NURS 6630 Assessing and Treating Patients With Impulsivity, Compulsivity, and Addiction 

Sample Answer for NURS 6630 Assessing and Treating Patients With Impulsivity, Compulsivity, and Addiction  Included After Question

THE ASSIGNMENT: 5 PAGES

Examine Case Study: A Puerto Rican Woman With Comorbid Addiction. You will be asked to make three decisions concerning the medication to prescribe to this client. Be sure to consider factors that might impact the client’s pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic processes.

At each decision point, you should evaluate all options before selecting your decision and moving throughout the exercise. Before you make your decision, make sure that you have researched each option and that you evaluate the decision that you will select. Be sure to research each option using the primary literature.

Introduction to the case (1 page)

  • Briefly explain and summarize the case for this Assignment. Be sure to include the specific patient factors that may impact your decision making when prescribing medication for this patient.

Decision #1 (1 page)

  • Which decision did you select?
  • Why did you select this decision? Be specific and support your response with clinically relevant and patient-specific resources, including the primary literature.
  • Why did you not select the other two options provided in the exercise? Be specific and support your response with clinically relevant and patient-specific resources, including the primary literature.
  • What were you hoping to achieve by making this decision? Support your response with evidence and references to the Learning Resources (including the primary literature).
  • Explain how ethical considerations may impact your treatment plan and communication with patients. Be specific and provide examples.

Decision #2 (1 page)

  • Why did you select this decision? Be specific and support your response with clinically relevant and patient-specific resources, including the primary literature.
  • Why did you not select the other two options provided in the exercise? Be specific and support your response with clinically relevant and patient-specific resources, including the primary literature.
  • What were you hoping to achieve by making this decision? Support your response with evidence and references to the Learning Resources (including the primary literature).
  • Explain how ethical considerations may impact your treatment plan and communication with patients. Be specific and provide examples.

Decision #3 (1 page)

  • Why did you select this decision? Be specific and support your response with clinically relevant and patient-specific resources, including the primary literature.
  • Why did you not select the other two options provided in the exercise? Be specific and support your response with clinically relevant and patient-specific resources, including the primary literature.
  • What were you hoping to achieve by making this decision? Support your response with evidence and references to the Learning Resources (including the primary literature).
  • Explain how ethical considerations may impact your treatment plan and communication with patients. Be specific and provide examples.

Conclusion (1 page)

  • Summarize your recommendations on the treatment options you selected for this patient. Be sure to justify your recommendations and support your response with clinically relevant and patient-specific resources, including the primary literature.

Note: Support your rationale with a minimum of five academic resources. While you may use the course text to support your rationale, it will not count toward the resource requirement. You should be utilizing the primary and secondary literature.

A Sample Answer For the Assignment: NURS 6630 Assessing and Treating Patients With Impulsivity, Compulsivity, and Addiction 

Title: NURS 6630 Assessing and Treating Patients With Impulsivity, Compulsivity, and Addiction 

Reminder : The College of Nursing requires that all papers submitted include a title page, introduction, summary, and references. The Sample Paper provided at the Walden Writing Center provides an example of those required elements (available at https://academicguides.waldenu.edu/writingcenter/templates/general#s-lg-box-20293632). All papers submitted must use this formattingLinks to an external site..

Impulsivity disorders are characterized by the inability to resist the sudden, powerful desire to do something and difficulties controlling emotions or behaviors. On the other hand, addiction is a complex mental condition characterized by compulsive substance use regardless of detrimental consequences. The purpose of this paper is to describe a patient with an addiction disorder and the treatment interventions.

Introduction to the Case

The case scenario depicts Mrs. Perez, a 53-year-old Puerto Rican woman with alcohol drinking problems since her late teenage years. Perez has been a part of Alcoholics Anonymous from time to time for the last 25 years. The patient also reports that she has been finding it more difficult to remain sober in the past two years since a casino was opened in her neighborhood. Perez mentions that she gets high when gambling since she takes some drinks when playing high-stake gambling games. However, this leads to increased alcohol consumption and irresponsible gambling. In addition, the client states she has increasingly been smoking in the past two years and is worried about the adverse health impacts.

