NURS 6512 Assessing the Genitalia and Rectum 

Sample Answer for NURS 6512 Assessing the Genitalia and Rectum  Included After Question

The Lab Assignment

Using evidence-based resources from your search, answer the following questions and support your answers using current evidence from the literature.

  • Analyze the subjective portion of the note. List additional information that should be included in the documentation.
  • Analyze the objective portion of the note. List additional information that should be included in the documentation.
  • Is the assessment supported by the subjective and objective information? Why or why not?
  • Would diagnostics be appropriate for this case, and how would the results be used to make a diagnosis?
  • Would you reject/accept the current diagnosis? Why or why not? Identify three possible conditions that may be considered as a differential diagnosis for this patient. Explain your reasoning using at least three different references from current evidence-based literature.

A Sample Answer For the Assignment: NURS 6512 Assessing the Genitalia and Rectum 

Title: NURS 6512 Assessing the Genitalia and Rectum 

Assessment of the genitalia and rectum is vital in depicting genitourinary and gastrointestinal abnormalities respectively. A rectal examination is necessary to complete an abdominal exam. Meanwhile, assessment of the genitalia is usually sensitive and must be done in the presence of a chaperone. The purpose of this paper is to explore the potential history, physical exam, and differential diagnosis based on a case scenario of T.S. a 32-year-old woman who presents with dysuria, frequency, and urgency for two days. She is sexually active and has had a new partner for the past three months.

Subjective

A triad of urgency, frequency, and dysuria characterizes a pathology that is most likely in the urinary tract. Consequently, it is essential to inquire about associated symptoms such as hematuria, fever, and malaise. Association with malaise and fever is common in urinary tract infections. Similarly, it is important to inquire about the presence of any abnormal vaginal discharge, and burning sensation during urination since she is sexually active and a sexually transmitted infection might be the cause of her symptoms. Likewise, changes in the smell and color of the urine must be elicited as well as associated suprapubic pain. Related to sexually transmitted infections, it is crucial to inquire about the number of sexual partners if similar symptoms have manifested in her partner or the use of protection during intercourse (Garcia & Wray, 2022).

Similarly, her last menstrual period must be known to determine if pregnant as this will impact the management (Bono et al., 2022). Additionally, a history of medication use, alcohol, smoking, and use of illicit drugs must be elicited. A history of contact with an individual with a chronic cough or TB prior to the occurrence of the previous symptoms must be elicited as urogenital TB may present similarly. Finally, it is crucial to inquire about any history of trauma or recent urethral catheterization as these are common risk factors for urinary tract infections.

Objective

The vital signs are mandatory in this patient as it is a pelvic exam. In the general exam, the mental and nutrition status of the patient must be noted. Additionally, a complete abdominal exam must be conducted as the patient has flank pain and suprapubic tenderness. Palpation of the abdomen for any masses and percussion of the flank for costovertebral angle tenderness must be done (Bono et al., 2022). Similarly, complete respiratory and cardiovascular exams must be conducted as a routine during the assessment of any patient. Finally, a digital rectal examination must be performed to exclude associated rectal abnormalities.

NURS 6512 Assessing the Genitalia and Rectum 
NURS 6512 Assessing the Genitalia and Rectum 

Assessment

In addition to urinalysis, STI, and pap smear testing, a complete blood count and urine culture must be conducted as the patient presents with signs of infection. Similarly, a pregnancy test must be conducted as this may complicate urinary tract infections. Additionally, she has no appetite and therefore a random blood sugar must be done to exclude hypoglycemia. Similarly, urea, creatinine, and electrolyte must be conducted to check the renal function as the patient has flank pain.

Finally, Inflammatory markers such as ESR and CRP as well as blood cultures must be done as the patient has flank pain which may indicate pyelonephritis (Bono et al., 2022). Imaging tests are not necessary for the diagnosis of lower UTI. However, the patient has flank pain, and therefore, a CT scan of the abdomen and pelvis with or without IV contrast as well as an ultrasound of the kidneys and bladder must be done to identify any pathologies and outline the architecture of the kidney and bladder (Belyayeva & Jeong, 2022).

