighed against the probable risks and costs (Hoehner, 2020). I think that nonmaleficence and justice can be ranked equally because they are equally significant in medical bioethics. From a Christian viewpoint, I think that beneficence and nonmaleficence would rank highest because the Bible requires to care for each other and to ensure that no harm befall even our worst enemies

References

Hoehner, P. (2020). Biomedical Ethics in the Christian Narrative. In G. C. University (Ed.), Practicing Dignity: An Introduction to Christian Values and Decision Making in Healthcare. Grand Canyon University.

Rothstein, M. (n.d.). The Role of Law in the Development of American Bioethics. Journal of International Bioethics, 20(4), 73-111.

A Sample Answer 6 For the Assignment: PHI 413 The four principles, especially in the context of bioethics in the United States, has often been critiqued for raising the principle of autonomy to the highest place, such that it trumps all other principles or values

Title: PHI 413 The four principles, especially in the context of bioethics in the United States, has often been critiqued for raising the principle of autonomy to the highest place, such that it trumps all other principles or values

Bioethics also known as Biomedical ethics refers to ethics in medicine including ethical issues raised by modern technologies such as medical research, stem cell research, cloning, abortion, euthanasia, and certain medical treatment decisions (Hoehner, 2020). As Hoehner (2020) explains, there have been many different approaches to medical ethics; however, the four principles of Beauchamp and Childress included in the 1970 publication of their book Principles of Biomedical Ethics, have been the most influential in medical ethical decisions. The four principles refer to respect for autonomy, non-maleficence, beneficence, and Justice.

As Hoehner (2020) describes the four principles, I would place beneficence first, which refers to the principle to benefit others, doing what is best for the patient and preventing harm. Secondly, the principle of non-maleficence which is very similar to beneficence, means to avoid in any way or form from causing harm to others. In third place, I would place respect for autonomy, a principle based on respect for others, their rights, decisions, values, and beliefs. Finally, I would rank the principle of justice last. Justice refers to an equal and fair opportunity. Healthcare should be equal to all people regardless of race, sex, religion, ethnicity, or financial status. The biblical narrative is the foundation for Christians and based on the belief that human beings are created in the image of God, everyone is to be treated with love, dignity, and respect. When ethical medical decisions are to be made, Christians would probably consider the four principles in the same order. As Bogue and Hogan (2020) explain, Christianity is about becoming more like Christ by doing good to others and loving one another.

References:

Hoehner, P. J. (2020). Biomedical ethics in the Christian narrative. In Grand Canyon University [GCU]. Practicing Dignity: An introduction to Christian values and decision making in healthcare. (ch.3). https://lc.gcumedia.com/phi413v/practicing-dignity-an-introduction-to-christian-values-and-decision-making-in-health-care/v1.1/#/chapter/3

White, Nathan H. (2020). God, humanity, and human dignity. In Grand Canyon University [GCU]. Practicing Dignity: An introduction to Christian values and decision making in healthcare. (ch.2). https://lc.gcumedia.com/phi413v/practicing-dignity-an-introduction-to-christian-values-and-decision-making-in-health-care/v1.1/#/chapter/2

A Sample Answer 7 For the Assignment: PHI 413 The four principles, especially in the context of bioethics in the United States, has often been critiqued for raising the principle of autonomy to the highest place, such that it trumps all other principles or values

Title: PHI 413 The four principles, especially in the context of bioethics in the United States, has often been critiqued for raising the principle of autonomy to the highest place, such that it trumps all other principles or values

An informative post as you elaborated on biomedical ethics along with your ranking of the importance of the four principles and the manner you believed those principles would be ordered in the context of the Christian biblical narrative. I agree as mentioned in your writing that, the four principles of biomedical ethics have become vital as it has served as the most influential in addressing ethical dilemmas in medical ethical decision-making and healthcare should be universal to all as we are created in the image of God. To uphold the practice of utilizing the four principles in a professional manner in terms of being ethical in our decisions we must also incorporate some additional principles of ethics as nursing professionals, and I would like to expand on these principles along with the steps of the process concern with ethical decision-making.

The additional principles include the following, accountability – “accepting responsibility for one’s own actions”, fidelity – being faithful and true in keeping professional promises and responsibilities in providing astute care, and veracity – being truthful to patients regardless of the information that may lead or result in patient distress (Registered Nursing, 2021, para. 4). When nurses implement accountability, fidelity, and veracity with beneficence, nonmaleficence, autonomy, and justice in their decision-making in healthcare, it will foster safe and quality patient care centered towards optimizing individuals’ health in an ethical manner that maintains morality. The decision-making process of being ethical in our actions incorporates the steps of defining the problem in clear description and circumstances surrounding the presenting ethical issue, then utilizing data collection by reviewing “ethical codes, published evidence-based practices, declaratory statements, professional position papers and the professional literature”, leading into data analysis further fostering possible solutions to the problem of concern with the implications of each if implemented, afterward the best possible solution is selected and implemented to address the ethical dilemma, and evaluation of the results pertaining to the action is measured to determine its effectiveness in resolving the ethical dilemma (Registered Nursing, 2021, para. 10). This provides guidance to healthcare professionals in the healthcare delivery system and to other professions dealing with the sciences of health versus disease. Imagine the unethical actions that were avoided using these principles and steps in formulating an ethical action to do what is appropriate towards the individual in need of care.  

Reference

Registered Nursing. (2021). Ethical practice: NCLEX-RNhttps://www.registerednursing.org/nclex/ethical-practice/