NURS 6051 Literature Review: The Use of Clinical Systems to Improve Outcomes and Efficiencies

Sample Answer for NURS 6051 Literature Review: The Use of Clinical Systems to Improve Outcomes and Efficiencies Included After Question

The Assignment: (4-5 pages not including the title and reference page)

In a 4- to 5-page paper, synthesize the peer-reviewed research you reviewed. Format your Assignment as an Annotated Bibliography. Be sure to address the following:

  • Identify the 4 peer-reviewed research articles you reviewed, citing each in APA format.
  • Include an introduction explaining the purpose of the paper.
  • Summarize each study, explaining the improvement to outcomes, efficiencies, and lessons learned from the application of the clinical system each peer-reviewed article described. Be specific and provide examples.
  • In your conclusion, synthesize the findings from the 4 peer-reviewed research articles.
  • Use APA format and include a title page.
  • Use the Safe Assign Drafts to check your match percentage before submitting your work.

A Sample Answer For the Assignment: NURS 6051 Literature Review: The Use of Clinical Systems to Improve Outcomes and Efficiencies

Title: NURS 6051 Literature Review: The Use of Clinical Systems to Improve Outcomes and Efficiencies

Health information technologies have transformed significantly the provision of healthcare in the current world. Health organizations have adopted different technologies with the aim of improving outcomes of care such as patient satisfaction, quality, safety, and cost-effectiveness of care (McGonigle & Mastrian, 2017). It is however important that health organizations adopt health technologies that have been evaluated to be effective in clinical studies. Therefore, this paper is a bibliographic review of studies that have been conducted to determine the effectiveness of computerized order entry (CPOE) systems in improving clinical outcomes.

Annotated Bibliography

Lewing, B. D., Hatfield, M. D., & Sansgiry, S. S. (2018). Impact of computerized provider order entry systems on hospital staff pharmacist workflow productivity: a three site comparative analysis based on level of CPOE implementation. Journal of Hospital Administration7(1)..

The above study aimed at investigating the effect of computerized provider entry systems on the workflow productivity of staff pharmacists working in three hospitals in Houston, Texas. The research design used was an observational, prospective time as well as motion study. The sample consisted of pharmacists in three hospitals who were observed for one hour three block undertaking 38 different activities. The work categories the pharmacists were observed while undertaking them included distribution, clinical, miscellaneous, and administrative activities. The data obtained from the three hospitals was compared using descriptive as well as comparative analyses using ANOVA and Post-hoc Turkey’s range test.

The outcomes that were investigated in the study included workflow and productivity of the pharmacists while undertaking different tasks. The study also investigated the use of CPOE on time allotment and the comparison of the observed differences in time spent in the implementation of the CPOE system. The results of the study revealed that the use of CPOE the time that the pharmacists spent in implementing short and long-term CPOE activities was shorter when compared to that they utilized in implementing non-CPOE activities. It was therefore concluded that the use of CPOE can improve the work flow and productivity of the pharmacists in clinical settings. It also reduces the time that they spent in engaging in different activities in their settings.

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This article has shown the effectiveness of CPOE in reducing the time that healthcare providers spent in engaging in their professional activities in the clinical settings. It has revealed that effective implementation of the CPOE systems can result in easy allocation of tasks and tracking of workflow in an institution of healthcare. Therefore, institutions that aim at improving productivity and efficiency in their operations should adopt the use of the CPOE system. Improved productivity and workflow translates into other outcomes such as enhanced quality, safety, and cost-effectiveness of care.

Okumura, L. M., Veroneze, I., Bugardt, C. I., & Fragoso, M. F. (2016). Effects of a computerized provider order entry and a clinical decision support system to improve cefazolin use in surgical prophylaxis: a cost saving analysis. Pharmacy Practice (Granada)14(3), 0-0.

The above study investigated the effects of using computerized provider order entry as well as clinical decision support system to enhance cost saving in the use of cefazolin in surgical units in Brazil. The study was before and after study design. The data on the prophylactic use of cefazolin was compared before and after the implementation of the CPOE and CDSS implementation. The authors believed that the comparative data would enable the accurate determination of the effectiveness of use of these systems.

