NURS 8302 Quality Indicators

Sample Answer for NURS 8302 Quality Indicators Included After Question

By Day 3 of Week 2

Post a brief description of the two nurse-sensitive indicators of quality that you selected. Analyze the influence of early quality improvement theories and philosophies on the development of the quality indicators you selected. Be specific. Then, cite the two (2) nursing research articles you selected, and explain how these indicators may influence your practice setting. Be specific and provide examples.

By Day 6 of Week 2

Read a selection of your colleagues’ responses and respond to at least two of your colleagues on two different days by expanding on your colleague’s post and explaining how the quality indicators selected by your colleague may influence your practice setting.

A Sample Answer For the Assignment: NURS 8302 Quality Indicators

Title: A Sample Answer For the Assignment:

The American Nurses Association (ANA) established the National Database of Nursing Quality Indicators (NDNQI) in the late 1990s to outline the quality of nursing care and increase the nursing body of knowledge related to quality (Montalvo, 2007). Nursing tenets steer nurses to assess, calculate and enhance practice. Quality indicators help improve nursing practice by benchmarking data, trends, reports and education. Two particularly important quality indicators are the outcome measure of restraint prevalence and the process/outcome measure of patient falls. The national database works to track data regarding these issues for nursing to improve outcomes in these areas.

Two nursing sensitive indicators of significant importance is restraint prevalence and patient falls. The National Quality Form (NQF) establishes “…consensus standards for nursing-sensitive care, including evidence-based nursing-sensitive performance measures, a framework for measuring nursing-sensitive care, and related research recommendations” (National Quality Forum, 2020). Falls are especially problematic for hospitals and the nursing practice because they increase length of stay for patients, increase cost and decrease revenue related to falls because a hospital acquired condition (HAQ).

Similarly, restraint prevalence is identified as a NDNQI by the NDF due to negative outcomes associated with use. Although restraints are utilized to help keep patients safe through restricting removal of lifesaving tubes and lines, the negative outcomes associated include agitation, emotional trauma, nerve and vascular injuries, bedsores, and loss of dignity (Kirk et al., 2015; Lagambi et al., 2021; Thomann et al., 2021).

Restraint Reduction, Restraint Elimination, and Best Practice by Kirk et al., outlines the associated issues with restraint utilization that cause the NQF to establish it as a NDNQI. The authors outlined a unit specific program to decrease restraint utilization below the NDNQI mean for restraint utilization. This unit specific program utilized advanced practice nurses coupled with multidisciplinary rounding to utilize less-restraining options such as elbow boards and soft mitts in lieu of soft restraints (Kirk et al., 2015).

Similarly, treating underlying medical conditions causative of agitation decreased restraint utilization. Resultant of the restraint reduction, as suggested by NDNQI, the unit was able to bring the rate of restraint utilization to 1.67% less than the NDNQI mean on the surgical step-down unit and 7.12% on the surgical intensive care unit within the first year (Kirk et al., 2015).

NURS 8302 Quality Indicators
NURS 8302 Quality Indicators

The second text examined, Reliability and Validity of the NDNQI Injury Falls Measure, works to authenticate the NDNQI guideline related to falls. The NDNQI collects unit-specific, nurse sensitive data from nearly 2,000 hospitals who benefit from reporting by using data to improve quality outcomes (Garrard et al., 2016). The authors utilized a survey of injury fall measure from NDNQI partner hospitals to validate the results manifested from the NDNQI measures.

The measures were found to show robust evidence “…that the NDNQI falls with injury measure is reliable and valid in supporting hospitals’ fall prevention efforts and future injurious falls research” (Garrard et al., 2016). That is, the NDNQI injury falls measure is a consistent and legitimate means for non NDNQI hospitals and outside scholars to endorse potential quality improvement endeavors and falls investigation.

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The salient points of nursing research based on NDNQI outline that data driven quality indicators evidence a need for nursing related change to increase quality care and decrease negative outcomes. Kirk et al., presents data related to measures to decrease restraint utilization as suggested by NDNQI. Likewise, Garrard et al., notes validation of NDNQI data through assessment of data from NDNQI partner hospitals. It is through continual assessment of data and utilization of NDNQI that nursing can improve patient outcomes and satisfaction with care.