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The possible diagnoses include a urinary tract infection and a sexually-transmitted infection. Urinary tract infections refer to the infection of the bladder, urethra, ureters, or kidneys (Bono et al., 2022). UTIs are more common in women, a consequence of a short urethra and proximity of the anal and genital regions (Bono et al., 2022). A triad of frequency, dysuria, and urgency collectively defines the irritative lower urinary tract symptoms (Bono et al., 2022). Similarly, suprapubic tenderness is a key feature of lower urinary tract infections. However, the patient is also feverish and has flank pain which also denotes the potential for involvement of the upper urinary tract (Bono et al., 2022). T.S is also sexually active, a risk factor for urinary tract infection.

A sexually transmitted infection is another possible diagnosis. T.S is sexually active and she has had her new partner for the last three months which is a key risk factor for this condition (Garcia & Wray, 2022). Most STIs present with suprapubic pain. Most STIs are asymptomatic and if symptomatic manifests with urethral discharge, vaginal discharge, pruritus, and pain (Garcia & Wray, 2022). T.S was negative for the aforementioned features.

Other differential diagnoses include pyelonephritis, interstitial cystitis, and urethritis due to an STI. Pyelonephritis is of the renal pelvis and parenchyma (Belyayeva & Jeong, 2022). It is usually a complication of ascending bacterial infection of the bladder and manifests principally with frequency, dysuria, urgency, fever, malaise, flank pain, and suprapubic pain (Belyayeva & Jeong, 2022). Interstitial cystitis is a chronic noninfectious idiopathic cystitis associated with recurrent suprapubic pain (Daniels et al., 2018).

It presents with urgency, frequency, suprapubic discomfort, and pain relieved by voiding. T.S has some of these features although the gradual onset of symptomatology and a duration of more than six weeks is required for the diagnosis of this condition (Daniels et al., 2018). Finally, urethritis secondary to an STI may present in females with only frequency, urgency, and dysuria with minimal or no vaginal discharge (Young et al., 2022).

Conclusion

Assessment of the genitalia and rectum is sensitive and may help identify abnormalities of the rectum and genitourinary tract. Most abnormalities of the genitourinary system particularly UTIs and STIs can be diagnosed clinically. Consequently, a comprehensive history and physical examination are mandatory. Most UTIs are common in females. Pregnancy must always be excluded in a patient presenting with features suggestive of a UTI.

References

Belyayeva, M., & Jeong, J. M. (2022). Acute Pyelonephritis. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30137822/

Bono, M. J., Leslie, S. W., & Reygaert, W. C. (2022). Urinary Tract Infection. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29261874/

Daniels, A. M., Schulte, A. R., & Herndon, C. M. (2018). Interstitial cystitis: An update on the disease process and treatment. Journal of Pain & Palliative Care Pharmacotherapy32(1), 49–58. https://doi.org/10.1080/15360288.2018.1476433

Garcia, M. R., & Wray, A. A. (2022). Sexually Transmitted Infections. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32809643/

Young, A., Toncar, A., & Wray, A. A. (2022). Urethritis. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30725967/

A Sample Answer For the Assignment: NURS 6512 Assessing the Genitalia and Rectum 

Title: NURS 6512 Assessing the Genitalia and Rectum 

The SOAP note concerns T.S, a 32-year-old female with symptoms of pain when voiding, urinary frequency, and urgency that has lasted two days. She mentions that she had similar symptoms years back. She also reports having flank pain that disrupts her sleep, and she feels warm. Physical exam findings include mild suprapubic tenderness. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the SOAP note, identify additional information needed, and describe likely diagnoses. 

Subjective Portion

The HPI in the subjective portion should include information describing the timing of the dysuria. This includes whether the dysuria occurs at the start or end of voiding to establish the underlying pathology. Dysuria at the start suggests urethral pathology, while at the end of voiding suggests bladder pathology (AlShuhayb et al., 2022). The HPI should also include the persistence and severity of the dysuria. In addition, information on the characteristics of urine should be provided, for instance, the amount of urine and if the urine is malodorous, cloudy, or bloody. Information on the patient’s contraceptive use should be included in the HPI. The subjective portion should also include the client’s immunization history, current medications, reproductive history, including menstrual history, family history, and social history. Furthermore, the review of systems should have included each body system and indicated pertinent positives and negatives.

Objective Portion

The objective portion only contains findings from vital signs and pelvic exam. It should include anthropometric measures, height, weight, and BMI, vital in determining the client’s general nutritional status. In addition, physical findings from general, cardiovascular, and respiratory exams should be included since they are vital body systems. Findings from the examination of the external genitalia should be included to identify if the patient has vulvar ulcers, vesicles, pustules, mucosal inflammation, or vaginal discharge (AlShuhayb et al., 2022).

