NURS 8114 Written Philosophy of Nursing Practice Essay

Sample Answer for NURS 8114 Written Philosophy of Nursing Practice Essay Included After Question


Develop your written philosophy of nursing practice in a paper of 3–5 pages, plus cover page and references page, to include the following:

  • Apply recommended elements of a philosophy statement.
  • Explain how your philosophy can accommodate your expanded awareness of practice issues as a DNP.
  • Explain how your philosophy reflects or supports advocacy of social change as a DNP.
  • Identify at least two middle range nursing theories and explain how they support your philosophy of nursing practice. Be specific and provide examples.
  • Explain how one or more interdisciplinary theories inform your philosophy of nursing practice. Be specific and provide examples.

A Sample Answer For the Assignment: NURS 8114 Written Philosophy of Nursing Practice Essay

Title: NURS 8114 Written Philosophy of Nursing Practice Essay

Nurses’ motivations for joining the profession differ profoundly. Some nurses join the profession since it is financially rewarding, while others join to ensure patients receive care when needed. Besides, nurses have different beliefs, values, and exposure levels. These elements are the foundation of their philosophies that affect how nurses perceive and provide care. DNP-prepared nurses advance their knowledge and skills to provide excellent, patient-centered, and adequate care. The advanced knowledge and skills enable them to be effective leaders and policymakers. The purpose of this paper is to describe my philosophy of nursing practice and the theories supporting it.

Applying Recommended Elements of a Philosophy Statement

Nurses differ in their understanding of what nursing should do and how it should be done. Philosophy statements are worldviews that outline an individual’s values, ethics, beliefs, and motivations to be a nursing professional (Butts & Rich, 2021). I believe that nursing is a profession rooted in compassion, trust, humility, and accountability. Compassionate care entails patient-provider interactions characterized by empathy, caring, and promoting the patient’s dignity. Nurses who embrace compassion recognize, understand, and emotionally resonate with patients’ concerns and distress. Besides promoting patient-centeredness, compassionate nurses are sensitive to patient’s needs and concerns of their family members.

Trustworthiness should dominate the nursing practice since it is a foundation of integrity. Patients depend on nurses in critical times and trust health care professionals for health and wellness irrespective of their race, gender, culture, and other factors. Trustworthiness promotes openness and enables nurses to provide holistic, patient-centered care. I also believe nurses should be responsible for their actions, including mistakes, judgmental errors, and communication failure. To excel as professionals and provide high-quality care, nurses should continue learning and educating themselves on patient care essentials and issues influencing health in the populations. The implication is that nurses should improve their competence as nursing continues shifting towards evidence-based and innovative practice.

Accommodating Expanded Awareness of Practice Issues as a DNP

A DNP degree ensures that a nurse has acquired the highest knowledge as a practitioner. According to Gaines (2019), DNP graduates lead in advanced nursing practice and bring evidence-based knowledge to clinical settings to improve health outcomes. The clinical and scientific knowledge acquired through a DNP degree empowers nurses to respond to changes in health care delivery and emerging patient needs. As outlined in my nursing philosophy, all patients deserve compassionate care, and nurses should be sensitive to patient needs. To provide such care, nurses should advance their education to understand practice issues and patient needs in more detail. The expanded knowledge enables DNP-prepared nurses to integrate evidence in decision-making when handling complex issues in the rapidly changing healthcare environment.

NURS 8114 Written Philosophy of Nursing Practice Essay
NURS 8114 Written Philosophy of Nursing Practice Essay

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Compassionate care characterized by humility, accountability, and trustworthiness requires a multidisciplinary approach. The DNP degree will enable me to effectively collaborate with multidisciplinary team members to provide team-based care and foster innovation and evidence-based skills. As Neal-Boylan (2020) noted, DNP-prepared nurses focus on innovative and evidence-based practice, reflecting the continuous application of credible research findings. A practice that embraces a multidisciplinary approach is open to innovation, and DNP-prepared nurses influence transformation by supporting practices through data from current scholarly research.

Supporting Advocacy of Social Change as a DNP

Nurses need advanced knowledge and skills to advocate for positive social change. As the practice shifts toward evidence-based and innovative practice, DNP-prepared nurses must embrace the change and accommodate innovations that enable them to provide competent care. Through a DNP degree, nurses advance their expertise and acquire valuable skills in leadership, health policy, and quality improvement practices (Neal-Boylan, 2020). The positive social change recognizes the importance of policies in health evolution and continuous quality improvement to address current and emerging patient needs.

