NURS 6051 The Inclusion of Nurses in the Systems Development Life Cycle
NURS 6051 The Inclusion of Nurses in the Systems Development Life Cycle
System Development Life Cycle (SDLC), according to McGonigle and Mastrian (2018), is a way to deliver an effective, efficient information system. That can fit an organization’s business plan. The cycle is a continuous revolving process that spans the software’s life. For example, planning software production to update, renew, or a new system is developed (McGonigle & Mastrian, 2019). The SDLC process has five stages, namely, Planning, Design, Implementation, Maintenance, and Evaluation (Laureate, 2018).
Burns (2012) purports that nurses are not always included in decision-making as it relates to technology implementation. He continued, “if an organization considers what is best for the patient, they will see that nurse plays a decisive role in Information Technology (IT) system implementation, and should be involved at all stages in the process.
The planning stage incorporates the needs of a particular system and technical requirement and should answer the question” what is best for the patient (Laureate Education, 2018). Nurses represent the largest professional group, and they spend the most time interacting with patients through direct patient care. Thus, they would be the majority end users of information systems in an organization and would know what is best to meet the patients’ needs (McGonigle &Mastrian, 2018).
During analysis, the requirement for the system is identified from the organization’s data. The needs and current practices are examined to determine possible changes (McGonigle &Mastrian (2019). According to Burns (2012), organizations should ensure their data is correct, and this can be done by utilizing nurses. Because nurses are responsible for recording a large amount of data. Notably, Burns (2012) states, “nurses believe they need to play a more active role when their organization is implementing new technology.”
Analysis and design are essential in the cycle. The design focuses on what programs are needed and established how they are connected. It involves deciding on a specific function of the hardware, software, and networking possibilities. Analysis and design are crucial in the cycle; nurses can analyze the design to determine shortcomings, thus preventing costly revision dow the road (McGonigle & Mastrian, 2019).
Implementation/ Evaluation in the phase where to software is put to work, in other words, “Go Live.” Burns (2012) states implementation is an important stage where workflows occur. Nurse leaders, Nurse informaticists, and Chief Nursing Officers can ensure a smooth transition of the software for the end-users.
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I was not a part of the planning of the IT systems in my organization; however, I believe I have an impact on decision-making. I have a role to play in learning about the system, and it helps me as an individual and impacts the decision made. It is my responsibility to learn the system. I would be able to identify the software’s strengths and weaknesses and seek to become involved in the evaluation process. According to Burns (2012), if more nurses are involved in technology implementation, that could help hospitals embrace new models of care.
In conclusion, nurses are essential to quality healthcare delivery and should be involved in the life of the cycle of System Development. Nurses touch every aspect of care. This means they need to manage change and lead, particularly when it comes to IT (Burns, 2012).
Burns, E., (2012). Nurses have an important role to play during technology implementation
McGonigle, D., & Mastrian, K. G. (2017). Nursing informatics and the foundation of
knowledge (4th ed.). Burlington, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning.
Laureate Education (2018). Interoperability, Standards, and Security [Video file]. Retrieved
Integrating nursing knowledge or participation in each stage of the SDLC when purchasing and implementing a new health information technology system will negate resistance and poor attitudes concerning technology in the workplace and ultimately negatively affect high-quality patient care (Barrlett, 2018). Nursing involvement creates a harmonious working relationship for improvement in workflow and collaboration, helping the success of design being more personalized and accepting of different needs centered around patient care. Since nurses are advocates by nature, their contribution is vital. According to McGonigle & Mastrian, 2022, “human factors engineering application improves ease of use, systems performance and reliability, and user satisfaction, while reducing operational errors, operator stress, training requirements, user fatigue, and product liability” (p.327). Collaboration with nurses can be opportunistic, as Dr. Howe mentions in knowledge exchange, in minimizing the need for constant modification after implementation. This can be minimized if nursing involvement is in all steps of the SDLC stages. The idea of HIT resilience looks at a culture of using technology in healthcare. The research was done by Barrett 2021 insightful in understanding how to diligently create a collaborative HIT design culture. Just as this discussion argues how influential the nursing perspective is and how catastrophic the fallout can be if it is not, information technology scholars reevaluate the theoretical meaningfulness.