References

Garrard, L., Boyle, D. K., Simon, M., Dunton, N., & Gajewski, B. (2016). Reliability and validity of the NDNQI® injury falls measure. Western Journal of Nursing Research38(1), 111–128. https://doi-org.ezp.waldenulibrary.org/10.1177/0193945914542851

Montalvo, I. (2007). The national database of nursing quality indicators. OJIN: The Online Journal of Issues in Nursing, 12(3). Retrieved from http://ojin.nursingworld.org/MainMenuCategories/ANAMarketplace/ANAPeriodicals/OJIN/TableofContents/Volume122007/No3Sept07/NursingQualityIndicators.html

National Quality Forum. (2020). Nursing-Sensitive Care: Initial Measures . Retrieved September 07, 2020, from https://www.qualityforum.org/Projects/n-r/Nursing-Sensitive_Care_Initial_Measures/Nursing_Sensitive_Care__Initial_Measures.aspx

Kirk, A. P., McGlinsey, A., Beckett, A., Rudd, P., & Arbour, R. (2015). Restraint Reduction, Restraint Elimination, and Best Practice Role of the Clinical Nurse Specialist in Patient Safety. CLINICAL NURSE SPECIALIST29(6), 321–328. https://doi-org.ezp.waldenulibrary.org/10.1097/NUR.0000000000000163

Legambi, T. F., Doede, M., Michael, K., & Zaleski, M. (2021). A Quality Improvement Project on Agitation Management in the Emergency Department. Journal of Emergency Nursing47(3), 390–399. https://doi-org.ezp.waldenulibrary.org/10.1016/j.jen.2021.01.005

Thomann, S., Zwakhalen, S., Richter, D., Bauer, S., & Hahn, S. (2021). Restraint use in the acute-care hospital setting: A cross-sectional multi-centre study. International Journal of Nursing Studies114. https://doi-org.ezp.waldenulibrary.org/10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2020.103807

A Sample Answer 2 For the Assignment: NURS 8302 Quality Indicators

Title: NURS 8302 Quality Indicators

This is insightful, Shawna; quality indicators are essential in improving the nursing practice through benchmarking the trends, data, reports, as well as educational systems. Measuring the quality of nursing and treatment practices is critical in ensuring improvements in the healthcare processes (Legambi et al., 2021). The outcomes or the results of quality measures can be used to direct different processes aimed and increasing or enhancing the quality of treatment and general healthcare processes. The outcome measure of restraint prevalence and the process/outcome measure of patient falls are two important quality indicators that can be used to direct and improve healthcare delivery processes.

The outcome measure of restraint prevalence was significantly impacted by the earliest theorists or people like Florence Nightingale, who were involved in the formulation of new approaches to dispatching quality improvement measures. The outcome measure of restraint prevalence can be applied to impact quality improvement processes towards delivering high-quality care to different patients. Outcome measures of restraint prevalence are always recorded in the process of discharging healthcare processes. The whole process involves the analysis of different steps that have been taken as well as the expected outcomes for the achievement of greater healthcare outcomes (Thomann et al., 2021).

Restraint Reduction, Restraint Elimination, and Best Practice by Kirk et al. outline the associated issues with restraint utilization that cause the NQF to establish it as a NDNQI. Measuring the rates of patient falls and recording the data for future references is critical in determining the appropriate strategies that can be used to improve care for the general patients under different care units. The two measures can be applied jointly or differently to ensure effective and efficient healthcare delivery processes to patients.

References

Legambi, T. F., Doede, M., Michael, K., & Zaleski, M. (2021). A Quality Improvement Project on Agitation Management in the Emergency Department. Journal of Emergency Nursing47(3), 390–399. https://doi-org.ezp.waldenulibrary.org/10.1016/j.jen.2021.01.005

Thomann, S., Zwakhalen, S., Richter, D., Bauer, S., & Hahn, S. (2021). Restraint use in the acute-care hospital setting: A cross-sectional multi-centre study. International Journal of Nursing Studies114. https://doi-org.ezp.waldenulibrary.org/10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2020.103807

A Sample Answer 3 For the Assignment: NURS 8302 Quality Indicators

NURS 8302 Quality Indicators

Quality of care is measured by the degree in which services rendered achieve desired health outcomes (Quality of Care, 2021).  Nursing has been at the forefront of health care quality and patient safety for many years.  Nurse-sensitive indicators (NSI) are measurable patient related outcomes that are directly affected by nursing care (Burston, Chaboyer, & Gillespie, 2014).  When considering which NSI’s to measure to be effective the DNP-prepared nurse must carefully select NSI’s relative to the clinical context, identify how the NSI data will be reported and used, and consider how the NSI will be embedded into clinical practice (Burston et al., 2014).  Two specific NSI’s are patient falls and pressure ulcer prevention (Montalvo, 2007). 