Data analysis was performed on 12-year data on cefazolin use. The 12-year data comprised of the first three years before CPOE and CDSS implementation while the remaining nine years was after the implementation of these systems. The obtained data was analyzed using Spearman rho on-parametric test to determine the use of cefazolin over the period of data collection.

NURS 6051 Literature Review: The Use of Clinical Systems to Improve Outcomes and Efficiencies
NURS 6051 Literature Review: The Use of Clinical Systems to Improve Outcomes and Efficiencies

The outcomes that were under investigation in the research included cefazolin use, product cost, and crude cost. The cefazolin use was defined by daily doses/100 bed-days. Product and crude costs were also defined by cefazolin use per 100 bed-days. The authors hypothesized that the implementation of the CPOE and CDSS systems will result in a net reduction in cefazolin prophylaxis use and overall costs incurred in health organizations. The outcomes of the research showed that the implementation of the CPOE and CDSS resulted in a reduction in cefazolin prophylaxis use from 6.31 DDD/100 bed-days in 2002 to 2.15 DDD/100 bed-days in 2014. The analysis also revealed that a lack of implementation of CPOE and CDSS in 2002 would have increased the costs incurred in the prophylactic use of cefazolin from $ 44, 722.99 to $116998.07.

The results from this study reveals that effective implementation of CPOE system has significant organizational benefits. It reduces resource wastage by increasing the utilization of evidence-based decisions in the provision of care. The system also promotes cost-efficiency in the organization. It is also evident from the research that optimum outcomes with CPOE system use can be achieved when combined with other systems such as CDSS. Therefore, health organizations should implement CPOE systems as a way of reducing wastage and cutting their operational costs.

Bucher, B. T., Ferraro, J. P., Finlayson, S. R., Chapman, W. W., & Gundlapalli, A. V. (2019). Use of computerized provider order entry events for postoperative complication surveillance. JAMA surgery154(4), 311-318.

A Sample Answer 2 For the Assignment: NURS 6051 Literature Review: The Use of Clinical Systems to Improve Outcomes and Efficiencies

Title: NURS 6051 Literature Review: The Use of Clinical Systems to Improve Outcomes and Efficiencies

The above study was conducted with the aim of determining the effectiveness of CPOE entry events in identifying post-operative complications. The researchers focused on determining the rates of post-operative complications that were identified with the use of CPOE when compared to the use of manual medical review. Cohort study design was used to achieve the objectives of the study. The researchers reviewed 21775 medical records for patients who had undergone surgical procedures at the University of Utah from 2007 to 2017. The data on the sensitivity of the CPOE system in the detection of the complications was analyzed using the logistic regression model. The CPOE-based surveillance system was used to validate the developed models for the identified post-operative complications.

The main outcome of the study was post-operative occurrences of complications. The complications included deep surgical site infection, superficial surgical site infection, organ space surgical site infection, pneumonia, sepsis, urinary tract infection, deep vein thrombosis, septic shock, and pulmonary embolism. The analysis of the obtained data revealed that the sensitivity of the CPOE events in detecting patients who experienced one or more complications was 74.8%, specificity of 86.8%, negative predictive value of 97.55%, and positive predictive value of 33.8%. The use of CPOE events also diminished the burden of manual review of records by 55.4% to 90.3%.

The above study revealed that CPOE could be used to detect and prevent adverse events in the clinical settings. This ability can be seen in its enhanced efficiency in detecting patients who developed post-operative complications. The study also demonstrated that the use of CPOE reduces the workload for healthcare providers. This can be seen in its ability to diminish manual review of medical records. Therefore, CPOE can be used to promote patient safety and reduce workload in healthcare settings.

Lyons, A. M., Sward, K. A., Deshmukh, V. G., Pett, M. A., Donaldson, G. W., & Turnbull, J. (2017). Impact of computerized provider order entry (CPOE) on length of stay and mortality. Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association24(2), 303-309..

