NUR 631 Topic 11 DQ 2

Sample Answer for NUR 631 Topic 11 DQ 2 Included After Question

Select two of the following questions for your discussion response. Indicate which questions you have chosen using the format displayed in the “Discussion Forum Sample.”

  1. Discuss the differences between respiratory acidosis and respiratory alkalosis. Provide a case study or presentation associated with respiratory acidosis or respiratory alkalosis.
  2. Clinicians have developed an appreciation for obstructive sleep apnea. Explain the pathophysiological problems a patient could experience associated with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA).
  3. Multiple conditions lead to pulmonary embolus. Articulate the development and associated conditions during pregnancy which lead to pulmonary embolus.

A Sample Answer For the Assignment: NUR 631 Topic 11 DQ 2

Title: NUR 631 Topic 11 DQ 2

Clinicians have developed an appreciation for obstructive sleep apnea. Explain the pathophysiological problems a patient could experience associated with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). 

Obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome is a sleep disorder characterized by cessation of breathing and/or a considerable decrease in airflow when breathing is exerted. Recurrent oxyhemoglobin desaturations and arousals during sleep relate to apnea episodes (Hollier, 2018). Sleep apnea increases heart stress, which contributes to hypertension, atherosclerosis, insulin resistance, cardiac arrhythmias, myocardial infarction, and stroke (Hollier, 2018). It also raises brain stress, resulting in decreased cognitive and emotional disorders (Hollier, 2018). Symptoms intensify over time due to aging, weight changes, menopause, and other causes (Hollier, 2018). Other than hypertension and CAD, other risk factors include heart failure, atrial flutter, supraventricular tachycardia, V-fib, and, last but not least, pulmonary hypertension (Hollier, 2018). 

Multiple conditions lead to pulmonary embolus. Articulate the development and associated conditions during pregnancy which lead to pulmonary embolus. 

Pulmonary embolism (PE) is the occlusion of the pulmonary artery or its branches by an embolus (McCance & Huether, 2019). This blockage is usually life-threatening as it can prevent the blood from reaching the lungs. A small portion of cases is due to embolization of air, fat, or talc in drugs of intravenous drug abusers and a small piece of tumor that has broken off from a more massive tumor of the body . In almost all cases, the cause of PE is a blood clot that originated from deep vein thrombosis (DVT).

This type of clot travels through circulation and eventually gets lodged in one of the blood vessels in the lung. The thrombus that has broken away is called an embolus, causing an embolism. Most DVTs come from the lower extremities or pelvis. Occasionally, a PEay come from in the upper extremity vein, or a blood clot formed in the heart . Risk factors for PE include conditions and disorders that promote blood clotting because of venous stasis, hypercoagulation that could stem from inherited coagulation disorders, malignant, or hormone therapy, and endothelial injury (McCance & Huether, 2019). 

References 

Hollier, A. (2018). Clinical guidelines in primary care (3rd ed.). Obstructive sleep apnea- hypopnea syndrome. Layfayette, LA: APEA 

McCance, K. L. & Huether, S. E. (2019). Pathophysiology: The biologic basis for disease in adults and children (8thed.). St. Louis, MO: Mosby 

A Sample Answer 2 For the Assignment: NUR 631 Topic 11 DQ 2

Title: NUR 631 Topic 11 DQ 2

Clinicians have developed an appreciation for obstructive sleep apnea. Explain the pathophysiological problems a patient could experience associated with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA).

Obstructive lung disease can be debilitating and affects activities of daily living. Obstructive lung diseases may become progressively worse without proper prevention and treatment. These kinds of diseases are characterized by troubled breathing on expiration and the increase of force that is required to ventilate adequately. OSA is the pharyngeal narrowing and closure during sleep, leading to a disturbed, nonrestorative sleep (Slowik et.al, 2022). Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) occurs in individuals with certain risk factors that place them in that category, some of these risk factors include obesity, smokers, those with underlying cardiac/lung issues, and facial anatomical shape.

There are several pathophysiological problems that patients could experience with OSA. One, there is an upper airway obstruction during sleep that is due to a negative collapse in pressure during inspiration, leading to an expiratory narrowing in the retro palatal area (Slowik et.al, 2022). The narrowing of the airway and the size of the narrowing is dependent on body mass index and anatomical/neuromuscular factors (Slowik et.al, 2022). Symptoms of OSA include daytime sleepiness and fatigue leading to impaired functioning.  

Multiple conditions lead to pulmonary embolus. Articulate the development and associated conditions during pregnancy which lead to pulmonary embolus.

Reports from the Clinics in chest medicine journal indicate that venous thromboembolism (VTE) account for up to 3% of all maternal deaths worldwide (2018). VTEs are the cause of pulmonary embolisms (PE) that cause pulmonary infarction and even cardiac arrest. Pregnant women are one of the highest-risk individuals and are more likely to pass from a PE that was never treated. Virchow triad principles apply to the reasoning behind why pregnant women are more at risk of developing VTE, this is due to increased venous stasis, vascular injury, and a hypercoagulable state (2018).

An overall increase in blood volume and viscosity, and blood pressure causes the development of PE. The VTE may become dislodged from a lower extremity, traveling to the lungs, causing respiratory infarction or arrest. Conditions during pregnancy that lead to VTE include venous stasis from less frequent activity, a vascular dysfunction of injury, a hypercoagulable state (pro coagulation factors V, VII, IX, X), inherited thrombophilia (factor V Leiden), and older pregnancy (older than 35 years old), and preeclampsia (2018).                                                                                                                                                                                       

References:

Dado, C. D., Levinson, A. T., & Bourjeily, G. (2018). Pregnancy and Pulmonary Embolism. Clinics in chest medicine39(3), 525–537. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ccm.2018.04.007

Slowik JM, Sankari A, Collen JF. Obstructive Sleep Apnea. [Updated 2022 Dec 11]. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2023 Jan-. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK459252/#