# NUR 705 Assignment 8.1: T-Tests

## NUR 705 Assignment 8.1: T-Tests

### Assignment Guidelines

Part One: Independent & Dependent t-Test

Using the NUR705 Week 8 dataset (Excel) (Links to an external site.), conduct an independent t-test to see if there is a statistically significant difference between smokers and non-smokers in the number of health-related visits in the past two years. Assume a .05 level of significance. Complete the following:

1. Identify the independent and dependent variables.
2. Write a null hypothesis.
3. Write an alternative non-directional (2-tail) hypothesis.
4. Interpret your results. Guidelines for interpreting independent t-tests can be found in What to Include When Writing Up Independent T-Test Results (PDF) (Links to an external site.). Another example is included in your Kim, Mallory, & Vallerio (2022) textbook on page 226.

Using the NUR705 Week 8 dataset (Excel) (Links to an external site.), conduct a dependent t-test to see if there is a statistically significant difference in beginning and ending weight after a health improvement course. The variables are labelled “Beginning Weight in pounds” and “Ending Weight in pounds.” Assume a .05 level of significance. Answer the following questions:

1. Identify the independent and dependent variables.
2. Write a null hypothesis.
3. Write an alternative non-directional (2-tail) hypothesis.
4. Interpret your results. Guidelines for interpreting dependent t-tests can be found in What to Include When Writing Up Dependent T-Test Results (PDF) (Links to an external site.).

Examples of how to write hypotheses are on pages 130 and 131 of your Kim, Mallory, & Vallerio (2022) textbook.

### Using JASP to Conduct an Independent T-Test Screencast

JASP Independent T-Test Transcript  (Links to an external site.)

### Using JASP to Conduct a Dependent T-Test Screencast

JASP Dependent T-Test Transcript (Links to an external site.)

For part one of the assignment, submit screenshots of the items above. It is best to copy these and put them in a Word document.

Part Two

For part two of the assignment:

1. Prepare a short narrative to describe the sample and your analysis. Your narrative should use APA formatting.
2. This narrative should be approximately one paragraph, double-spaced.

### Submission

Submit your assignment and review full grading criteria on the Assignment 8.1: T-Tests page.

### Against All Odds: Comparing Two Means

Sabeti, P. (Host), & Villiger, M. (Writer/Producer/Director). (2014). Comparing two means (Links to an external site.) [Video Unit 27]. Against all odds: Inside statistics. Retrieved from Annenberg Learner (Links to an external site.). (Closed captioning is provided.)

Comparing Two Means Transcript (Links to an external site.)

### Lecture: T-Tests

Lecture: t-Tests Transcript

## Lesson 1: Comparing Group Means (t-Tests)

### Introduction

A good research study begins with the end in mind. How you design a study also impacts the choice of statistical analyses for the study. Comparing group means is the basis for most studies that look at two or more groups and evaluate dependent variables for those groups.

When you reviewed Randomized Controlled Trials (RCTs), remember that one group received an intervention and the other did not. How do you determine if there was a statistically significant difference in one group versus the other? You run statistical tests that examine the probability that there is difference in the experimental group. For example, did the independent variable impact the dependent variable?

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Similar principles also apply to descriptive research. As an example, are there statistically significant differences in income based on gender? Here, we are comparing income levels between two groups, male and female. In order to compare means, measure data on the ratio level of measurement so we can compare means.

### Learning Outcomes

At the end of this lesson, you will be able to:

• Compare group means by conducting t-tests.
• Analyze research design techniques as applicable to the final project.

Before attempting to complete your learning activities for this week, review the following learning materials:

### Learning Materials

Read the following in your Kim, Mallory, & Vallerio (2022) Statistics for evidence-based practice in nursing textbook:

Chapter 11, “Tests for Comparing Group Means: Part I”

Assignment 8.1: T-Tests Rubric
CriteriaRatingsPts
Part 1: JASP Dataset #1
5 to >1 pts
Meets Expectations

Completed screenshots of statistical output for portion 1 is present.

1 to >0 pts
Does Not Meet Expectations

Completed screenshots are not included.

5 / 5 pts
Part 2: Narrative
5 to >4 pts
Meets Expectations

Narrative includes am adequate description of your sample and analysis. Narrative includes the identification of independent and dependent variables, a null hypothesis, an alternative non-directional hypothesis, and an interpretation of your results.