The above study investigated the effect of CPOE on patient outcomes that included the mortality rate and length of hospital stay. The research was conducted in an academic medical center. The study design that was utilized was a retrospective pre-post study design where data from 66185 patients and 104153 admissions seen over five-year period were analyzed. Regression analysis was used for data analysis. Generalized linear mixed statistical tests were used to control confounders in the research.

The outcomes for this research were three. They included patient outcome variables, mortality, and length of hospital stay after the implementation of the CPOE. The analysis of the obtained data revealed that the implementation of the CPOE decreased the length of hospital stay by 0.90 days. There was also a decline of mortality rate from one in every 1000 admission pre-intervention to three in every 1000 admissions post-study. However, there was a rise in mortality rates in the intensive care units. The researchers therefore concluded that CPOE system can have a predictive value in reducing length of hospital stay and mortality rates in non-acute care settings.  

The study has shown that the use of CPOE system improves patient outcomes of care. These outcomes include a reduction in their overall length of stay in hospitals and mortality rates. These improvements have additional benefits such as cost-efficiency and effective use of resources in healthcare. Therefore, organizations that intend to achieve enhanced patient outcomes with their care should consider adopting the use of CPOE system.

Moghaddasi, H., Sajadi, S., & Amanzadeh, M. (2016). The effect of a well-designed computerized physician order entry on medication error reduction. Journal of Health Management & Informatics3(4), 127-131.

The above study was conducted to investigate the effect of CPOE on reducing medication errors. The study was informed by the increased cases of medication errors with the use of paper-based prescription orders. This research was a systematic review where articles for use were obtained from databases that included Google Scholar, PubMEd, EBSCO, Iranmedex, Web of Science, and Irandoc. The articles were selected based on their relevance to the objectives of the research. The researchers used 10 articles that were considered relevant for the research.   

            The main outcome of this research was reduction in medication errors. The reduction in the medication errors was evaluated using the number of adverse drug events reported in the articles that were used in the research. The results of the study revealed that the use of CPOE resulted in a significant decline in the incidences of serious medication errors. It also revealed its use to be associated with a great reduction in the incidences of adverse drug events. However, the researchers noted that these outcomes are largely dependent on the effective design and implementation of the CPOE system.

One of the lessons learnt from the findings of this study is that positive effect of CPOE on patient safety. This can be seen in the reduction of the incidences of medication errors in the study. It can also be seen in the reduction in the events of adverse drug reactions due to enhanced accuracy in the prescription of drugs. I have also learnt that organizations must come up with comprehensive implementation strategy for CPOE to deliver the anticipated outcomes. Therefore, health organizations should consider the use of CPOE in enhancing the safety and quality of care offered to those in need.

Conclusion

The above analysis has revealed that CPOE has positive influence on healthcare. Its effective use results in diverse health outcomes. They include reduction in workload, improvement in safety of care, and reduction in mortality rates in hospitals. The analysis has also revealed that the use of CPOE reduces the hospital stay by the patients and promotes cost-efficiency in the operations of health organizations. However, it is important that the design and implementation of CPOE be done in a careful manner for it to deliver these outcomes.

References

McGonigle, D., & In Mastrian, K. G. (2017). Nursing informatics and the foundation of knowledge. Burlington, MA : Jones & Bartlett Learning.

SAMPLE 2

Literature Review: The Use of Clinical Systems to Improve Outcomes and Efficiencies

Healthcare delivery has progressively evolved since the arrival of technology and the internet. Over time, healthcare providers have integrated numerous clinical systems into patient care to achieve higher effectiveness and efficiency. The continuous use of technology has benefitted healthcare delivery by reducing adverse events, better patient-provider communication, and improving patient privacy (Bates & Singh, 2018). Patients and populations can be better accessed, particularly rural and underserved populations. Among many clinical systems, telemedicine and telehealth systems have been central to delivering remote patient care. Telemedicine typifies remote medical services, while telehealth is broader since it includes all health-related services, including education, reminders, and continuous monitoring (Giacalone et al., 2022; HealthIT.gov, 2019). For timely delivery of care and improved access, remote patient care continues to dominate current practice. The purpose of this paper is to review the current literature on the effectiveness of remote care systems (telemedicine and telehealth) in diabetes care.