According to Burston, et al. (2014), studies show patient outcomes are affected by both nursing structural and process variables.  Structural variable include nurse-to-patient ratios, nursing hours per patient day, nursing education level, and nursing experience (Burston, et al., 2014).  Process variables include specific nursing interventions provided and process care delivery (Burston, et al., 2014).  Burston, et al., (2014) cautioned that data collection and analyzation approaches can cause inconsistencies.  For example, analysis at the hospital level does not allow for shift-to-shift variations that would be better identified at the unit level (Burston, et al., 2014).  The DNP-prepared nurse must analyze data and consider both structural and process variables to develop process changes at the unit level and organization level to improve quality. 

Pressure injuries (PIs) are defined as an insult to the skin and underlying soft tissue usually over a bony prominence that may cause and open wound and cause pain (Hoedl, Eglseer, & Lohrmann, 2019).  Hospital acquired PI prevalence rates in the United States range from 1.4% to as high as 49% (Hoedl, et al., 2019). One quality model utilized to evaluate PI prevention is the Donabedian Model of Healthcare Organizations. It is composed of three quality indicators: structure, process, and outcomes. According to Hoedl, et al. (2019), a systematic mapping review using the Donabedian Model identified 146 quality indicators for PI prevention and care, noting 17.6% were structural-level indicators, 48.6% process-level indicators, and 33.6% were outcome-level indicators. 

The researchers utilized the Nursing Quality Measurement 2.0 Survey to further identify specific structure, process, and outcome indicators that could be addressed in the quality improvement project to improve PI injury prevention and care (Hoedl, et al., 2019).  These measures could be utilized by the DNP-prepared nurse to address local quality improvement initiatives for PI prevention and care.

Patient falls are a common cause of patient injury during hospitalizations. Morgan, Flynn, Robertson, New, Forde-Johnston, & McCulloch (2017), discussed a staff-led quality improvement intervention which consisted of engagement and communication activities, teamwork and systems improvement training, support and coaching and iterative Plan-Do-Check-Act cycles in an effort to decrease falls.  Intentional rounding was implemented and evaluated using process (hourly rounding by staff) and outcome (patient falls). 

There was 50% reduction in falls noted on the units and researchers concluded that integrating teamwork training and staff-led systems redesign resulted in effective change and improvement (Morgan, et al., 2017).  The DNP-prepared nurse is uniquely aligned as a nurse leader and educator to foster staff-led quality improvement initiatives in the clinical setting.

References

Burston, S., Chaboyer, W., & Gillespie, B. (2014). Nurse sensitive indicators suitable to reflect nursing care quality: a review and discussion of issues. Journal of Clinical Nursing23(13-14), 1785–1795. https://doi.org/ezp.waldenulibrary.org/10.1111/jocn.12337

Hoedl, M., Eglseer, D., & Lohrmann, C. (2019). Structure, process, and quality indicators for pressure injury prevention and care in Austrian hospitals: A quality improvement project. Journal of Wound, Ostomy, and Continence Nursing46(6), 479–484. https://doi.org/10.1097/WON.0000000000000586

Montalvo, I. (2007). The National Database of Nursing Quality Indicators. The Online Journal of Issues in Nursing12(3), Article 2. https://doi.org/10.3912/OJIN.Vol12No03Man02

Morgan, L., Flynn, L., Robertson, E., New, S., Forde-Johnston, C., & McCulloch, P. (2017). Intentional rounding: a staff-led quality improvement intervention in the prevention of patient falls. Journal of Clinical Nursing26(1-2), 115–124. https://doi.org/ezp.waldenulibrary.org/10.1111/jocn.13401

Quality of care. (2021). World Health Organization. Retrieved September 5, 2021, from https://www.who.int/health-topics/quality-of-care#tab=tab_1

A Sample Answer 4 For the Assignment: NURS 8302 Quality Indicators

Title: NURS 8302 Quality Indicators

Response

This is insightfulBrandi. Quality of care is measured by the degree in which services rendered achieve desired health outcomes. Today, most healthcare institutions are on the verge of adopting absolute quality measures in the healthcare processes. Quality measures are always based on the best practices that have been adopted in the management of different healthcare processes. While some organizations are involved in the application of research processes, others base their approaches on the evidence-based practices to ensure effective patient outcomes. Pressure ulcers and patient falls are some of the approaches that can be taken to enhance the quality of treatment processes (Hoedl et al., 2019).