4 to >1 pts
Nearly Meets Expectations

Narrative includes a description of your sample and analysis. Narrative includes some of the following information: • Identification of independent and dependent variables • A null hypothesis • An alternative non-directional hypothesis • An interpretation of your results

1 to >0 pts
Does Not Meet Expectations

Narrative does not include a description of your sample and analysis. Narrative does not include the identification of independent and dependent variables, a null hypothesis, an alternative non-directional hypothesis, and an interpretation of your results.

4.75 / 5 pts
Documentation and Mechanics
5 to >4 pts
Meets Expectations

No errors in grammar, spelling, punctuation, or sentence structure.

4 to >1 pts
Nearly Meets Expectations

Few errors in grammar, spelling, punctuation, or sentence structure.

1 to >0 pts
Does Not Meet Expectations

Numerous and distracting errors in grammar, spelling, punctuation, or sentence structure.

4.75 / 5 pts
Total Points: 14.5

# Using JASP to Conduct an Independent T-test Screencast Transcript

Okay. So in this recording, we’re going to use JASP to conduct an independent T-test. So this is our data view right here. And we’re going to look at gender right here, this variable right here. And we’re going to look at comparing men and women on sodium content, the variable right to the left of gender. So this is going to be an independent T-test. So we select independent T-test. We want to put our variable there, and that is our dependent variable. So, that will be sodium. And then our grouping variable, how do we want to group it? That’s our independent variable and we want to group it on gender. And here we see our T value, our degrees of freedom. And then we see a notation here, 2.617, and it says E minus five. So that means we have to move the decimal point 5 times to the left. So it’s 0.000002617. So definitely significant. Well below 0.05. So that notation there, it’s a way to abbreviate long notations and telling you, you have to move the decimal point again, five spaces to the left.

We also probably want to run descriptive statistics. So we have significance, but we don’t know, as our… Do men have higher sodium levels than women or vice versa? And we see here in our descriptive. First, we have 50 men and 50 women, and we see that the mean score, that men have a higher sodium level than women. We can do that visually, look at it visually with a descriptive plot, and we can see the difference there. So that is a dependent or excuse me, an independent T-test using JASP.

APA Writing Checklist
Use this document as a checklist for each paper you will write throughout your GCU graduate program. Follow specific instructions indicated in the assignment and use this checklist to help ensure correct grammar and APA formatting. Refer to the APA resources available in the GCU Library and Student Success Center.
☐ APA paper template (located in the Student Success Center/Writing Center) is utilized for the correct format of the paper. APA style is applied, and format is correct throughout.
☐ The title page is present. APA format is applied correctly. There are no errors.
☐ The introduction is present. APA format is applied correctly. There are no errors.
☐ Topic is well defined.
☐ Strong thesis statement is included in the introduction of the paper.
☐ The thesis statement is consistently threaded throughout the paper and included in the conclusion.
☐ Paragraph development: Each paragraph has an introductory statement, two or three sentences as the body of the paragraph, and a transition sentence to facilitate the flow of information. The sections of the main body are organized to reflect the main points of the author. APA format is applied correctly. There are no errors.
☐ All sources are cited. APA style and format are correctly applied and are free from error.
☐ Sources are completely and correctly documented on a References page, as appropriate to assignment and APA style, and format is free of error.
Scholarly Resources: Scholarly resources are written with a focus on a specific subject discipline and usually written by an expert in the same subject field. Scholarly resources are written for an academic audience.
Examples of Scholarly Resources include: Academic journals, books written by experts in a field, and formally published encyclopedias and dictionaries.
Peer-Reviewed Journals: Peer-reviewed journals are evaluated prior to publication by experts in the journal’s subject discipline. This process ensures that the articles published within the journal are academically rigorous and meet the required expectations of an article in that subject discipline.
Empirical Journal Article: This type of scholarly resource is a subset of scholarly articles that reports the original finding of an observational or experimental research study. Common aspects found within an empirical article include: literature review, methodology, results, and discussion.
Adapted from “Evaluating Resources: Defining Scholarly Resources,” located in Research Guides in the GCU Library.
☐ The writer is clearly in command of standard, written, academic English. Utilize writing resources such as Grammarly, LopesWrite report, and ThinkingStorm to check your writing.