Mrs. Perez reports that she has tried refraining from alcohol consumption, but gambling makes her high, making her take a few drinks to even up. She has also realized that when she consumes alcohol, she smokes minimally, but she enjoys smoking when gambling. The patient has experienced weight gain from excessive drinking, and her current weight is 122 lbs, having gained 7 lbs. The patient is worried since she borrowed more than $50,000 from her retirement account to pay gambling debts.

Noteworthy MSE findings include avoiding eye contact, sad mood, and impaired impulse control. Mrs. Perez is diagnosed with Gambling disorder and alcohol use disorder. The patient factors that may affect decision-making with regard to treatment include age, overall health status, comorbid mental health illnesses, the patient’s previous experience with medication, the patient’s beliefs and opinions on useful therapies, history of treatment compliance, and the patient’s motivation for abstinence.

Decision #1

Vivitrol (naltrexone) injection, 380 mg IM in the gluteal region four-weekly.

Reason for this Decision

Naltrexone was the ideal treatment because it is an FDA-indicated drug for treating alcohol use disorder (AUD). Joshi et al. (2021) explain that naltrexone alleviates alcohol cravings, decreases alcohol consumption, and the monthly injectable formulation helps in compliance. Kranzler and Soyka (2018) explain that naltrexone decreases mesolimbic opioidergic activity, thus controlling the dopamine-mediated rewarding effects of alcohol, resulting in decreased alcohol consumption.

Why Other Decisions Were Not Selected

Disulfiram was not ideal because the physical reaction of alcohol and disulfiram causes dizziness, tachycardia, nausea, flushing, chest pain, and BP changes, which can harm patients, making it less recommended (Joshi et al., 2021). Acamprosate was not selected because it is approved by the FDA to promote abstinence in patients who are abstinent when starting treatment (Kranzler & Soyka, 2018). Mrs. Perez was not abstinent and thus not a suitable candidate for acamprosate therapy.

What I Was Hoping To Achieve By Making This Decision

The PMHNP hoped that naltrexone would reduce the patient’s alcohol cravings and excessive consumption (Witkiewitz et al., 2019). Kranzler and Soyka (2018) found that naltrexone effectively reduces the risk of relapse into alcohol and relapse to binge drinking.

Ethical Considerations, Impact on Treatment Plan and Communication

Nonmaleficence impacted the treatment plan since the PMHNP had to select the intervention with the best outcomes and the least side effects. Consequently, naltrexone was chosen for its strong safety profile, and disulfiram was rejected. Respect for autonomy impacted communication with the clinician seeking patient consent to initiate treatment.

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Decision #2

Refer the patient to a counselor to address gambling issues.

Reason for this Decision

The patient was referred to a counselor because she had persistent gambling issues that got her into financial problems. Menchon et al. (2018) explain that psychological therapies are the most effective approach for gambling disorders and are connected with marked improvements in the short and the long term. Counseling focuses on the patient, enabling them to search and solve uncertainties, and improving their willingness to change behavior (Ribeiro et al., 2021).

NURS 6630 Assessing and Treating Patients With Impulsivity, Compulsivity, and Addiction 
NURS 6630 Assessing and Treating Patients With Impulsivity, Compulsivity, and Addiction 

Why Other Decisions Were Not Selected

Adding diazepam to treat anxiety was not ideal because the patient’s anxiety is a likely side effect of naltrexone therapy and thus does not justify medication (Joshi et al., 2021). Chantix was also not added to promote smoking cessation because the smoking problem was linked to gambling, and thus it is important first to solve the gambling issue. Menchon et al. (2018) explain that cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) facilitates an individual’s understanding of cognitive distortions connected to gambling behavior.

What I Was Hoping To Achieve By Making This Decision

The PMHNP hoped that psychological therapy would help the patient identify cognitive distortions connected with her gambling behavior. Counseling weakens the irrational beliefs, perseveration patterns, and magical thinking associated with the gambling disorder (Menchon et al., 2018). Ribeiro et al. (2021) explain that counseling primarily focuses on the patient’s behavior, cognition, and motivation, thus solving the psychological determinants of gambling.

Ethical Considerations Impact on Treatment Plan and Communication

Beneficence influenced the patient’s treatment since the PMHNP had to refer the patient for counseling to address the gambling issue and promote better health outcomes. Confidentiality impacted communication since the PMHNP had to ensure the patient’s health information was kept confidential and only shared after obtaining the patient’s consent.

Decision #3

Identify the patient’s problems with her counselor, and encourage her to continue attending GA meetings.

