NUR 631 Topic 7 DQ 2

Sample Answer for NUR 631 Topic 7 DQ 2 Included After Question

Answer two of the following discussion questions for your discussion response using the “Discussion Forum Sample.”

  1. Many argue that using alcohol, marijuana, or other seemingly “minor” drugs acts as a gateway to stronger, more lethal drugs and addictions. Do you believe there is support for this claim? Support your position from a neurobiology point of view.
  2. From your role as a provider, explain how pain and addiction are a multidimensional public health problem.
  3. Since addicted persons need more and more prescription painkillers or opiates to get the feeling of being “high” or staying “well,” what are some consequences they may face?

A Sample Answer For the Assignment: NUR 631 Topic 7 DQ 2

Title: NUR 631 Topic 7 DQ 2

Many argue that using alcohol, marijuana, or other seemingly “minor” drugs acts as a gateway to stronger, more lethal drugs and addictions. Do you believe there is support for this claim? Support your position from a neurobiology point of view.

I believe this claim holds merit and can become a reality for many individuals engaged in minor drug use. Even the use of seemingly minor drugs can have profound effects on the brain, altering the pleasure and reward system by modulating neurotransmitter activity. This surge in neurotransmitters creates a strong sense of desirability and increases the likelihood of repeated use. Dopamine, in particular, plays a significant role in reinforcement, as research has demonstrated its ability to enhance the likelihood of repeating pleasurable activities (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2022). When a drug user is unable to access drugs or reproduce the euphoric experience, they may experience a sense of demotivation and find it challenging to derive pleasure from previously enjoyable experiences. This can lead them to explore new and more potent drugs in an attempt to recreate the pleasure they once felt and associate with drug use.

From your role as a provider, explain how pain and addiction are a multidimensional public health problem.

Pain and addiction are complex problems that can have far-reaching effects on both individuals and communities. The impact of pain and addiction, as demonstrated by the opioid epidemic, is evident and calls for attention and concerted efforts to address these issues. Resources continue to be allocated to mitigate the prescribing of narcotics and explore alternative approaches to pain management. This problem is multidimensional, encompassing various aspects such as patient perspectives, healthcare provider practices, insurance considerations, and more.

Pain and addiction can result in significant physical and emotional consequences for patients, sometimes leading to fatal outcomes, as exemplified by the 106,000 deaths in 2021 alone from drug-involved overdoses (“Drug Overdose Death Rates,” 2023).The economic burden associated with treating chronic pain is substantial and encompasses healthcare expenses arising from the complex nature of treatment plans. It is crucial to recognize that pain and addiction cannot be easily resolved, but rather require a comprehensive understanding of the problem and a proactive approach to prevent and learn from past mistakes.

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (2023, March 31). Drug overdose death rates. National Institutes of Health. https://nida.nih.gov/research-topics/trends-statistics/overdose-death-rates#:~:text=More%20than%20106%2C000%20persons%20in,drugs%20from%201999%20to%202021. 

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (2022, March 22). Drugs and the Brain. National Institutes of Health. https://nida.nih.gov/publications/drugs-brains-behavior-science-addiction/drugs-brain 

A Sample Answer 2 For the Assignment: NUR 631 Topic 7 DQ 2

Title: NUR 631 Topic 7 DQ 2

Schizophrenia

Pathophysiology:

Schizophrenia has a heritable component, but it is not solely a simple genetic disorder. Multiple factors contribute to whether or not an individual will develop the disorder. It is possible for individuals to carry the genetic predisposition without actually manifesting the illness. Research has indicated that environmental factors also play a significant role in the risk of developing schizophrenia.

Studies have revealed certain structural abnormalities in the brains of individuals with schizophrenia. Enlargement of the lateral and third ventricles, as well as abnormalities in the frontocortical fissure and sulci, have been observed in schizophrenic patients. These changes are believed to contribute to cognitive impairments and may result in a poor response to treatment. Additionally, other studies have shown reductions in the size of the thalamus, temporal lobes, and hippocampal atrophy in individuals with schizophrenia.

Regarding neurotransmitter alterations in schizophrenia, current views suggest reduced dopaminergic neurotransmission in the mesocortical dopamine pathway, which is thought to contribute to the symptoms of the disorder. The glutamate hypothesis proposes that reduced glutamate concentrations in cerebrospinal fluid may also contribute to certain symptoms observed in schizophrenia.

Manifestations:

-Positive: Positive symptoms occur typically during a psychotic episode where the individual loses touch with reality. Includes hallucinations, delusions, and bizarre behavior.

-Negative: Disruptions in normal emotional states. Symptoms include inattentiveness, impaired intimacy, and lack of hygiene.

-Cognitive: Includes inability to make informed decisions, problems with memory, and difficulty paying attention.

Treatments: Medications include conventional and atypical antipsychotics. In combination with medications, psychosocial therapy and cognitive-behavioral therapy have been shown to be beneficial.

McCance, K. L., & Huether, S. E. (2019). Pathophysiology: The biologic basis for disease in adults and children (8th ed.). Elsevier. ISBN-13: 9780323402811

A Sample Answer 3 For the Assignment: NUR 631 Topic 7 DQ 2

Title: NUR 631 Topic 7 DQ 2

Bipolar Disorder:  

Pathophysiology:  It is unclear what specifically causes bipolar disorder. According to experts, there are several factors that interact to increase a person’s risk of developing it. Many physical, environmental, and social factors are thought to be involved in these.

Genetics: tends to run in families.

Brain structure: People with bipolar disorder may have differences in the structure or function of their brains compared to people without the condition.

Chemical Imbalance: Associated with imbalances in certain chemicals in the brain, such as serotonin and dopamine.

Environmental factors: Stressful life events, such as abuse, neglect, or the death of a loved one can trigger bipolar disorder in some people.

Clinical manifestations: Extreme mood swings, including emotional highs (mania or hypomania) and lows (depression), are symptoms of bipolar disorder, formerly known as manic depression.

Treatments: Pharmacotherapy and psychosocial interventions are used in treatment, but, especially with depression, mood relapse, and inadequate response are common. Long-term care for patients with bipolar disorder frequently necessitates ongoing reevaluation and treatment modification. It might also be necessary to manage coexisting psychiatric and chronic medical conditions.

Professional, C. C. M. (n.d.). Bipolar Disorder. Cleveland Clinic. https://my.clevelandclinic.org/health/diseases/9294-bipolar-disorder