Post a proposed research problem statement, including your study variables and hypothesis to make your problem statement clear. Explain any ethical considerations you should keep in mind in relation to your research problem statement. Then, explain how addressing this research problem may bring about positive nursing practice change. Be specific and provide examples.


Read a selection of your colleagues’ responses and respond to at least two of your colleagues on two different days by providing specific feedback and critiquing their problem statement using the following criteria (Gray & Grove, 2020):

  • Does the problem have professional significance?
  • Does the problem have potential or actual significance for society?
  • Does the problem have the potential to build or refine evidence-based practice?

A research problem statement succinctly outlines the specific issue that a research study aims to address. It defines the problem, sets the direction for the research, and may involve hypothetical or real-world scenarios to focus the research’s purpose (Gray & Grove, 2020). This statement identifies the area of concern and suggests potential solutions through research. In this discussion, I will present a research problem statement with study variables, a hypothesis, and an exploration of ethical considerations. Additionally, I will illustrate how addressing this research problem could foster positive changes in nursing practice.

The surge in social media use among adolescents has notably altered their perception of beauty, primarily influenced by the images of models, advertisement figures, and media personalities they encounter online (Paakkari et al., 2021; Çimke & Yıldırım, 2023). This evolving beauty standard generates dissatisfaction among adolescents regarding their appearance, fueling an unrealistic pursuit of idealized bodies. Consequently, adolescents often resort to harmful practices like excessive exercise, the use of cosmetics, and unhealthy dieting to mimic these idealized images (Çimke & Yıldırım, 2023). Despite recognizing the risks associated with social media usage, including extreme dieting and exercise, there remains a significant gap in understanding how social media specifically influences body image disturbances in adolescents. Current literature provides limited insights into this relationship (Revranche et al., 2022). This research explores the link between social media usage and body image disturbances in adolescents, considering various moderating factors and potential interventions. The outcomes of this study will be crucial for healthcare professionals, guiding them in educating adolescents to counteract the adverse effects of social media on body image perceptions.

Study variables and hypothesis

This research examines the relationship between social media use and body image disturbance, identifying key variables. The independent variables are the duration of social media use, the type of content viewed, and the diversity of social media platforms engaged with. The dependent variable is body image dissatisfaction, which encompasses a negative self-perception of one’s body, engagement in unhealthy behaviors, and adherence to societal beauty standards. A crucial mediating variable is the propensity of adolescents to compare their bodies to those of media personalities, advertisement figures, and models. The core hypothesis of this study posits a significant positive correlation between social media usage and body image disturbance, suggesting that extended exposure to social media heightens the risk of developing body image issues.

Ethical considerations

In research exploring the effects of social media on body image disturbance, several ethical considerations are paramount. Firstly, maintaining confidentiality is crucial; this involves safeguarding the identifiable information of participants to protect their privacy and trust (Nakalega et al., 2021). Secondly, informed consent is vital. This process ensures that participants are fully aware of the research’s aims, methods, and potential risks, allowing them to make well-informed decisions about their participation (Nakalega et al., 2021). Additionally, the principle of beneficence should guide the research approach, emphasizing the researcher’s responsibility to prioritize the welfare of participants and avoid causing harm (Nakalega et al., 2021). Finally, adherence to the principle of veracity is essential; researchers must commit to honesty and transparency in all interactions with participants, ensuring integrity and trustworthiness in the research process (Nakalega et al., 2021).

How this research problem statement may bring about positive nursing practice change.

Addressing this research problem could lead to multifaceted positive changes, particularly in the context of adolescent health and well-being. Firstly, the findings could significantly influence adolescents’ social media exposure policy-making. This would involve advocating for healthier advertising practices, notably by reducing the prevalence of unrealistic beauty standards in advertisements. Such a shift could contribute to a more positive social media environment for adolescents.

Furthermore, the research could play a crucial role in raising awareness about the effects of social media use on adolescent mental health (Revranche et al., 2022). Understanding these impacts is vital for developing effective strategies to mitigate negative consequences.