Reason for this Decision,

The PMHNP selected this decision because the client reported not liking her counselor, which could affect her adherence to counseling sessions and treatment outcomes. Bolsinger et al. (2020) explain that creating a good therapeutic relationship (TR) in counseling is crucial to improving clinical outcomes, quality of patient care, and patient satisfaction. Kleiven et al. (2020) explain that it is essential for the patient to open up to and connect with personal issues internally, despite this being highly uncomfortable.

Why Other Decisions Were Not Selected

It was not ideal to encourage the patient to continue counseling without addressing the concerns with the counselor because it would have further worsened the therapeutic relationship between Mrs. Perez and the counselor. Kleiven et al. (2020) explain that the TR in psychotherapy is crucial since it facilitates the clients’ ability to approach, acknowledge, and reflect upon challenging issues with sincerity and authenticity. Discontinuing naltrexone was not also ideal because it exhibited efficacy in alleviating alcohol consumption and cravings (Joshi et al., 2021).

What I Was Hoping To Achieve By Making This Decision

The PMHNP hoped that exploring Mrs. Perez’s issues with her counselor would enable her to open up and have an effective relationship with the counselor (Kleiven et al., 2020). Bolsinger et al. (2020) found that a positive TR is connected with better therapy outcomes with regard to clinical improvement, re-hospitalization, and patient satisfaction.

Ethical Considerations Impact on Treatment Plan and Communication

            Beneficence affected the treatment plan since the PMHNP had to help the patient identify her issues with the counselor to create a positive TR, promoting better outcomes. Besides, the respect for autonomy affected communication with the client since the PMHNP had to engage the patient to identify the issues with the counselor and address them.

Conclusion

Mrs. Perez was diagnosed with alcohol use disorder and gambling disorder based on her history of excessive alcohol consumption and gambling, which got her in financial trouble. The patient was prescribed Naltrexone injection, 380 mg four weekly, since it reduces alcohol consumption and alcohol cravings (Joshi et al., 2021). Besides, naltrexone is well-tolerated and is not associated with dependence. Disulfiram was not selected because of its disulfiram-alcohol interaction, which causes BP changes, nausea, chest pain, flushing, dizziness, and tachycardia. Acamprosate was not also ideal because it is indicated for patients who have already achieved abstinence (Kranzler & Soyka, 2018).

 The patient’s gambling disorder persisted, and the PMHNP referred her for counseling. A psychotherapy approach was the most ideal since it is considered the most treatment for gambling disorders and associated with marked improvements in the short and the long term (Menchon et al., 2018). However, she reported having issues with the counselor, although she participated in gambler anonymous groups. Consequently, the PMHNP sought to examine the client’s issues with her counselor and encouraged her to continue attending GA meetings. This was crucial to maintain a positive TR and ensure the client received the maximum from psychotherapy.

References

Bolsinger, J., Jaeger, M., Hoff, P., & Theodoridou, A. (2020). Challenges and Opportunities in Building and Maintaining a Good Therapeutic Relationship in Acute Psychiatric Settings: A Narrative Review. Frontiers in psychiatry10, 965. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2019.00965

Joshi, P., Duong, K. T., Trevisan, L. A., & Wilkins, K. M. (2021). Evaluation and Management of Alcohol Use Disorder among Older Adults. Current geriatrics reports10(3), 82–90. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13670-021-00359-5

Kleiven, G. S., Hjeltnes, A., Råbu, M., & Moltu, C. (2020). Opening Up: Clients’ Inner Struggles in the Initial Phase of Therapy. Frontiers in Psychology11, 591146. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2020.591146

Kranzler, H. R., & Soyka, M. (2018). Diagnosis and Pharmacotherapy of Alcohol Use Disorder: A Review. JAMA320(8), 815–824. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2018.11406

Menchon, J. M., Mestre-Bach, G., Steward, T., Fernández-Aranda, F., & Jiménez-Murcia, S. (2018). An overview of gambling disorder: from treatment approaches to risk factors. F1000Research7, 434. https://doi.org/10.12688/f1000research.12784.1

Ribeiro, E. O., Afonso, N. H., & Morgado, P. (2021). Non-pharmacological treatment of gambling disorder: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials. BMC Psychiatry21(1), 105. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12888-021-03097-2