DNP-prepared nurses also use their expertise to initiate and lead change in healthcare settings and communities to ensure patients, communities, and vulnerable populations are free from illnesses. Similarly, the DNP degree will allow me to initiate new healthcare models, lead change where appropriate, and advocate for patients and my community. I will further participate in networking events, mentorship programs, and partnerships, among other practices for promoting social change to ensure individuals and communities live healthily.

Middle-Range Nursing Theories Supporting My Philosophy of Nursing Practice

Nursing theories provide knowledge-based ideas that define nursing and how it should be done. One of the middle-range theories supporting my nursing practice philosophy is Katharine Kolcaba’s theory of comfort. Katharine depicted healing as a process characterized by relief, ease, and transcendence (Oliveira et al., 2020). The implication is that nurses must understand patient needs and resonate with them to provide relief (make patients comfortable).

Ease implies promoting calmness, while transcendence means formulating and implementing interventions to help patients overcome what causes pain (Vo, 2020). In nursing practice, the most appropriate interventions are evidence-based and patient-centered. My philosophy underscores the importance of innovative and evidence-based practices to ensure patients and communities receive the best care possible.

The other middle-range nursing theory that supports my philosophy of practice is Merie Mishel’s theory of uncertainty in illness. Its fundamental principle is that patients should be certain about the outcomes of an illness and their ability to overcome it to reduce worry and anxiety. As a result, patients will always be uncertain if they cannot accurately predict the outcomes of an illness. Typically, patients are uncertain about how they will cope with symptoms, diagnosis, and the complexity of the treatment (Fernandez-Araque et al., 2020). As a result, nurses should give patients patient-centered support and illness management strategies to enable them to cope and reduce uncertainty.

Interdisciplinary Theory Informing my Philosophy

Interdisciplinary theories can be applied in nursing and other professional areas. A suitable interdisciplinary theory informing my philosophy is transformational leadership theory. Its central tenet is that leaders should inspire their followers to achieve shared outcomes (Collins et al., 2021). DNP-prepared nurses are natural leaders and should use their skills and knowledge to influence innovation and change positively. They should inspire other health practitioners to initiate practice interventions that optimize health outcomes to ensure patients and communities are free from diseases. Transformational leaders also understand the importance of innovative initiatives such as remote care and data-driven care to enhance patient satisfaction.


Nurses have different beliefs, values, and skills that shape their care philosophies. I believe nursing care should be founded on compassion, trustworthiness, and accountability. Nurses should also advance their knowledge and skills to promote innovation and be in a better position to address current and emerging needs. Katharine Kolcaba’s theory of comfort and Merie Mishel’s theory of uncertainty in illness are examples of middle-range theories supporting my nursing philosophy. The transformational leadership theory supports innovation in practice and fits as an interdisciplinary theory that informs my nursing philosophy.


Butts, J. B., & Rich, K. L. (2021). Philosophies and theories for advanced nursing practice. Jones & Bartlett Learning.

Collins, E., Owen, P., Digan, J., & Dunn, F. (2019). Applying transformational leadership in nursing practice. Nursing Standard35(5), 59-65. doi: 10.7748/ns.2019.e11408

Fernandez-Araque, A., Gomez-Castro, J., Giaquinta-Aranda, A., Verde, Z., & Torres-Ortega, C. (2020). Mishel’s Model of uncertainty describing categories and subcategories in fibromyalgia patients, a scoping review. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health17(11), 3756. doi:10.3390/ijerph17113756

Gaines, K. (2019). DNP vs Ph.D in nursing- what is the difference?

Neal-Boylan, L. (2020). PhD or DNP? That is the question. The Journal for Nurse Practitioners16(2), A5-A6.

Oliveira, S. M. D., Costa, K. N. D. F. M., Santos, K. F. O. D., Oliveira, J. D. S., Pereira, M. A., & Fernandes, M. D. G. M. (2020). Comfort needs as perceived by hospitalized elders: An analysis under the light of Kolcaba’s theory. Revista Brasileira de Enfermagem73.

Vo, T. (2020). A practical guide for frontline workers during COVID-19: Kolcaba’s Comfort Theory. Journal of Patient Experience7(5), 635–639.