Döğer, E., Bozbulut, R., Acar, A. Ş. S., Ercan, Ş., Uğurlu, A. K., Akbaş, E. D., … & Cinaz, P. (2019). Effect of telehealth system on glycemic control in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes. Journal of Clinical Research in Pediatric Endocrinology11(1), 70-75. DOI: 10.4274/jcrpe.galenos.2018.2018.0017

Telehealth and related technologies continue to make remote patient care a reality. Döğer et al. (2019) evaluated the impacts of the telehealth system on diabetes control among children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes at Gazi University Faculty of Medicine. The patients confirmed the importance of telehealth in illness management and other outcomes crucial for comprehensive recovery and healthy living. Overall, telehealth was found to be an efficient system that improves access to care and reduces cost. Regarding outcomes, patients suggested that they mostly used Whatsapp for instant messaging, education from nurses, and consulting the diabetes team about glucose regulation and insulin doses. HbA1 values reduced significantly in patients contacting their providers frequently. The main lesson from the study is that age determines telehealth use and preferred technologies. Young people showed Whatsapp preference, as confirmed in the study. The other important note for nurses and other healthcare professionals is the importance and frequency of counseling. Regular counseling led to improved blood glucose control.

Ju, H. H. (2020). Using telehealth for diabetes self-management in underserved populations. The Nurse Practitioner45(11), 26-33. DOI: 10.1097/01.NPR.0000718492.44183.87

Diabetes self-management is critical to improve outcomes among patients. Accordingly, patients should understand the strategies for effective disease management and be supported to achieve higher patient outcomes. Ju (2020) evaluated the importance of telehealth systems in meeting the needs of diabetic patients in underserved populations. Telehealth was found effective in medication management since it improved overall medication adherence. In diabetes care, medication adherence is a valuable self-care behavior for achieving glycemic control. The other theme central to improved outcomes in diabetes care was self-monitoring of blood glucose to achieve the recommended blood glucose goal. Above all, telehealth allowed patients to receive dietary education and exercise advice remotely. This support was crucial for improved outcomes, such as medication adherence, dietary regulation, and participation in various types of exercises.

As healthcare practitioners continue supporting patients to use telehealth, awareness of the barriers to implementation is crucial. The awareness allows healthcare providers to customize care according to patient needs and ensure that healthcare services are accessed conveniently. Ju (2020) found that patients’ beliefs could be a key barrier to telehealth since some patients modified medications as their beliefs guided them. Accordingly, healthcare providers should continually monitor patients in all dimensions to ensure they adhere to all recommendations. Health education is crucial to counter cultural and religious barriers that might hamper telehealth effectiveness.

Introduction

This paper presents an annotated bibliography summarizing recent research on the application of clinical systems and their impact on healthcare outcomes and efficiencies. The purpose is to explore how various clinical systems have been used to improve patient outcomes and streamline healthcare delivery.

Annotated Bibliography

Research Article 1

Lu Wenjie, Zhang Jiaming, & Jiang Weiyu. (2023). The difference and clinical application of modified thoracolumbar fracture classification scoring system in guiding clinical treatment. Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery and Research, 18(1), 1–8. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13018-023-03958-4

In this article, Wenjie et al. discusses the clinical application of a modified thoracolumbar injury classification and severity score system (modified TLICS system) in guiding clinical treatment for patients with thoracolumbar fractures. The system was developed as an improvement to the existing TLICS system to address its limitations and enhance its effectiveness.

The study found that the use of the modified TLICS system significantly improved patient outcomes. Over an average follow-up duration of 19.2 months, patients demonstrated significant improvement in various outcome measures, including visual analog scale (VAS) score, modified Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) score, anterior vertebral height ratio, sagittal index, and Cobb angle. Additionally, neurological status also showed varying degrees of improvement. The systematic application of the modified TLICS system allowed clinicians to identify the severity of thoracolumbar fractures accurately and tailor treatment plans, leading to improved patient recovery and functional outcomes.