Pressure injuries (PIs) are defined as an insult to the skin and underlying soft tissue usually over a bony prominence that may cause and open wound and cause pain. Through measuring the rates of patient’s falls, healthcare professionals are able to determine the best strategies to reduce the cases of falls in the future care. Patient falls are a common cause of patient injury during hospitalizations (Morgan et al., 2017). On the other hand pressure ulcers are common occurrences particularly for the patients under critical care units. Pressure injuries (PIs) are defined as an insult to the skin and underlying soft tissue usually over a bony prominence that may cause and open wound and cause pain.

Quality indicators are mainly applied to determine areas of weaknesses and strength to shape or transform the treatment processes. Through understanding the rates of pressure ulcer and injuries resulting from fall, healthcare providers are able to identify the best strategies to enhance the application of appropriate measures. The outcomes or the results of quality measures can be used to direct different processes aimed and increasing or enhancing the quality of treatment and general healthcare processes.

References

Hoedl, M., Eglseer, D., & Lohrmann, C. (2019). Structure, process, and quality indicators for pressure injury prevention and care in Austrian hospitals: A quality improvement project. Journal of Wound, Ostomy, and Continence Nursing46(6), 479–484. https://doi.org/10.1097/WON.0000000000000586

Morgan, L., Flynn, L., Robertson, E., New, S., Forde-Johnston, C., & McCulloch, P. (2017). Intentional rounding: a staff-led quality improvement intervention in the prevention of patient falls. Journal of Clinical Nursing26(1-2), 115–124. https://doi.org/ezp.waldenulibrary.org/10.1111/jocn.13401

A Sample Answer 5 For the Assignment: NURS 8302 Quality Indicators

Title: NURS 8302 Quality Indicators

Quality Indicator 1 – Pressure Ulcer Prevalence and Incidence

Nurses pay attention to pressure ulcers or bedsores. A pressure ulcer is a tiny skin and/or tissue damage caused by pressure, shear, or both. Pressure ulcer incidence and prevalence are essential for assessing prevention strategies and nursing treatment. Pressure ulcer indicators were influenced by the Donabedian model and other early quality improvement theories that evaluated healthcare structure, method, and outcomes (Chen, Liao, & Zhou, 2023). This pressure ulcer prevention paradigm prioritizes outcomes, which patients need.

Influence of Early Quality Improvement Theories:

Pressure ulcer indicators are shaped by the Donabedian approach, which emphasizes comprehensive quality evaluation. Structures (such as resources and staff), processes (such as preventative measures), and results (such as pressure ulcer prevalence and incidence) are examined. As part of a complete pressure ulcer prevention strategy, the model emphasizes how these factors interact and affect patient outcomes.

Nursing Research Article:

Taylor, Mulligan, and McGraw’s article “Barriers and enablers to the implementation of Evidence-based Practice in pressure ulcer prevention and management in an integrated community care setting” (2021) explores factors affecting the adoption of evidence-based practices in pressure ulcer prevention. This research is relevant to my profession since it sheds light on pressure ulcer prevention challenges and opportunities. The study’s findings could help my company enhance quality by revealing issues like finances and personnel education.

Quality Indicator 2 – Patient Falls

Nurses also include patient falls when assessing nursing care quality and safety. Falls can cause injuries and impact patient outcomes. Fall indicators are influenced by Deming’s PDSA cycle, which emphasizes repeating cycles of planning, doing, studying, and acting to enhance quality (Brandrud, 2019).

Influence of Early Quality Improvement Theories:

The PDSA cycle has advanced fall indicators by promoting a deliberate and iterative quality improvement technique. Continuous outcome evaluation allows nursing interventions to be implemented, evaluated, and adjusted to avoid falls. Constant improvement and adaptability increase nursing care and patient safety.

Nursing Research Article:

The study “Quality Indicators for the care and Outcomes of adults with atrial fibrillation” by Arbelo et al. (2021) highlights quality indicators in patient care, but not specifically in falls. It shows how quality indicators are used in healthcare. This and similar studies can inspire interdisciplinary teams to establish comprehensive quality improvement initiatives to prevent patient falls in my practice using proven strategies from other areas.

