NUR 641 Topic 8 DQ 1

Sample Answer for NUR 641 Topic 8 DQ 1 Included After Question


Choose a medical condition from the endocrine system and explain the pathophysiology changes

that may occur. What patient education would need to be included related to this disorder? Choose a medical condition different from that of your fellow students.

A Sample Answer For the Assignment: NUR 641 Topic 8 DQ 1

Title: NUR 641 Topic 8 DQ 1

Endocrine System: Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) can be described by metabolic changes related to peripheral insulin resistance. This result from cellular insulin sensitivity and inhibition. Hyperinsulinemia related to type 2 diabetes mellitus inhibits the secretion as well as the actions of insulin. Obesity and overweight contribute to intraabdominal adiposity which alters the activity of insulin. It can be deduced that pathogenic disease processes also contribute to insulin resistance to nondiabetic family members of diabetic patients. According to Handelsman et al. (2015), type 2 diabetes is caused by impaired regulation of as well as altered production of hepatic glucose.

This results from an increase in the rate of postprandial glucose production also known as impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), and this increases the progression of type 2 diabetes (Unnikrishnan, 2016). The process is associated with the decreased secretion of tyrosine kinase activity, glycogen synthase activity, and altered skeletal muscle glycogen synthesis. Neal et al. (2017) posit that type 2 diabetes are also associated with increased hepatic production of insulin by the liver.  The dysfunction in the β-cell function due to a decrease in the secretion of insulin stimulate the onset of glucose intolerance for patients with type 2 diabetes. The altered decline in asynchronous insulin release is potential in decreasing the conversion of proinsulin to insulin.

Intervention approaches in the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus require education particularly on diet, exercise as well as the management of micro and macro risk factors. Patients are encouraged on the need to keep food diaries by adhering to foods with a low glycemic index. They should also consider portion sizes during meal service whereby the vegetables are encouraged compared to simple sugars (Handelsman et al., 2015). There is a need to educate patients on moderate and regular physical exercise to maintain ideal body weight. Further, a patients can receive education on self-care, particularly on self-monitoring of blood glucose through the Random Blood Glucose tests.


Handelsman, Y., Bloomgarden, Z. T., Grunberger, G., Umpierrez, G., Zimmerman, R. S., Bailey, T. S., … & Davidson, J. A. (2015). American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists and American College of Endocrinology–clinical practice guidelines for developing a diabetes mellitus comprehensive care plan–2015. Endocrine Practice, 21(s1), 1-87.

Neal, B., Perkovic, V., Mahaffey, K. W., De Zeeuw, D., Fulcher, G., Erondu, N., … & Matthews, D. R. (2017). Canagliflozin and cardiovascular and renal events in type 2 diabetes. New England Journal of Medicine377(7), 644-657.

 Unnikrishnan A. G. (2016). Diabetes secondary to endocrine and pancreatic disorders. The Indian Journal of Medical Research, 143(5), 670–671. doi:10.4103/0971-5916.187122