A key practical application of this research could be the development of targeted school-based programs. These programs aim to empower adolescents to foster a positive body image and embrace self-acceptance, helping them navigate the pressures of conforming to societal beauty ideals. Additionally, these programs could provide valuable education on how to engage with social media in ways that support mental wellness and academic achievement.

From a nursing perspective, the insights gained from this research would be instrumental in preparing nurses to provide more effective care for adolescents dealing with body image disturbances due to social media use. This enhanced understanding would enable nurses to offer more targeted and empathetic support, addressing both the physical and psychological aspects of such disturbances.

In conclusion, the relationship between social media use and body image disturbance among adolescents is a critical area of concern. Social media platforms often expose young users to idealized and unattainable physical standards, fostering a deep desire to alter their appearance. This exposure not only distorts adolescents’ perceptions of beauty but also heightens the risk of engaging in detrimental behaviors and exacerbates mental health challenges. The focus of this research is to delve into the nexus between social media usage and body image issues in adolescents, exploring potential strategies for intervention and support. This investigation is essential in understanding the broader implications of social media on adolescent health and well-being and in developing effective measures to mitigate these negative impacts.


Çimke, S., & Yıldırım Gürkan, D. (2023). Factors affecting body image perception, social media addiction, and social media consciousness regarding physical appearance in adolescents. Journal of pediatric nursing, S0882-5963(23)00250-6. Advance online publication.

Gray, J. R., & Grove, S. K. (2020). Burns and Grove’s the practice of nursing research: Appraisal, synthesis, and generation of evidence (9th ed.). Elsevier.

Nakalega, R., Akello, C., Gati, B., Nakabiito, C., Nolan, M., Kamira, B., Etima, J., Nakyanzi, T., Kemigisha, D., Nanziri, S. C., Nanyonga, S., Nambusi, M. J., Mulumba, E., Biira, F., Nabunya, H. K., Akasiima, S. A., Nansimbe, J., Maena, J., Babirye, J. A., Ngure, K., … Mujugira, A. (2021). Ethical considerations for involving adolescents in biomedical HIV prevention research. BMC medical ethics22(1), 127. to an external site.

Revranche, M., Biscond, M., & Husky, M. M. (2022). Lien entre usage des réseaux sociaux et image corporelle chez les adolescents : une revue systématique de la littérature [Investigating the relationship between social media use and body image among adolescents: A systematic review]. L’Encephale48(2), 206–218.

Paakkari, L., Tynjälä, J., Lahti, H., Ojala, K., & Lyyra, N. (2021). Problematic Social Media Use and Health among Adolescents. International journal of environmental research and public health18(4), 1885.

Starting the Research Process

There is a significant information discrepancy in the field of surgical nursing about the influence of preoperative education on postoperative outcomes for patients receiving elective procedures (Gümüs, 2021). There is not enough thorough information in the literature currently available that is particular to the population, thus it is necessary to investigate if preoperative education can improve patients’ surgical experiences and outcomes thereafter.

Study Variables: 

In this research, the type of preoperative treatment is the independent variable. Participants are divided into two groups: those who will receive routine care (control) and those who will receive organized preoperative instruction. Postoperative pain scores, hospital stay duration, the frequency of postoperative complications, and parent satisfaction with the surgical procedure are examples of dependent variables.

Patients who get preoperative education should, according to the hypothesis, show considerably lower postoperative pain scores, shorter hospital stays, fewer problems after surgery, and higher parental satisfaction than patients who receive conventional treatment.

A variety of ethical guidelines must direct this research. Obtaining informed consent requires making sure that parents or guardians are thoroughly educated on the nature of the intervention, its potential risks, and its benefits(Pietrzykowski, T., & Smilowska, K, 2021). Confidentiality protocols will be used, including anonymous data collection and secure storage of personally identifiable information, to preserve the privacy of the participating families. Families are not charged for withdrawing from the study at any point because voluntariness is highly valued. Participants’ assent will be obtained through age-appropriate means.