Assessment Supported

The identified assessment findings are UTI and STI. The subjective findings of dysuria, urinary frequency, urgency, and flank pain support UTI. It is also supported by objective findings of suprapubic tenderness (Czajkowski et al., 2021). STI is supported by the findings of dysuria, flank pain, feeling warm, and suprapubic tenderness.

Diagnostic Tests

Appropriate diagnostic tests include dipstick urinalysis, urine culture, blood culture, and vaginal nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT). Urinalysis is the most helpful diagnostic test in a patient with dysuria. Urine culture is indicated for patients with risk factors for complicated UTI or those who do not respond to initial therapy (Tai et al., 2022). A blood culture will be indicated since the patient reports feeling warm to, rule out systemic infection. In addition, vaginal NAAT will identify the presence of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae.

Rejection or Acceptance

UTI is consistent with the patient’s pain symptoms when voiding, increased frequency, urgency, flank pain, and suprapubic tenderness. Thus, I would accept UTI as a diagnosis. STI is a broad term for other STIs; the diagnosis should be specific. Besides, the patient does not have sufficient physical findings to support STI; thus, I would reject the diagnosis.

Possible Conditions

Urinary Tract Infection (UTI):UTI in females present with symptoms like dysuria, a sensation of a full bladder, urinary urgency, frequency, suprapubic tenderness, flank pain, and blood in the urine (Jelly et al., 2022). It is also characterized by systemic symptoms such as fevers, chills, and malaise. The patient’s dysuria, increased frequency, urgency, flank pain, feeling warm, and mild suprapubic tenderness makes UTI a possible diagnosis.

Cystitis:  This is a bladder infection. The onset of symptoms is usually sudden. Typical manifestations include dysuria, urinary frequency, urgency, and passing small volumes of urine (Frazier & Huppmann, 2020). Other common symptoms are suprapubic pain, low back pain, and nocturia. The patient has dysuria, increased frequency, urgency, and suprapubic tenderness, making Cystitis a possible diagnosis.

Ureth

ritis: This is inflammation of the urethra. Clinical features include urethral discharge dysuria, urethral irritation, or itch (Sadoghi et al., 2022). This is a differential diagnosis owing to the patient’s history of dysuria.

Conclusion

The subjective portion should have additional information to describe the dysuria and characteristics of urine. The ROS should have included pertinent negatives and positives from other systems. The objective portion lacks the anthropometric measurements and findings from general, cardiovascular, respiratory, and external genitalia exams. UTI is an acceptable diagnosis, but STI should be rejected due to a lack of adequate physical findings to support it. The possible diagnoses are UTI, cystitis, and urethritis.

References

AlShuhayb, F. H., Alanazi, M. G., Alghizzi, A. A., Khinkar, H. J., Ali, F. N., Alnahari, E. H. H. O., … & Aleidi, H. A. (2022). An Overview on Urinary tract infection Diagnostic and Management Approach in Primary Health Care. Archives of Pharmacy Practice1, 15. https://doi.org/10.51847/3neIMfJIpm

Czajkowski, K., Broś-Konopielko, M., & Teliga-Czajkowska, J. (2021). Urinary tract infection in women. Przeglad menopauzalny = Menopause review20(1), 40–47. https://doi.org/10.5114/pm.2021.105382

 Frazier, R. L., & Huppmann, A. R. (2020). Educational Case: Acute Cystitis. Academic pathology7, 2374289520951923. https://doi.org/10.1177/2374289520951923

Jelly, P., Verma, R., Kumawat, R., Choudhary, S., Chadha, L., & Sharma, R. (2022). Occurrence of urinary tract infection and preventive strategies practiced by female students at a tertiary care teaching institution. Journal of Education and health promotion, pp. 11, 122. https://doi.org/10.4103/jehp.jehp_750_21

Sadoghi, B., Kränke, B., Komericki, P., & Hutterer, G. (2022). Sexually transmitted pathogens causing urethritis: A mini-review and proposal of a clinically based diagnostic and therapeutic algorithm. Frontiers in medicine9, 931765. https://doi.org/10.3389/fmed.2022.931765

Tai, L. H., Ho, S. W., Yeh, C. B., & Chen, C. C. (2022). Woman With Dysuria. Annals of Emergency Medicine79(5), e103-e104. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.annemergmed.2021.11.012