NUR 631 Topic 15 DQ 2

Sample Answer for NUR 631 Topic 15 DQ 2 Included After Question

Select two of the following questions for your discussion response. Indicate which questions you have chosen using the format displayed in the “Discussion Forum Sample.” 

  1. Explain the pathophysiological development of breast cancer. Detail the varying types and oncogenic influences for each type.
  2. Menopause comes at different ages for women. What are the changes causing menopause and what are the changes experienced after menopause?
  3. Testicular cancer is common in younger men. Upon examination, you discover a hard nodule of the right testes. What are the oncogenic influences associated with testicular cancer?

A Sample Answer For the Assignment: NUR 631 Topic 15 DQ 2

Title: NUR 631 Topic 15 DQ 2

Menopause comes at different ages for women. What are the changes causing menopause and what are the changes experienced after menopause?

Menopause is essentially the cessation of ovulation and menstruation due to ovarian failure, the age at which it stops is dependent on individual factors and lifestyles. The average age range for menopause is between 40 and 60 years of age. Depending on weight, genetics, and tobacco use, premature menopause can occur before the age of 40 (McCance et.al, 2019). In the years prior to menopause, it is known as the transitional period between reproductive and non-reproductive years, in this phase the menstrual cycle is longer and correlates to anovulatory cycles (McCance et.al, 2019).

Changes in hormones such as higher estradiol levels, lower progesterone, and a disturbance in the ovarian-pituitary-hypothalamic system contribute to the years leading up to menopause. One of the first signs is irregular or unpredictable ovulation and/or periods. Some changes that women often experience after menopause include changes in breast tissue, changes to the GI tract such as uterus atrophy, reduced bone mass, increased risk of cardiovascular diseases, vasomotor flushes (hot flashes), lower estrogen levels, and unpredictable changes in mood (McCance et.al, 2019). Management for women with menopause includes support, estrogen supplements, calcium intake, and heart health.                 

Testicular cancer is common in younger men. Upon examination, you discover a hard nodule of the right testes. What are the oncogenic influences associated with testicular cancer?

Testicular cancer is common among younger men. This type of cancer affects over 90% of young men and comprises of different neoplasms depending on the cell of origin and the age of presentation (Rjpert-DeMeyts et.al, 2023). Testicular germ cell tumors (TGCT) comprise of seminoma and no seminoma, they are typically derived from germ cell neoplasia in situ (GCNIS). Testicular cancers represent developmental, endocrine, and reproductive problems in young adult men, so it is important to identify the several different oncogenic influences associated with testicular cancer.

Studies suggest that individuals with developmental abnormalities of the gonads and sex differentiation (DSD) are at one of the higher risk categories for developing a germ cell neoplasia (Rajpert-DeMeyts et.al, 2023). Other oncogenic influences include low birth weight, Down syndrome, premature birth, high maternal age, late age puberty, and high levels of maternal estrogens (Rajpert-DeMeyts et.al, 2023). The first sign of testicular cancer is usually a scrotal mass with presenting tenderness in very few patients, in a few cases with the same symptoms it can be metastatic, but other symptoms such as lumbar pain and supra-clavicular lymph-node enlargement can also be found with testicular cancer.

Management of a patient with testicular cancer includes supportive treatment for early diagnosis, testosterone deficiency, fertility issues, and the impact of the treatment on quality of life and changes to family planning (Rajpert-DeMeyts et.al, 2023). Treatments for testicular cancer include chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and continuous monitoring of reproductive hormone profiles. 

References:

McCance, K. L., Huether, S. E., Brashers, V. L., Rote, N. S. (2019). Pathophysiology: The biologic basis for disease in adults and children (Eighth ed.). Elsevier.

Rajpert-De Meyts E, Aksglaede L, Bandak M, et al. Testicular Cancer: Pathogenesis, Diagnosis and Management with Focus on Endocrine Aspects. [Updated 2023 Mar 29]. In: Feingold KR, Anawalt B, Blackman MR, et al., editors. Endotext [Internet]. South Dartmouth (MA): MDText.com, Inc.; 2000-.Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK278992/

A Sample Answer For the Assignment: NUR 631 Topic 15 DQ 2

Title: NUR 631 Topic 15 DQ 2

Menopause comes at different ages for women. What are the changes causing menopause, and what are the changes experienced after menopause?

Natural menopause is the normal cessation of ovulation and menses caused by ovarian failure, marking the end of reproductive years. The average age of menopause is 50.5 to 51.4 years of age, with a variability of +/- 10 years. Menopause before 40 years is premature menopause. Genetics, socioeconomic status, race, parity, oral contraceptive use, and lifestyle, such as smoking or weight, impact menopause onset (McCance et al., 2019). Genetics accounts for about 50% of the variation in age at menopause.

The changes of menopause begin with a perimenopause transition from reproductive to nonproductive years, lasting two to eight years. Hormonal changes occur during this time: higher estradiol, lower progesterone, and HPO feedback disruption resulting in higher LH (McCance et al., 2019). menopause. This transition also includes ovarian and uterine changes. Around 37 to 38 years of age, women experience accelerated follicular loss, which ends when the supply of follicles is depleted at menopause (McCance et al., 2019). Higher turnover of endometrium cycles occurs, and this proliferative growth can be troublesome for some women. Increased endometrial bleeding and thickening can occur.

Breast tissue changes in menopause as well by becoming involuted, fat deposits, white adipose, and elevated aromatase that decrease circulating estrogen (McCance et al., 2019). Many other systems are affected in menopause. Genitourinary structures atrophy and skeletal strength depletes. Cardiovascular disease risk increases, blood pressure and cholesterol decrease, and metabolic dysfunction can occur. Hormonal changes such as low estrogen contribute to skin changes (loss of elasticity, dryness, wrinkling) and facial hair changes.

Testicular cancer is common in younger men. Upon examination, you discover a hard nodule of the right testes. What are the oncogenic influences associated with testicular cancer?

Testicular cancer (TC) is highly treatable, usually curable, ad most often develops in young and middle-aged men. Oncogenic influences include race, ethnicity, genetics, viral, mechanical, chemical, and hormonal circumstances. Testicular cancer is increasing, and the annual incidence of TC has doubled over the past 40 years with an increasing trend, particularly in Caucasian males (De Toni et al., 2019). Scandinavian countries report the highest rate of newly affected individuals worldwide (2019). Certain genes predispose men to TC (PRDM14, DMRT1, GATA4, and GATA1 genes) (De Toni et al., 2019). History of traumatic injury may result in proliferative disease of the tests, especially when other oncogenic risk factors exist.

References

De Toni, L., Šabovic, I., Cosci, I., Ghezzi, M., Foresta, C., & Garolla, A. (2019). Testicular Cancer: Genes, Environment, Hormones. Frontiers in endocrinology, 10, 408. https://doi.org/10.3389/fendo.2019.00408

McCance, K. L., Huether, S. E., Brashers, V. L., Rote, N. S., & McCance, K. L. (2019). Pathophysiology: The biologic basis for disease in adults and children. Elsevier.