A Sample Answer 2 For the Assignment: NURS 8114 Written Philosophy of Nursing Practice Essay

Title: NURS 8114 Written Philosophy of Nursing Practice Essay

A philosophy of nursing practice is a nursing approach developed by a nurse to guide their daily practice. The nurse uses the nursing philosophy to define what they believe is nursing, the nursing role in health care, and how the nurse interacts with patients. Besides, a nursing philosophy addresses the nurse’s ethics in relation to nursing practice (Cheraghi et al., 2019). Philosophies of nursing and nursing theories are interrelated since they directly affect each other. The purpose of this paper is to describe my philosophy of nursing practice and explore how middle-range nursing theories support the philosophy.

Philosophy of Nursing Practice

My philosophy of nursing practice is founded on delivering high-quality, compassionate, holistic, patient-centered care guided by the best practice. In my nursing practice, I have endeavored to apply a holistic approach in providing nursing care since I believe that nursing is not only about caring for the physical needs but also the emotional, spiritual, and social needs of patients. In addition, my philosophy is anchored in respecting patients, including their treatment preferences, cultural beliefs, and ethnic background. I believe every patient is unique with unique health needs, and I aspire to offer the best care without bias.

I consider nursing a privilege, and as a nurse, I should strive to provide care with integrity and incorporate evidence-based practice to promote the best possible outcomes for patients and their families. I endeavor to fulfill three major roles of a nurse: to educate, advocate for patients, and promote good health practices in patients, which are key to promoting better health outcomes. 

How the Philosophy Can Accommodate My Expanded Awareness of Practice Issues as A DNP

In my DNP training, I have learned about various nursing practice issues that DNP-prepared nurses should address to improve healthcare delivery and patient experience. The issues include increased healthcare technology adoption, nursing shortage, complex patient conditions, and ever-changing healthcare needs. These issues need to be addressed using evidence-based practice (EBP) identified through research (Edwards et al., 2018). The nursing philosophy can accommodate my increased awareness of nursing practice issues by embracing research and EBP.

Besides, the issues should prompt me to change my practice approach and constantly work on improving my clinical knowledge and skills to align myself with the constantly evolving healthcare and patients’ needs (Edwards et al., 2018). Furthermore, the nursing practice philosophy can accommodate my increased awareness by embracing innovation through research, which is vital in developing strategies to address the identified healthcare issues.

How the Philosophy Reflects or Supports Advocacy of Social Change as A DNP

The philosophy of nursing supports my advocacy for social change as a DNP by stressing empowering individuals through health promotion to enable them to change their environment to a safe and healthy one. The philosophy states that the nurse has a role in attaining the community’s health goals to promote change, and thus I should introduce change into people’s lives (Edwards et al., 2018). It drives me to take the initiative to understand the nature of change, how individuals respond to it, and how to bring change to improve community health. As a DNP, I empower clients to use their position, capitalize on individual characteristics, develop expertise, and take advantage of opportunities to bring positive change into their lives.

Middle Range Nursing Theories

The middle-range nursing theories that support my nursing practice philosophy are the Behavioral System Model by Dorothy Johnson and Katarine Kolcaba’s Theory of Comfort. Johnson stressed the importance of research-based knowledge on the effect of nursing care on clients. She asserts that nursing is a science and an art and has a body of knowledge reflecting both science and art. The Behavioral System Model assumes that organization, interaction, interdepending, and integration of the parts and elements of behavior that make up the system (Peterson & Bredow, 2019). The interrelated parts contribute to the development of the whole. In addition, man endeavors constantly to maintain a behavioral system balance and steady states by automatic adjustments and adaptations to the natural forces impinging upon him.

The Behavioral System Model supports my philosophy of nursing practice by directing that nursing interventions should be directed toward promoting regularity in the patient’s behavior to maintain or achieve balance in each subsystem. Thus, as a DNP, I will establish that the nursing process has been completed when I have measured the expected behavioral outcomes and revised the plan of care as needed further to promote stability of the patient’s behavioral system, adjustment to the situation, and adaptation to stress (Peterson & Bredow, 2019). The model further supports the philosophy in nursing practice, education, and research.