By implementing the modified TLICS system, the research showed that clinicians achieved more streamlined and efficient decision-making in clinical treatment. The modified TLICS system facilitated a comprehensive evaluation of various injury parameters, aiding in the accurate classification of thoracolumbar fractures. The system’s modifications addressed the limitations of the original TLICS system, enabling healthcare providers to make more informed decisions regarding the need for surgery and the appropriate treatment approach. As a result, the operation rate for the modified TLICS system was slightly lower than that of the traditional TLICS system. This suggests that the modified system contributed to the more efficient allocation of surgical resources while still achieving favorable patient outcomes.

The study provides valuable insights into the application of clinical systems in orthopedic settings. The development and implementation of the modified TLICS system offer a valuable lesson on how continuous improvement and refinement of existing clinical systems can enhance their practicality and effectiveness. By addressing the limitations of the original TLICS system, the modified version demonstrated its potential as a reliable tool for thoracolumbar fracture classification and assessment. The study emphasizes the importance of iterative research and continuous feedback from clinicians to optimize clinical systems for better patient care and healthcare efficiency.

Research Article 2

Parva Paydar, Shole Ebrahimpour, Hanieh Zehtab Hashemi, Mehdi Mohamadi, & Soha Namazi. (2023). Design, Development, and Evaluation of an Application based on Clinical Decision Support Systems (CDSS) for Over-The-Counter (OTC) Therapy: An Educational Interventions in Community Pharmacists. Journal of Advances in Medical Education and Professionalism, 11(2), 95–104. https://doi.org/10.30476/jamp.2022.95843.1661

Paydar et al, shows the implementation of a Clinical Decision Support System (CDSS) in the form of an over-the-counter (OTC) therapy application for community pharmacists resulted in several improvements in outcomes. Firstly, the application significantly enhanced the knowledge and pharmaceutical skills of pharmacists in managing OTC therapy. By providing decision support and relevant information, pharmacists were better equipped to take comprehensive patient histories, make appropriate pharmacological and non-pharmacological recommendations, and identify when to refer patients to physicians. This ultimately led to more effective patient counseling and improved patient outcomes. Moreover, the application also contributed to a reduction in unnecessary referrals to physicians. Before using the CDSS-based application, a considerable percentage of patients were wrongly referred to physicians.

While the application increased the time taken to manage scenarios, it had a positive impact on overall efficiencies in patient care. Pharmacists spent more time collecting complete patient histories, resulting in more comprehensive evaluations and appropriate recommendations. Although the initial increase in time may seem inefficient, the overall outcome of improved decision-making and patient care justified this trade-off. Additionally, the mobile-based nature of the application offered ease of access and use for pharmacists in busy pharmacy settings. It allowed them to promptly access OTC therapy information and decision support, thereby enhancing their ability to counsel patients effectively and manage OTC-related situations efficiently.

The study yielded valuable lessons for the future application of CDSS-based tools in pharmacy practice. It highlighted the significant impact of such tools on enhancing patient care and pharmacist performance. The application acted as a valuable clinical support system, guiding pharmacists through patient evaluations and treatment decisions. This underscored the importance of integrating CDSS-based applications to improve patient outcomes and streamline decision-making processes in pharmacy practice. Additionally, user feedback from the evaluation using the user version of the mobile application rating scale (uMARS) questionnaire was essential in understanding user experience and application quality. The feedback provided valuable insights into the importance of user-centric design and continuous improvement to enhance user satisfaction and application performance.

Research Article 3

Shujuan Cao, Rongpei Zhang, Aixin Jiang, Mayila Kuerban, Aizezi Wumaier, Jianhua Wu, Kaihua Xie, Mireayi Aizezi, Abudurexiti Tuersun, Xuanwei Liang, & Rongxin Chen. (2023). Application effect of an artificial intelligence-based fundus screening system: evaluation in a clinical setting and population screening. BioMedical Engineering OnLine, 22(1), 1–13. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12938-023-01097-9

Cao et al. explored the application of artificial intelligence (AI)-based fundus screening systems in the clinical environment has shown promising results in improving outcomes and efficiencies in the early detection and management of ocular fundus abnormalities. This study investigated the performance of an AI-based fundus screening system, focusing on diabetic retinopathy (DR), retinal vein occlusion (RVO), and pathological myopia (PM), in a real-world clinical setting. The study aimed to evaluate the system’s diagnostic effectiveness, and its application in population screening, and identify areas for further improvement and integration of systemic indicators.