The ultimate fallout fuels the culture of technological resistance, burnout, and quality of patient care. The potential of investment will facilitate mutual respect and resilience, and leadership within the field of nursing since nursing has unique attributes and knowledge for a not one size fits all system. Continual communication and evaluation from the beginning ensure the most ensured success. “Most large IT projects – some say as many as 90% – culminate in failures in that they fail to meet user expectations, interrupt user workflow, are not user-friendly and are over-budget, delayed or ill-planned” (Barrlett, 2021, p. 781). The uniqueness of healthcare needs to have nurses be more involved than just at the bedside and have a less oppressive mindset in their abilities to do so regarding technology or other patient relationships. Leadership and empowerment are essential to building the confidence needed to place nurses in that role. I, unfortunately, do not have any personal experiences to add besides my enthusiasm to support the efforts and increase my knowledge base. Perhaps employers’ influence and policymakers can work alongside nurses in adopting strategies for improved use and participation. I think the curriculum we are collectively experiencing through this course has heightened my reality and understanding of the value of informatics, technology, and modern trends (Mendez et al., 2020). I believe advocacy in any realm of nursing gives us a voice and is imperative to outcomes for our profession, our futures as APRNs, and our patients.
Barrett, A. K. (2018). Technological appropriations as workarounds. Information Technology & People, 31(2), 368–387. https://doi.org/10.1108/itp-01-2016-0023
Barrett, A. K. (2021). Healthcare Workers’ Communicative Constitution of Health Information Technology (HIT) resilience. Information Technology & People, 35(2), 781–801. https://doi.org/10.1108/itp-07-2019-0329
McGonigle, D., & Mastrian, K. G. (2022). In Nursing Informatics and the foundation of knowledge (5th ed., pp. 191–204). Jones & Bartlett Learning.
Mendez, K. J. W., Piasecki, R. J., Hudson, K., Renda, S., Mollenkopf, N., Nettles, B. S., & Han, H. R. (2020). Virtual and augmented reality: Implications for the future of nursing education. Nurse education today, 93, 104531. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nedt.2020.104531
I enjoyed going through the case study describing the use of the system and software in Chapter 9 of Nursing Informatics. In the scenario, discussions between the IT analyst and the nursing staff are described. It appears the nurses had “blank faces” and “puzzled glances,” and this interchange suggests the IT analyst did not adequately explain the system, his position, and the options available throughout the planning process. (McGonigle & Mastrian, 2021). It is the leader’s responsibility to adjust their instruction style if all of the participants are having trouble following the instructions. The wellness coordinator was incorporated into the design of the new system after this program hired a new IT analyst, who evaluated the hospital information system (HIS) for deficiencies. The following step was analysis, followed by any adjustments before implementation that were judged essential. Finally, they had a meeting to share their thoughts and viewpoints on the entire process; a key topic of discussion was how to increase communication between specialties.
To add on the impacts you have put across, i think if nurses are not included in the decision-making process, they may not be aware of the potential implications of the new system on patient care (Qin et al., 2017). For example, a new medication administration system may require nurses to enter data in a different way than they are accustomed to. If this is not taken into consideration during system testing, it could lead to user frustration and decreased adoption rates. Including nurses in the decision-making process can help ensure that the system is tested for usability and functionality and meets the needs of those who will be using it.
McGonigle, D., & Mastrian, K. (2021). Nursing Informatics and the Foundation of Knowledge (5th ed.). Jones & Bartlett Learning.
