NURS 8210 Information System Evaluation
NURS 8210 Information System Evaluation
One of the most important steps in the implementation of an information system change is evaluation. Apart from the need for an evaluation process aligning to an organization’s values, vision, and mission, it should have effective strategies and specific measurements (Sligo et al., 2017). In the last weeks, this project has been dealing with a Computerized Physician/Provider Order Entry as the proposed information system change. This latest contribution, therefore, deals with the evaluation of the system change. Various frameworks of evaluation will be discussed. Besides, an evaluation plan table, as well as an overview discussion with the stakeholders, will be presented.
Part 1: Evaluation Report
Evaluation frameworks are important in guiding the several components of an evaluation process from start to finish. The frameworks which will be discussed here will each entail the quality of the information obtained by the implemented change, the impacts on the outcomes of the quality care as caused by the system change, or the structural quality of the system as brought about by the change implementation. One of the frameworks is the Health Information Technology Evaluation Framework. Through this framework, professional, systematic, and organizational contexts can be evaluated. In the organization component, various aspects of the change are evaluated (Cresswell et al.,2020). They include patient and staff knowledge of the new Computerized Physician/Provider Order Entry system, the cost of care, benefits, impacts on the quality process, the outcome, process, and the evidence-based practice data generated by the system. In addition, the professional and environmental components are essential in the assessment of patient satisfaction with the new Computerized Physician/Provider Order Entry system and, by extension, the larger aspect of patient and patient privacy.
The next useful framework for evaluating the Computerized Physician/Provider Order Entry system as the change is the Human/Organizational/Technology factor framework (Singh & Mansotra, 2019). As the name suggests, the framework has technological, organizational, and human aspects. The technology aspect is involved with service quality, information quality, and system quality. When it comes to the system quality, the process of adjustment and system usefulness are identified and evaluated. In addition, the technology component also deals with the quality of information where those who are authorized to access the information are accessed, information associated with the staff or patients, and the information quality response time. The next technology component assesses the Computerized Physician/Provider Order Entry system technical support required for sustained use of the system.
The other part of the framework is the human component which mainly evaluates the staff and the patient’s needs. For instance, it will be vital in assessing whether or not the new system’s purpose has been met, as well as if the offered training is sufficient in helping in the application of the implemented change. Besides, the human component allows the assessment of knowledge and skills, whether they are properly applied in ensuring that the desired change is obtained as well as proper assignment of roles towards the realization of the desired change. The other part of the framework is the organizational aspect which evaluates the project’s environment and structure. For instance, the environmental aspect deals with the company’s readiness in terms of resources and communication. On the other hand, the structural aspect involves how well the committee and the leadership team manages the new Computerized Physician/Provider Order Entry system change.
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The third evaluation framework is the technology acceptance model. This framework mainly deals with the outcomes of quality care. Among the things which informed the proposal of Computerized Physician/Provider Order Entry system as a technological change is improving the quality of care as the old manual system was prone to errors such as medication errors. The technology acceptance model, therefore, helps in evaluating how patients and the staff have accepted the use of the new system. This framework proposes that in a case where the end-users of a product perceive it as easy to use, they develop positive attitudes to use it. The framework will therefore help in evaluating perceptions and attitudes of the staff and the patients towards the new system. From their feedback, it will then be possible to know how efficient it is to use the new system and evaluate how the Computerized Physician/Provider Order Entry system is appropriate to care and how it makes the patient care better.