 Enhanced Diagnostic Accuracy: The AI-based fundus screening system demonstrated superior diagnostic effectiveness for diabetic retinopathy (DR), retinal vein occlusion (RVO), and pathological myopia (PM), with sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) all exceeding 80%. This improved accuracy leads to more precise and reliable diagnoses, enabling early detection and timely treatment, ultimately improving patient outcomes and preventing irreversible vision loss.

Resource Saving and Efficiency: By automating the screening process, the AI-based system analyzes many fundus images quickly and accurately, reducing the burden on healthcare professionals. This increased efficiency translates to faster diagnoses, allowing for more patients to be screened and diagnosed promptly. The system’s efficiency enhances the overall workflow in clinical settings, leading to more effective patient management and treatment.

Scalability and Population Screening: The AI-based fundus screening system’s diagnostic capabilities in the clinical environment were comparable to those in population screening. This scalability allows the system to be applied in primary healthcare facilities for large-scale screenings.

Identification of Areas for Improvement: The study identified areas for improvement in the AI system’s performance, particularly in its sensitivity to age-related macular degeneration (ARMD) and referable glaucoma. Lessons learned from the study provide valuable insights for future developments and updates to the AI algorithm. Focusing on enhancing accuracy and precision for these conditions will further optimize the system’s diagnostic capabilities.

Integration of Systemic Indicators: The study highlighted the potential to integrate the AI algorithm with systemic indicators, such as HbA1c levels for diabetic retinopathy diagnosis. This integration could significantly improve the system’s diagnostic capabilities, providing more comprehensive assessments of patients’ overall health.

Research Article 4

Gholamzadeh, M., Abtahi, H., & Safdari, R. (2023). The Application of Knowledge-Based Clinical Decision Support Systems to Enhance Adherence to Evidence-Based Medicine in Chronic Disease. Journal of Healthcare Engineering, 2023, 8550905. https://doi.org/10.1155/2023/8550905

Gholamzadeh et al. discussed the application of clinical decision support systems (CDSSs) in chronic disease management has shown significant improvements in patient outcomes. By providing evidence-based recommendations and up-to-date information, CDSSs empower healthcare providers to make more accurate diagnoses and develop tailored treatment plans. This leads to better disease management, reduced complications, and improved patient health. CDSSs also help in identifying potential medical errors and providing timely alerts, contributing to enhanced patient safety and healthcare quality. With personalized patient care and targeted interventions, CDSSs play a vital role in improving clinical outcomes and patient well-being.

CDSSs have brought about substantial efficiencies in healthcare delivery. By automating the processing of patient data and presenting relevant information, CDSSs save clinicians valuable time and effort that would otherwise be spent searching for relevant medical literature and guidelines. This streamlining of the decision-making process allows healthcare providers to focus more on direct patient care and less on administrative tasks. As a result, CDSSs contribute to a more efficient and streamlined healthcare workflow, leading to enhanced productivity and resource utilization.

The implementation of CDSSs in clinical settings has provided valuable lessons for healthcare providers and developers. Challenges related to system integration, user acceptance, data quality, and clinician resistance to change have been encountered. To address these challenges, effective training, engagement with end-users, and continuous monitoring and evaluation of system performance have been essential. Additionally, adapting CDSSs to diverse clinical settings and patient populations has been critical for maximizing their impact.

In conclusion, the application of clinical decision support systems in chronic disease management has led to significant improvements in patient outcomes, enhanced efficiencies in healthcare delivery, and valuable lessons learned. By addressing challenges, embracing continuous learning, and upholding ethical considerations, CDSSs can continue to play a pivotal role in advancing patient care and healthcare quality.