Witkiewitz, K., Litten, R. Z., & Leggio, L. (2019). Advances in the science and treatment of alcohol use disorder. Science advances5(9), eaax4043. https://doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.aax4043

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A Sample Answer For the Assignment: NURS 6630 Assessing and Treating Patients With Impulsivity, Compulsivity, and Addiction 

Title: NURS 6630 Assessing and Treating Patients With Impulsivity, Compulsivity, and Addiction  

Gambling and alcohol abuse are some of the mental health problems that psychiatric mental health nurse practitioners (PMHNP) face in their practice. PMHNP ensures that patients suffering from gambling and alcohol abuse disorders are assisted to overcome their addition and live a normal life. Therefore, this paper examines a case study of a patient that has been diagnosed with gambling disorder and alcohol use disorder. The patient is Maria Perez, a 53-year-old Puerto Rican female who came to the clinic with a complaint of an embarrassing problem. The client admitted having history of problems with alcohol since her father died during her teenage years. She has been struggling with alcohol since her 20’s and is involved with Alcohol Anonymous in on and off basis.

The client reported to have difficulty in maintaining sobriety since the opening of a casino near her home. Perez has been gambling in the casino with her friend and enjoys drinking alcohol to calm her during high stake games. Her drinking behavior has predisposed her to reckless gambling. The client also has history of smoking cigarette for the last two years and is getting worried about its effects on her health. The client also reported to have gained more than 7 pounds of weight from her usual 115-pound weight. Mental status examination was administered to the client. The assessment showed the client to be oriented and alert, dressed appropriately for the occasion, has clear, goal directed and coherent speech and avoidance eye contact behaviors. The assessment also showed the client not to demonstrate any noteworthy mannerism, ticks or gestures. The mood of the client was sad with absence of hallucinations, delusions, paranoid, or suicidal and homicidal ideations.

Decision Point One

Selected Decision

Administer Vivitrol (naltrexone) injection, 380 mg intramuscularly in the gluteal region every 4 weeks.

Reason for Selection

Vivitrol was selected as the first line of treatment because it works as a competitive antagonist of alcohol receptors, making it suitable for addiction management. The inhibition of alcohol receptors minimizes craving for alcohol, hence, improvement in abuse behaviors (Stahl, 2013). The inhibition of the alcohol receptors also reduces the perceived thirst for alcohol by the patient (Holt & Tobin, 2018). Patients who take alcohol but are in the process of overcoming their addiction problems may also use naltrexone. Naltrexone facilitates the systematic disuse of alcohol by the patients (Leighty & Ansara, 2019).

Why Other Options were not Selected

Antabuse (disulfiram) 250 mg orally daily and Campral (acamprosate) 666 mg orally three times a day were not selected because they are recommended for use in patients that have stopped alcohol intake (Stahl, 2013). The medications were also likely to predispose the patients to side effects such as nausea and tachycardia with the administration of disulfiram (Shirley et al., 2021). Since the patient has not abstained from alcohol abuse, the above options were not selected to ensure safety and quality in the care given.

Expectations

The above decision was made with the expectation of ensuring the reducing in symptoms of alcohol addiction being experienced by the client. The decision also aimed at promoting the systematic desensitization of alcohol desires that the patient was experiencing (Stern et al., 2015). It was anticipated that the administration of naltrexone would result in improved tolerability and abstinence of the patient from alcohol abuse (Wightman et al., 2018).

Impact of Ethical Considerations on Treatment Plan and Communication with the Client

Ethical considerations such as benevolence and non-maleficence informed the treatment plan. The PMHNP aimed at ensuring that the use of naltrexone would result in minimal harm and side effects to the client (Loreck David et al., 2016). The ethical aspect of informed consent would also influence the care given to the patient (Ellis, 2017). For example, the PMHNP was expected to seek informed consent prior to implementing the care plan to minimize ethical and legal issues related to the care given to the patient. Seeking informed consent ensures the protection of the rights of the patient to informed care. It also promotes patient autonomy, as he has the decision to accept or decline the available treatment interventions (Stern et al., 2015).

Decision Point Two

Selected Decision

Refer the client to counselor to address gambling issues.