Qin, Y., Zhou, R., Wu, Q., Huang, X., Chen, X., Wang, W., … & Yu, P. (2017). The effect of nursing participation in the design of a critical care information system: a case study in a Chinese hospital. BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making, 17(1), 1-12. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12911-017-0569-3
Efforts to create new technology to improve patient care have made progress. For these technologies to work well, nurses must be involved in all parts of the process, including design, planning, implementation, and evaluation. Nursing involvement is essential as we are the first defensive line for the patient, not only physiological, as we are passionate advocates who speak up on behalf of our patients. For technology to be used to its fullest extent, nurses should be involved in its design (Sharp et al., 2019). It is essential to listen carefully to what nurses say and how they feel because they can find the clues needed to solve systemic problems and develop ideas for how to fix them.
Collaborate with computing, engineering, and other disciplines. Informatics, digital health, co-design, implementation science, and data science programs are needed. For instance, data science-savvy nurses will be needed to support practice. These practitioners must be intelligent and brave to use digital patient care approaches (Booth et al., 2021).
Booth, R. G., Strudwick, G., McBride, S., O’Connor, S., & Solano López, A. L. (2021). How the nursing profession should adapt for a digital future. BMJ, 373(373), n1190. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.n1190
Sharpp, T. J., Lovelace, K., Cowan, L. D., & Baker, D. (2019). Perspectives of nurse managers on information communication technology and e‐Leadership. Journal of Nursing Management, 27(7), 1554–1562. https://doi.org/10.1111/jonm.12845
Thank you for sharing your thoughts on this topic. The phases of analysis and design are essential to the SDLC. The design is focused on establishing which programs are necessary and how they interact with one another. It requires selecting a specific function from the several options provided by the hardware, software, and networking. The analysis and design phases are critical in the cycle; nurses may analyze the design to discover problems, which can help them avoid more costly adjustments in the future (McGonigle and Mastrian, 2019). According to Weckman and Janzen (2009), there are only a few credible possibilities if nurses are not involved. During my research, I discovered that many organizations observed increased success when nurses were engaged in developing new systems (The Critical Nature of Early Nursing Involvement for Introducing New Technologies | OJIN: The Online Journal of Issues in Nursing, n.d.). There is no surprise because nurses will have the most insight into what will be most effective in healthcare. Nurses deal with existing systems daily, allowing them to assess which systems are most required and successful. First, it is difficult to instantly engage the nurses due to a failure to capture their attention. The following issue is a need for more faith in the change process and a lack of knowledge and expertise on the implementers’ side.
McGonigle, D., & Mastrian, K. G. (2019). Nursing informatics and the foundation of knowledge (4th ed.). Burlington, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning.
Weckman, H., & Janzen, S. (2009). The Critical Nature of Early Nursing Involvement for Introducing New Technologies. OJIN: The Online Journal of Issues in Nursing, 14(2). https://doi.org/10.3912/ojin.vol14no02man02
Thanks for sharing! Definitely is really important for nurses to be involved in every step of the process called Systems Development Life Cycle, or SDLC. It requires phases of Planning, Analysis, Design, Implementation, and Maintenance. It is important that you consider how you can be involved since your involvement will improve the likelihood of success, and help ensure that the clinical system will be a big hit.
The phases of analysis and design are necessary components of the cycle. The design is centered on determining which programs are required and how they are related to one another. It entails picking on a certain function out of the several choices offered by the hardware, software, and networking. The phases of analysis and design are extremely important in the cycle; nurses may study the design to identify flaws, which can help them avoid more expensive revisions in the future. (McGonigle & Mastrian, 2019).
According to Weckman and Janzen (2009) If nurses are not involved, there are just a few possible scenarios that might take place. To begin, there is an inability to immediately engage the nurses since there is not a successful grab of their attention. The following problem is a lack of trust in the process of change, in addition to a lack of knowledge and skill on the part of the implementers.
McGonigle, D., & Mastrian, K. G. (2017). Nursing informatics and the foundation of knowledge (4th ed.). Burlington, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning.
Weckman, H. N., & Janzen, S. K. (2009). The critical nature of early nursing involvement for introducing new technologies. Online Journal of Issues in Nursing, 14(2), 1–11. https://doi.org/10.3912/ojin.vol14no02man02