Conclusion

The four peer-reviewed research articles presented in this annotated bibliography collectively provide valuable insights into the application of clinical systems and their impact on healthcare outcomes and efficiencies. These studies cover various domains within healthcare, including orthopedics, pharmacy practice, ophthalmology, and chronic disease management. A cohesive conclusion can be drawn from these findings to highlight the overall benefits and lessons learned from using clinical systems in diverse healthcare settings.

Firstly, the studies consistently demonstrate that the implementation of clinical systems leads to significant improvements in patient outcomes. In the orthopedic setting, the modified thoracolumbar injury classification and severity score system (modified TLICS system) improved patient recovery and functional outcomes for thoracolumbar fractures. In pharmacy practice, the Clinical Decision Support System (CDSS) for over-the-counter (OTC) therapy resulted in more effective patient counseling and reduced unnecessary referrals to physicians. In ophthalmology, the AI-based fundus screening system showed enhanced diagnostic accuracy for various ocular abnormalities, leading to timely treatment and preventing irreversible vision loss. Moreover, the application of knowledge-based CDSSs in chronic disease management improved patient health, reduced complications, and enhanced adherence to evidence-based medicine.

Secondly, the research highlights the efficiencies gained by using clinical systems. In orthopedics, the modified TLICS system facilitated more streamlined and efficient decision-making, optimizing surgical resource allocation while achieving favorable patient outcomes. The CDSS-based application in pharmacy practice, despite increasing the time taken to manage scenarios, improved overall efficiencies in patient care by enabling more comprehensive evaluations and appropriate recommendations. The AI-based fundus screening system in ophthalmology automated the screening process, saving time for healthcare professionals and allowing for large-scale population screenings. In chronic disease management, CDSSs saved clinicians time and effort, leading to a more efficient healthcare workflow and enhanced productivity.

The lessons learned from these studies emphasize the importance of continuous improvement and refinement of clinical systems. The development of the modified TLICS system, the user-centric design of the CDSS-based application, and the identification of areas for improvement in the AI-based fundus screening system all highlight the value of iterative research and continuous feedback from healthcare professionals. Additionally, the studies underscore the significance of integrating clinical systems with systemic indicators and adapting them to diverse clinical settings and patient populations to maximize their impact.

In conclusion, the findings from these research articles collectively demonstrate that clinical systems play a crucial role in enhancing healthcare outcomes and efficiencies. By improving patient care, streamlining decision-making processes, and saving valuable time and resources, these systems contribute to overall healthcare quality and effectiveness. Moreover, the lessons learned from their implementation provide valuable guidance for future developments and improvements in clinical systems, ensuring continuous enhancement of patient care and healthcare delivery.

References

Gholamzadeh, M., Abtahi, H., & Safdari, R. (2023). The Application of Knowledge-Based Clinical Decision Support Systems to Enhance Adherence to Evidence-Based Medicine in Chronic Disease. Journal of Healthcare Engineering, 2023, 8550905. https://doi.org/10.1155/2023/8550905

Lu Wenjie, Zhang Jiaming, & Jiang Weiyu. (2023). The difference and clinical application of modified thoracolumbar fracture classification scoring system in guiding clinical treatment. Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery and Research, 18(1), 1–8. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13018-023-03958-4

Parva Paydar, Shole Ebrahimpour, Hanieh Zehtab Hashemi, Mehdi Mohamadi, & Soha Namazi. (2023). Design, Development, and Evaluation of an Application based on Clinical Decision Support Systems (CDSS) for Over-The-Counter (OTC) Therapy: An Educational Interventions in Community Pharmacists. Journal of Advances in Medical Education and Professionalism, 11(2), 95–104. https://doi.org/10.30476/jamp.2022.95843.1661

Shujuan Cao, Rongpei Zhang, Aixin Jiang, Mayila Kuerban, Aizezi Wumaier, Jianhua Wu, Kaihua Xie, Mireayi Aizezi, Abudurexiti Tuersun, Xuanwei Liang, & Rongxin Chen. (2023). Application effect of an artificial intelligence-based fundus screening system: evaluation in a clinical setting and population screening. BioMedical Engineering OnLine, 22(1), 1–13. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12938-023-01097-9