Reason for Selection

The administration of naltrexone was effective in causing moderate improvement in the management of alcohol addiction and abuse by the client. The client however reported to engaging in severe gambling when she visits the casino. An effective intervention at this stage would therefore be referring the patient to the counselor for assistance in managing gambling issues. The FDA has not approved any drug for use in management of gambling issues (Grant et al., 2014). As a result, non-pharmacological interventions such as counseling are recommended. Counseling will enable the client to learn about the effective ways of overcoming gambling behaviors and coping up with her problem (Lee et al., 2021). The use of counseling interventions such as group therapy and cognitive behavioral therapy will equip the client with knowledge and skills needed in the management of anxiety.

Why Other Options were not Selected

The decisions to add valium (diazepam) 5 mg orally TID/PRN/anxiety and add Chantix (varenicline) 1 mg orally BID were not selected in the case study. The administration of valium was likely to increase the rise of side effects such as sedation, memory problems, tiredness, and drowsiness that were likely to affect the adherence to treatment (Sychla, Gründer, & Lammertz, 2017). The decision to add Chantix was also not selected because the administration of naltrexone had led to moderate improvement in symptoms of addiction in the client (Echeburúa & Amor, 2021). Augmenting the treatment is therefore not recommended.

Expectations

The above decision was made with the expectation of facilitating the effective management of the gambling problem being experienced by the client. It was also expected that the client would be assisted to identify effective strategies for managing her gambling problem. The decision was also made with the aim of improving the effectiveness of the pharmacological interventions used in addiction management (Pickering et al., 2020).

Impact of Ethical Considerations on Treatment Plan and Communication with the Client

The ethical consideration of promoting privacy and confidentiality of patient data would influence the selection of treatment plans at this phase. PMHNP is expected to seek informed consent from the client prior to sharing her information with other healthcare providers (Ellis, 2017). PMHNP is also expected to promote patient’s right to autonomous care by educating her about the aims of the selected treatment interventions.

Decision Point Three

Selected Decision

Explore the issue that Mrs. Perez is having with her counselor, and encourage her to continue attending the Gamblers Anonymous meetings.  

Reason for Selection

The use of counseling services appears to have been effective for the client. For example, the client returned after 4 weeks reporting that the anxiety she had been experiencing was gone. She also reported that she has started attending Gamblers Anonymous group and has been participating in self-expression to seek the support that she needs. An effective intervention at this step would be to encourage the client to continue seeing her current counselor and continue with the Gamblers Anonymous group (Echeburúa & Amor, 2021). There is the need for the PMHNP to obtain information from the client on the factors that contributed to her dissatisfaction with the care given by her counselor (Kelly & Renner, 2016). The information obtained from her will be used to implement effective interventions that would strengthen the relationship between her and the counselor (Lee et al., 2021). There is also the need to refer the client to the smoking cessation clinic to be assisted on the management of her health problem of smoking cigarette.

Why Other Options were not Selected

   The decision to encourage Mrs. Perez to continue seeing her current counselor and continue with Gamblers Anonymous group was not selected because a strained relationship between her and the counselor could affect client’s participation and increase the risk of relapse (Heinz, Romanczuk-Seiferth, & Potenza, 2019). The decision to discontinue vivitrol and encourage Mrs. Perez to continue seeing her counselor and participating in the Gamblers Anonymous group was not selected because it would result in symptom relapse (Wightman et al., 2018).

Expectations

The above decision was made with the aim of adopting interventions to improve the relationship between the counselor and the client. The decision also aimed at ensuring continued improvement in the adoption of positive behaviors against gambling by the client. It was also expected that the client would adopt sustainable interventions to manage her addiction problems (Holt & Tobin, 2018).

Impact of Ethical Considerations on Treatment Plan and Communication with the Client

The ethical principle of informed consent influenced the selection of the above decision. The patient has a right to participate or not in a treatment program. Obtaining information about the factors affecting the relationship between her and the counselor would therefore improve the interventions used to facilitate recovery process. The other ethical consideration is privacy and confidentiality of data (Ellis, 2017). The PMHNP should ensure that the client’s data is protected from unauthorized access, hence, data integrity.

Conclusion

Gambling and alcohol abuse disorder affects a significant proportion of people globally. Gambling and alcohol abuse disorder affect the social and occupational functioning of a patient. The increased dependence on alcohol and engagement in addictive gambling behaviors hinders one’s ability to contribute optimally to self and community development. The administration of naltrexone to the patient was an effective decision in the case study (Stahl, 2013). Naltrexone proved effective in managing the client’s alcohol addiction and abuse problem, leading to her improved social and occupational functioning. Naltrexone also facilitated the gradual cessation of alcohol abuse by the client (Holt & Tobin, 2018). Counseling was also found effective in managing the gambling problem being experienced by the client.