To summarize, the creation of nurse-sensitive indicators necessitates comprehension and use of early quality improvement ideas. The selected papers provide valuable insights into the challenges and opportunities for improving patient care and preventing pressure ulcers. These criteria are essential for guiding quality improvement programs to ensure that patients receive high-quality nursing care.

Reference:

Arbelo, E., (Chair), Aktaa, S., Bollmann, A., D’Avila, A., Drossart, I., … & Martins Oliveira, M. (2021). Quality indicators for the care and outcomes of adults with atrial fibrillation: task force for the development of quality indicators in atrial fibrillation of the European Heart Rhythm Association (EHRA) of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC): developed in collaboration with the Heart Rhythm Society (HRS), the Asia Pacific Heart Rhythm Society (APHRS), and the Latin-American Heart Rhythm Society (LAHRS). EP Europace, 23(4), 494-495.

Brandrud, A. S. (2019). Learning about the conditions for improvement and excellent care from high performing clinical networks.

Chen, X., Liao, P., & Zhou, Y. (2023). Construction of nursing-sensitive quality indicators for the care of patients with prone position ventilation using the Delphi method. BMC nursing, 22(1), 336.

Evangelou, E., Middleton, N., Kyprianou, T., Kouta, C., Merkouris, A., Raftopoulos, V., … & Lambrinou, E. (2021). Nursing quality indicators for adult intensive care: a consensus study. Nursing in Critical Care, 26(4), 234-243.

Taylor, C., Mulligan, K., & McGraw, C. (2021). Barriers and enablers to the implementation of evidence‐based practice in pressure ulcer prevention and management in an integrated community care setting: A qualitative study informed by the theoretical domains framework. Health & Social Care in the Community, 29(3), 766-779.

A Sample Answer 6 For the Assignment: NURS 8302 Quality Indicators

Title: NURS 8302 Quality Indicators

The nurse sensitive indicator of medication adherence in the 30 days post hospital discharge is relevant to understanding the opportunity to reduce 30-day readmission to hospitals. There is a two-prong impact of assuring patients understand the medications that are to be continued and discontinued in the home.  The first reason is that medication adherence affects the patient’s morbidity and mortality rates especially in the face of an unintended and unplanned hospital readmission (Neiman et al., 2017). The second prong is that 30 day readmission impacts the healthcare system financial reimbursement due to penalties enforced by Medicare (CMS), Managed Medicare and Commercial payers (Pugh et al., 2021).

In my department a quality study was conducted to determine why our 30-day readmission had increased in high-risk populations within the cardiac service line.  For all 30-day readmitted patients we utilize a questionnaire that queries the patient experience in the post-hospital discharge with the index (first discharge). Extrapolated data for the population determined that 50% of the patients discharged to home and readmitted to the hospital stated they had issues related to understanding their medications.  The statistics are similar to data collected by CDC researchers who report that 25% of new prescriptions are never filled, and among those filled, approximately 50% are taken incorrectly, particularly with regard to timing, dosage, frequency, and duration (Neiman et al., 2017). The financial costs of medication non-adherence costs the United States healthcare system $100 to $300 billion in health care dollars annually (Neiman et al., 2017).

Pugh et al (2017), support evidence based care transitions to reduce 30 day unplanned readmission by actively engaging patients with understanding their discharge plan by eliciting a response by utilizing the ‘teach-back’ method while in the hospital and a post-hospital intervention in the home with a 7-day post-hospital provider visit.

The Care Coordination department at the current practice has started a pilot of assuring high-risk populations receive a 7-day post hospital appointment either with their provider or with and Extensivist group of providers who visit the patient in their home for continued medication reconciliation and education.  The goal is to reduce 30 day readmission utilizing a PDSAE (plan-do-study-act-evaluate) model of quality improvement.

References

Neiman, A. B., Ruppar, T., Ho, M., Garber, L., Weidle, P. J., Hong, Y., George, M. G., & Thorpe, P. G. (2017). CDC Grand Rounds: Improving medication adherence for chronic disease management — innovations and opportunities. MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report66(45), 1248–1251. https://doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm6645a2

Pugh, J., Penney, L. S., Noël, P. H., Neller, S., Mader, M., Finley, E. P., Lanham, H. J., & Leykum, L. (2021). Evidence based processes to prevent readmissions: More is better, a ten-site observational study. BMC Health Services Research21(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12913-021-06193-x