Part 2: Evaluation Plan Table (Garcia-Dia, 2019)
|Goals||Framework Component||Measurements||Measurement Frequency||Reason for the use of the measure|
|Reduce medication errors||Quality of care outcomes||-Patient attitude and knowledge -patient satisfaction -Patient outcomes||-Monthly basis -Monthly basis -quarterly||– Patient knowledge and attitude will be vital in evaluating the system since they are the ones who are usually at the receiving end of medication errors.|
|Improve medication ordering||Quality of information||-Medication data correctness -correct labeling -correct medication routes||-weekly -As needed -Weekly||The aspects of medication ordering will be appropriate in reflecting the success or the effectiveness of the new system, and so it vital to measure the correctness of data related to medication, labeling as well as medication route.|
|Replacement of unwanted steps and the manual steps||Technological component||-Efficiency of the system -Implementation Development -Application||-Monthly -weekly -weekly||Changing from an old way of performing a task to new ways is always a challenge. It is therefore vital to find out how the best the old unwanted and manual process have been eliminated by measuring how the new system is being applied, implemented, and its efficiency.|
|The ultimate workflows that display the appropriate use of the new Computerized Physician/Provider Order Entry system||Quality Process||-training and implementation – patient care appropriateness -The quality of the organization||-Weekly -Weekly -Monthly||– The effectiveness of the new system will better be reflected in the efficiency of the process of medication ordering and administration. Therefore, measuring the level of training that can be used in implementing the change is vital. Besides, measuring the quality of the organization on a monthly basis will reflect how best the new system is changing the workflow in terms of medication ordering and administration through the use of the new system.|
Part 3: Overview Discussion with the Stakeholder
Brief Introduction to The Project
Before the implementation of the Computerized Physician/Provider Order Entry system, the facility was using the manual application of health records. With the implementation of the new system, various beneficial outcomes were anticipated. One of the anticipated outcomes is the access of patient’s medical information from various parts of the hospital departments hence ensuring faster, efficient, and quality patient care. Besides, the system’s implementation was also to enable file sharing between various professionals hence allowing faster decision-making regarding patients’ health. The system was also to help in eliminating medical errors such as wrong instructions, omissions, unintended errors, and errors of elapses. Therefore, the project was to work towards improving the process of medication prescriptions.
How The System Is Currently Functioning
With the implementation of the new system, the Computerized Physician/Provider Order Entry system, the facility has moved to adopt the functionality of the new system. For instance, the patient’s medical information access can be achieved from various hospital departments’ hence faster, efficient, and quality patient care. File sharing is enabling faster decision-making concerning patient’s health hence better outcomes. The current system also operates in offering drug-drug interaction alerts and eliminates prescription-related errors.
Monitoring The System
In ensuring that the system serves its purpose and for a long time, various aspects of the system will be monitored. For instance, the security of the system will be monitored from time to time to ensure data integrity is upheld and keep at bay threats such as hackers (Mohsin-Shaikh et al., 2019). The monitoring will be accomplished through a collaboration between the leadership and the hardware and software engineers. The monitoring will be done as frequently as once every week to ensure that the functionality of the system is not compromised. One of the specific focuses, as indicated earlier, is security. The reason for such monitoring is that hackers can steal patient information for personal gain hence compromising the facility, so it is the first thing to focus on during monitoring.
In conclusion, evaluating a change implemented in a system is vital in determining how well the system has been accepted and how well it is functions. Among the things that stakeholders must be aware of is the fact that implementing an information system change does not end when the system starts functioning; indeed, it marks the beginning. The stakeholder’s efforts and inputs are still important in ensuring that the system runs smoothly and that areas that need adjustments are promptly identified and acted upon.
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With the increased implementation and integration of information technology (IT) within health care systems it is important to continually assess and evaluate the outcomes of these various systems. Evaluating information technology applications allows for decision makers to gain knowledge regarding the functioning of the IT-based system within the organization (Rahimi & Vimarlund, 2007). Within the literature, it is apparent that various methods to IT system assessment are present and vary according to the application in use. For example, in assessment of clinical decision support systems (CDSS) it is recommended to utilize randomized controlled clinical trials (RCCT) to gain further insight regarding effectiveness (Rahimi & Vimarlund, 2007). Further discussion regarding computer-based patient record systems, such as electronic medical records (EMRs), recommend utilizing a systematic survey to assess the impact on medical practice, quality of care, and user as well as patient satisfaction (Rahimi & Vimarlund, 2007). It is important to involve all stakeholders within evaluation to ensure outcomes are being met and that strategies are effective (American Nurses Association, 2008).