Accordingly, counseling provided the client with knowledge and skills that are needed in coping up with addiction problems including gambling. The client also participated in social support groups such as Gamblers Anonymous group to learn from others about the effective ways of overcoming gambling. The relationship between the client and the healthcare provider is important for optimal behavioral and lifestyle modification in case management. As a result, it was important to examine the factors that contribute to the poor relationship between the client and her counselor to inform improvement interventions in managing the client (Echeburúa & Amor, 2021). Based on the above analysis, I believe that I made ethical decisions in determining the treatment needs and options for the client in the case study.

References

Echeburúa, E., & Amor, P. J. (2021). Psychological Management of Gambling Disorder With or Without Other Psychiatric Comorbidities. In N. el-Guebaly, G. Carrà, M. Galanter, & A. M. Baldacchino (Eds.), Textbook of Addiction Treatment: International Perspectives (pp. 929–942). Springer International Publishing. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-36391-8_65

Ellis, P. (2017). Understanding Ethics for Nursing Students. Learning Matters.

Grant, J. E., Odlaug, B. L., & Schreiber, L. R. N. (2014). Pharmacological treatments in pathological gambling. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, 77(2), 375–381. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2125.2012.04457.x

Heinz, A., Romanczuk-Seiferth, N., & Potenza, M. N. (2019). Gambling disorder. Cham, Springer.

Holt, S. R., & Tobin, D. G. (2018). Pharmacotherapy for alcohol use disorder. Medical Clinics, 102(4), 653–666. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mcna.2018.02.008

Kelly, J. E., & Renner, J. A. (2016). Alcohol-Related disorders. In T. A. Stern, M. Favo, T. E. Wilens, & J. F. Rosenbaum. (Eds.), Massachusetts General Hospital psychopharmacology and neurotherapeutics (pp. 163–182). Elsevier.

Lee, K., Kim, H., & Kim, Y. (2021). Gambling disorder symptoms, suicidal ideation, and suicide attempts. Psychiatry Investigation, 18(1), 88–93. https://doi.org/10.30773/pi.2020.0035

Leighty, A. E., & Ansara, E. D. (2019). Treatment outcomes of long-acting injectable naltrexone versus oral naltrexone in alcohol use disorder in veterans. Mental Health Clinician, 9(6), 392–396. https://doi.org/10.9740/mhc.2019.11.392

Loreck David, Brandt Nicole J., & DiPaula Bethany. (2016). Managing opioid abuse in older adults: clinical considerations and challenges. Journal of Gerontological Nursing, 42(4), 10–15. https://doi.org/10.3928/00989134-20160314-04

Pickering, D., Spoelma, M. J., Dawczyk, A., Gainsbury, S. M., & Blaszczynski, A. (2020). What does it mean to recover from a gambling disorder? Perspectives of gambling help service users. Addiction Research & Theory, 28(2), 132–143. https://doi.org/10.1080/16066359.2019.1601178

Shirley, D.-A., Sharma, I., Warren, C. A., & Moonah, S. (2021). Drug repurposing of the alcohol abuse medication disulfiram as an anti-parasitic agent. Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology, 11. https://doi.org/10.3389/fcimb.2021.633194

Stahl, S. M. (2013). Stahl’s essential psychopharmacology: neuroscientific basis and practical applications. Cambridge university press.

Stern, T. A., Fava, M., Rosenbaum, J. F., & Wilens, T. E. (2015). Massachusetts General Hospital Psychopharmacology. Elsevier Science Health Science.

Sychla, H., Gründer, G., & Lammertz, S. E. (2017). Comparison of clomethiazole and diazepam in the treatment of alcohol withdrawal syndrome in clinical practice. European addiction research, 23(4), 211-218. https://doi.org/10.1159/000480380

Wightman, R. S., Nelson, L. S., Lee, J. D., Fox, L. M., & Smith, S. W. (2018). Severe opioid withdrawal precipitated by Vivitrol®. The American Journal of Emergency Medicine, 36(6), 1128.e1-1128.e2. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajem.2018.03.052