Kolcaba’s Theory of Comfort asserts that comfort occurs in three forms: relief, ease, and transcendence. If a patient’s particular comfort needs are met, they experience comfort in the feeling of relief. Ease tackles comfort in a state of contentment, while transcendence is a state of comfort in which individuals can overcome their challenges (Oliveira et al., 2020). The theory states that patient comfort can occur in four contexts: physical, environmental, psychospiritual, and socio-cultural. Furthermore, the theory describes patients as people, families, communities, or institutions needing health care.

The environment is defined as any facet of the patient that the nurse can control to improve comfort. Lastly, health is perceived to function optimally in the patient, as defined by the patient, family, or community (Oliveira et al., 2020). The Theory of Comfort supports my philosophy of nursing practice by demonstrating that nurses should prioritize patients’ comforts. Thus, interventions should increase comfort by alleviating pain, degree of symptoms, and suffering. It supports the philosophy’s view of applying a holistic approach and caring for patient’s physical, emotional, spiritual, and social needs.

How Interdisciplinary Theories Inform the Philosophy of Nursing Practice

DNP nurses in the current health care systems require a strong scientific knowledge base from nursing and other disciplines, including physical, social, and behavioral sciences. The Complex Adaptive Systems (CAS) theory is an interdisciplinary theory that informs my philosophy. It guides my philosophy since it provides a framework nurses can use to communicate patient care needs and clinical processes to healthcare team members (Pype et al., 2018).

The theory guides me to engage in discussions and develop ideas with other health care professionals. Furthermore, the theory supports the philosophy with its idea of holistic care being a vital concept in nursing science. It asserts that holistic care focuses on the person, the health of the person, and the environment, which are concepts at the core of nursing science.


My philosophy of nursing practice focuses on delivering high-quality, compassionate, holistic, patient-centered care guided by the best practice. The Behavioral systems theory asserts that man endeavors constantly to maintain a behavioral system balance and steady states through automatic adjustments and adaptations. Kolcaba’s Theory emphasizes that nurses should provide patients comfort through relief, ease, and transcendence. CAS guides my philosophy by emphasizing the interaction of team members with each other.


Edwards, N. E., Coddington, J., Erler, C., & Kirkpatrick, J. (2018). The Impact of the Role of Doctor of Nursing Practice Nurses on Healthcare and Leadership. Medical Research Archives6(4).

Cheraghi, F., Yousefzadeh, M. R., & Goodarzi, A. (2019). The Role and Status of Philosophy in Nursing Knowledge, Insight and Competence. Journal of Clinical Research in Paramedical Sciences8(2).

Oliveira, S. M. D., Costa, K. N. D. F. M., Santos, K. F. O. D., Oliveira, J. D. S., Pereira, M. A., & Fernandes, M. D. G. M. (2020). Comfort needs as perceived by hospitalized elders: an analysis under the light of Kolcaba’s theory. Revista Brasileira de Enfermagem73.

Peterson, S., & Bredow, T. S. (2019). Middle range theories: Application to nursing research and practice. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Pype, P., Mertens, F., Helewaut, F., & Krystallidou, D. (2018). Healthcare teams as complex adaptive systems: understanding team behavior through team members’ perception of interpersonal interaction. BMC Health Services Research18(1), 1-13.

A Sample Answer 3 For the Assignment: NURS 8114 Written Philosophy of Nursing Practice Essay

Title: NURS 8114 Written Philosophy of Nursing Practice Essay

Philosophy of Nursing Practice

A nurse’s approach to patient care and their position within the healthcare system are determined by their philosophy of nursing practice, which is a set of beliefs, values, and guiding principles. It includes the nurse’s perspective on nursing, the significance of patient-centered care, the necessity of evidence-based practice, and the dedication to ongoing professional growth (Faubion, 2023).

The job of a Doctor of Nursing Practice (DNP) extends beyond providing direct patient care and includes advocacy, leadership, research, and policy formulation. A DNP can influence healthcare systems, policies, and practices to effect constructive social change as a social change agent. Participating actively in the creation and execution of healthcare policy is one method a DNP can use to promote constructive social change.

For instance, a DNP might collaborate with regional or national healthcare organizations to identify healthcare access or quality gaps and suggest evidence-based remedies. They can also participate in community-based advocacy campaigns to advance health equity, address social determinants of health, and enhance the quality of care for underrepresented groups.

A DNP can advocate for social change in a variety of ways, according to their area of expertise, interests, and the setting in which they work. This is crucial to keep in mind. To have the most influence as change agents, DNPs must stay current on healthcare regulations, participate in professional networks, and connect with groups and individuals who share their values.