Positive Nursing Practice Change

It may be possible to spur improvements in nursing practice by tackling this research problem. If the theory is proven, it may result in the inclusion of structured preoperative education programs in the routine care given to patients undergoing surgery (Torres, 2020). In providing individualized instruction, nurses would be essential in enhancing perioperative experiences, lowering complications, and raising parental satisfaction. The results could have an impact on the creation of policies that promote uniform preoperative education procedures in pediatric surgical settings, improving the general standard of care. 


Gümüs, K. (2021). The effects of preoperative and postoperative anxiety on the quality of recovery in patients undergoing abdominal surgery. Journal of PeriAnesthesia Nursing, 36(2), 174-178.

Pietrzykowski, T., & Smilowska, K. (2021). The reality of informed consent: empirical studies on patient comprehension—systematic review. Trials, 22, 1-8.

Torres, G. C. (2020). The mediating role of pre‐operative patient readiness on surgical outcomes: A structural equation model analysis. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 76(6), 1371-1383.

Cognitive impairment is quite common in older adults and worsens with advancing age. Globally, dementia is approximated to affect 1.8% of individuals in their 60s, 5.1% in their 70s, 15.1% in their 80s, and 35.7% in their 90s. Patients are categorized as having subjective cognitive decline (SCD), Mild cognitive impairment (MCI), or dementia. SCD describes individuals with concerns about cognitive change but perform normally on cognitive testing (McCollum & Karlawish, 2020). MCI describes persons with concern for cognitive change, conveyed by the patient or the informant, who have objective evidence of impaired cognition in one or more cognitive domains and demonstrate independence in function.

Cognitive impairment contributes to cognitive deficits in patients with MCI and dementia, which are evidenced by short-term memory loss, impaired language, impaired judgment and reasoning, and difficulties carrying out complex tasks. Thus, it is vital to identify evidence-based interventions that can improve or delay cognitive decline in patients with SCD, MCI, and dementia. Various studies have proposed cognitive training as a practical intervention to improve cognitive decline (Bahar-Fuchs et al., 2019). The independent study variable, in this case, is Cognitive training, while the dependent variables are memory, executive functioning, language, judgment, and reasoning.

Hypothesis: Integrating cognitive training and pharmacotherapy in patients with cognitive impairment significantly improves cognitive functioning.

Ethical factors should be considered when implementing the research on cognitive training in patients with SCD, MCI, and dementia. Beneficence and nonmaleficence should be upheld by ensuring that the Cognitive training activities used are associated with the best outcomes for the specific population and have no associated side effects (Bahar-Fuchs et al., 2019). In addition, patients’ right to autonomy should be respected by obtaining consent to participate in the research and explaining the potential benefits and consequences to the participants.

Addressing the problem of cognitive impairment in patients with SCD, MCI, and dementia may contribute to positive nursing practice change by improving patients’ cognitive function. It can also delay the process of cognitive decline and thus enable patients to carry out complex tasks and improve their ability to carry out activities of daily living independently. Orgeta et al. (2020) found that cognitive training effectively maintains or improves cognition and quality of life in persons with dementia and mild cognitive impairment. Sung et al. (2023) found that cognitive training improves some attention functions, reduces the risk of abnormal events in daily life, improves quality of life, and helps alleviate the progression of cognitive impairment.


Bahar-Fuchs, A., Martyr, A., Goh, A. M., Sabates, J., & Clare, L. (2019). Cognitive training for people with mild to moderate dementia. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews3(3), CD013069.

McCollum, L., & Karlawish, J. (2020). Cognitive Impairment Evaluation and Management. The Medical Clinics of North America104(5), 807–825.

Orgeta, V., McDonald, K. R., Poliakoff, E., Hindle, J. V., Clare, L., & Leroi, I. (2020). Cognitive training interventions for dementia and mild cognitive impairment in Parkinson’s disease. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 2(2), CD011961.

Sung, C. M., Jen, H. J., Liu, D., Kustanti, C. Y., Chu, H., Chen, R., Lin, H. C., Chang, C. Y., & Chou, K. R. (2023). The effect of cognitive training on domains of attention in older adults with mild cognitive impairment and mild dementia: A meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. Journal of Global Health13, 04078.