In comparison to other methods of assessment within healthcare, IT assessment involves the inclusion of all stakeholders including patients, staff, and administration. During assessment, various methods of evaluation can be utilized as previously discussed. With regards to evaluation, this should be conducted in a systematic and ongoing matter (American Nurses Association, 2008). As health information technology is continually evolving, evaluation should continue as well to ensure that implementation and technology is effective. Effective technology should include user acceptance, as well as satisfaction of patients which refers to increased or improved quality of care. Furthermore, financial effects should be within budget and not include additional costs (Nahm et al. 2007; Rahimi & Vimarlund, 2007). A barrier to designing a successful evaluation for IT is that a variety of applications may be required dependent upon the technology. Nahm et al. (2007) found that randomized control led trials, pre and post test studies, time and motion studies, surveys and user testing were frequently utilized in outcome assessment.
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In this discussion, I will distinguish information system evaluation from other evaluations, assess major problems facing designing evaluations for information application, and write an executive summary to articulate analysis of a health information technology system.
Distinguishing Information System Evaluation from Other Evaluations
Information system evaluation is very hard compared to other types of evaluations. This is because it involves many dimensions and different shareholders. Another difference is that investments in information system lead to intangible benefits which are only realized after a long period of time. For this reason, evaluation of information system may be carried out after a long period of time, unlike other evaluations which may take short period. Evaluation of information system requires formal-rational view to compute cost on defined criteria (Rahimi & Vimarlund, 2007). Information system evaluation also uses interpretative approaches of IT with information technology it.
Assessing Major Problems in Designing Successful Evaluations for Information Systems
One of the major problems encountered when designing successful for information systems is lack of data trust. Major shareholders may disclose false data which may impact evaluation process negatively. Some organizations may miss robust data strategy to align and validate their vision and mission (Runy, 2009). This makes it difficult for an organization to realize who contributed a certain amount of money for the information systems. Designing successful evaluations for information may be affected by customization which is very expensive and complex.
An executive Summary that Articulate the Evaluation of a Health Information Technology System
Today evaluations of a health IT system in health organizations are enormous. Health information technology system has improved performance of health care delivery. However, evaluations have been done to the performances of data, hardware, human resources and software, to ensure that the information meet its objectives. The results have shown that health information technology system has progressed significantly in many health sectors. The results also shown that evaluation of a health information technology system has been faced challenges such as data mistrust and customization (Nahm et al., 2007). I therefore conclude that evaluation of a health information technology system is very helpful for health sectors, and any challenge facing evaluation process should be reduced or avoided for good outcomes.
From this discussion, I can conclude that evaluation of health information technology system is very significant for health sectors. However, the evaluation process is faced by various challenges which may affect its outcome negatively. We have also noted that assessment of a health information technology system differ from other evaluations.
Runy, L. A. (2009). IT challenges in physician practice management. Hospitals & Health Networks, 83(11), 37-43.
Indeed, evaluation of health information system refers to the process of assessing the performance of hardware, software, data, as well as the usability. However, there are other approaches that can be used to ensure effective evaluation process (Carayon & Hoonakker, 2019). First, accessing the user interface and determining efficiency of the entire system is another approach in the evaluation process. Also, assessing the level of security and safety of the system can be included in the evaluation process. Health Information Systems should be constantly evaluated to ensure they perform the intended purpose (Cresswell et al., 2020). Different healthcare organizations often use different approaches in the process of evaluation. However, these approaches often adhere to the standard guidelines. While many organizations undertake evaluation processes frequently, other organizations do it ones given the level of security of the systems as well as the experts involved in the operational processes (Jeddi et al., 2020). One of the question I would like to ask is: What are some of the procedures to be included in the evaluation of health information system?
Carayon, P., & Hoonakker, P. (2019). Human factors and usability for health information technology: old and new challenges. Yearbook of medical informatics, 28(01), 071-077. https://www.thieme-connect.com/products/ejournals/html/10.1055/s-0039-1677907
Cresswell, K., Sheikh, A., Franklin, B. D., Krasuska, M., Nguyen, H. T., Hinder, S., … & Williams, R. (2020). Theoretical and methodological considerations in evaluating large-scale health information technology change programmes. BMC Health Services Research, 20, 1-6. https://link.springer.com/content/pdf/10.1186/s12913-020-05355-7.pdf
Jeddi, F. R., Nabovati, E., Bigham, R., & Khajouei, R. (2020). Usability evaluation of a comprehensive national health information system: relationship of quality components to users’ characteristics. International journal of medical informatics, 133, 104026. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijmedinf.2019.104026