I have experience working in public health and community settings, majoring in health promotion and disease prevention, where I mainly specialized in community health nursing. Working in community health nursing has granted me exceptional expertise in health promotion, disease prevention, community assessment, and advocacy for population health (Holt, 2023). My philosophy of nursing practice is rooted in the holistic care of individuals that recognizes their unique needs. I believe in a therapeutic nurse-patient relationship built on trust and effective communication.

Such a relationship forms a foundation for patient-centered care where patients participate in decision-making, and their preferences and values are respected. Moreover, I am expanding my experience and practice as a DNP at Walden University to expand my knowledge in embracing diversity in healthcare. I believe in offering culturally based care to meet people’s unique needs (Walden University, 2021). Embracing cultural diversity help to cater to individual patient needs, increase outcome satisfaction, and reduce healthcare inequalities (Handtke, Schilgen & Mösko, 2019). Additionally, I want to expand my knowledge of global health issues as healthcare is interconnected on a global scale. Gaining an understanding of global health will help me promote health equity, prevent diseases and promote access to quality healthcare for underserved populations internationally.

The objectives for gaining more knowledge and experience as a DNP can differ from person to person. However, some specific goals include:

Embracing diversity: This means acknowledging and respecting the distinct needs, values, and beliefs of various patient populations while working to deliver care that is inclusive and culturally competent.

Global health issues: Recognizing how interrelated the world’s health is and actively looking for ways to address these problems, whether through study, activism, or hands-on care.

Collaboration: Encouraging cross-disciplinary cooperation and teamwork to enhance the standard of treatment and improve patient outcomes. collaborating with community organizations, lawmakers, and other healthcare professionals to advance health and wellbeing.

Therefore, The DNP role will offer me a unique opportunity to serve as a social change agent in the healthcare system. I will commit to advocating for positive social change by actively engaging in policy advocacy. I will use my voice to influence policy decisions by remaining informed on healthcare policies and their effect on patients and the community (Chism, 2021). For instance, I will attend policy forums and collaborate with policymakers to influence the passing of healthcare policies. Additionally, I will engage in community outreach programs, educating and empowering people to take an active role in their health decisions. Using my DNP knowledge, I will drive positive social change in nursing practice, healthcare policies, and the well-being of people and communities.


Chism, L. A. (2021). The Doctor of nursing practice: A Guidebook for role development and professional issues. Jones & Bartlett Learning

Faubion, D. (2023). 50 Nursing Philosophy Examples + How To Write Your Own. Nursing process.

Handtke, O., Schilgen, B., & Mösko, M. (2019). Culturally competent healthcare–A scoping review of strategies implemented in healthcare organizations and a model of culturally competent healthcare providers. PloS one14(7), e0219971

Holt, J. (2023). Whether nursing philosophy: Past, present and future. Nursing Philosophy, e12442

Walden University. (2021). Doctor of nursing practice

I have been a nurse for about fifteen years and have worked in the medical-surgical unit for almost eleven years. I became a charge nurse three years ago. My nursing philosophy is to provide holistic and unique patient-centered care to each patient based on their circumstances by using evidence-based practices, collaborating with interdisciplinary staff, and continuing education. Evidence-based practice uses the most recent data from research and knowledge gained from life experiences to make the best clinical decisions (Stewart, Chambless, & Stirman, 2018). Likewise, philosophy looks into how to obtain knowledge and facts and how they can be significant (McEwen & Wills, 2019). I was a patient each time I went into the hospital to give birth to my children, and I did not have a great experience with some of the nurses who cared for me. Due to my personal beliefs, experiences, and role as a leader to colleagues and patients, I treat each patient and coworker with respect and dignity, and I also treat them how I would want others to treat me if I were in their shoes. I go into my patients’ rooms with a positive attitude, talk to them, and listen to their concerns, and this aids me in knowing the areas that I might be able to help them with through our hospital resources. I do my best to be culturally sensitive and use interpreters to communicate with patients who do not speak English and so much more.

I have gained a lot of experience through the many years that I have worked in nursing, and my experience has given me helpful data that has been useful to me and has also aided me in providing exceptional care to my patients. I have my master’s degree, and the next step up is a doctorate (DNP) because I want to gain more knowledge and be the best I can become. I am also pursuing my DNP because I love to learn so that I can also teach others. Attaining my DNP, one of the highest degrees in the nursing field, will aid me in getting a top leadership role at any healthcare organization, which is my ultimate goal. Individuals in leadership are the ones who help to put policies in place, and I will be able to put policies in place that will positively impact nursing practice at my place of employment as a Walden DNP graduate by being a social change agent. DNP-prepared nurses lead in putting policies in place locally and globally due to them holding leadership positions (Fain, Asselin, & McCurry, 2008). As a social change agent, I plan to ensure that my organization has an excellent education department that regularly goes into each hospital unit to provide education and always be available to provide guidance, answer questions, and provide solutions to any nurse’s clinical issue. I want the nursing department to feel safe and secure and know that the educational department can help them when needed.

My nursing philosophy is to practice professionalism and integrity as well as show compassion when providing patient-centered healthcare to the clients I encounter in the nursing practice. I believe nursing is a calling to serve humanity in the highest order possible and solve personal health issues that patients present to you without discrimination on race, ethnicity, skin color, socioeconomic status, political orientation, or any other determinants of life.

Experience and Expertise

The biggest experience one can get in nursing is to learn how to apply ethical principles in the day-to-day operations of a nurse. Understanding the scope of nursing in terms of using every direction, like not harming the patients and offering open communication to the patients and families, is an attribute that has helped define the advances in the career of nursing practice. Addressing the concerns of patients in varied areas, of course, like the bedside roles, has framed the procedure and offered an avenue to grow as a nurse from one level to the other (Mandal et al., 2019, p. 12). Providing professional competence, human dignity, precision, honesty, privacy, and commitment in attaining accuracy in nursing practice are expertise that one can gain in the course of practicing as a nurse at varied levels.

How My Philosophy Supports Areas of Social Change

The nursing philosophy is on nursing standards as well as the ethical principles that revolve around advocating for social change in varied areas of interest in nursing (McEwen & Wills, 2018, p. 15). The experience and expertise gained as a DNP is what gives the building blocks for establishing the change that is required in the healthcare organization setting. Defining the areas that need change will help build the philosophy to help expand regions of influence and professional improvement (Mayumi & Ota, 2022, p. 24). The concern that comes into the context is knowing the main approach through which the ultimate goals of managing my expertise and expanding my scope of practice will be founded through the use of ethical principles and standards of nursing.

DNP Role as Agents in Advocating Social Change

Being a transformational leader in the nursing practice is the most powerful way that one can achieve the positive impacts of social change. The ultimate goal is to make sure there is a level of stability that would be evident in the areas of practice in any area of influence for the role of NP to be defined. The use of the DNP role for positive social change is expected to bring a much-needed level of power by emphasizing adhering to nursing standards and following them to the fullest (Mayumi & Ota, 2022, p. 24). The most effective way to bring positive social change is to look for areas that need adjustments at the community level and engage with the needy in those platforms to get the solutions they are seeking in their daily life.

One Way I Will Advocate for Positive Social Change as Walden DNP

As a Walden DNP, I will work with people in need to bring the required social change. The main idea is to ensure there is a level of consistency through which change will be evident and reduce the socioeconomic gaps that end up impacting the quality of healthcare services that are delivered to people in need in society. Integrating ethical principles as well as nursing standards will help create the required environment for improving and expanding as a DNP through the use of the set nursing practice philosophy (McEwen & Wills, 2018, p. 8). Offering material help as a DNP is another avenue that will bring positive social change and help influence millions of lives in impoverished communities in the world at large.


Completing a DNP course is a powerful move that will be useful in gaining the necessary skills to use in creating relevance to nursing practice. Serving people is an elementary aspect of creating unique social change. The backbone of social change is adhering to nursing standards as well as ethical principles. In that way, it will be possible to define the course of evolution through which better strategies will be implemented to help patients.


Mandal, L., Seethalakshmi, A., & Rajendrababu, A. (2019). Rationing of nursing care, a deviation from holistic nursing: A systematic review. Nursing Philosophy21(1). to an external site.

Mayumi, N., & Ota, K. (2022). Implications of philosophical pragmatism for nursing: Comparison of different pragmatists. Nursing Philosophy24(1). to an external site.

McEwen, M., & Wills, E. M. (2018). Theoretical basis for nursing. LWW.