NUR 630 Topic 6 DQ 2

Sample Answer for NUR 630 Topic 6 DQ 2 Included After Question

Describe at least two limitations to both primary and secondary data and how understanding those limitations can improve your future CQI work.

A Sample Answer For the Assignment: NUR 630 Topic 6 DQ 2

Title: NUR 630 Topic 6 DQ 2

Primary data is collected directly from the data source without using any existing sources.  It is mainly collected for a specific project.  Since primary data is collected for a specific issue or problem, it is usually reliable and objective.  Interviews and surveys are examples of primary data sources.  One of the limitations of primary data is the cost that is associated with collecting the information.  Primary data is expensive to collect in relation to secondary data.  In some cases, collecting primary data may become time-consuming.  Primary data may not be feasible in some cases due to its complexity and commitment requirement by the researcher (Busayo, 2021).

Secondary data is data that others have collected.  This information that was once considered primary data, becomes secondary data after it is shared after the initial project is completed.  Secondary data is more easily accessible than primary data.  Examples of secondary data include journals and publications.  Secondary data limitations include a lack of authenticity and reliability.  There is also the possibility that the data can become outdated as more research is done on the initial project (Busayo, 2021).  

When using either primary or secondary data for a project, it remains important to understand these limitations.  Since interviews or surveys are an important primary data collection tool, one must be aware that there might be personal biases within the interview or survey process.  Primary data is always “specific to the researcher’s needs, and he controls the quality of research. In contrast, secondary data is neither specific to the researcher’s need, nor he has control over the data quality.  Primary data is available in the raw form whereas secondary data is the refined form of primary data. It can also be said that secondary data is obtained when statistical methods are applied to the primary data” (Surbhi, 2020).  It is important to remember these limitations when starting a continuous quality improvement project.  After the project is started, one or more of these limitations might make it impossible to finish the project after the start of one.  


Busayo, L. (2021).  Primary vs secondary data: 15 key differences and similarities.  Form Plus. 

Surbhi, S. (2020). Difference between primary and secondary data.  Key Differences.

A Sample Answer 2 For the Assignment: NUR 630 Topic 6 DQ 2

Title: NUR 630 Topic 6 DQ 2

As we previously discussed, both primary and secondary data play a critical role in continuous quality improvement (CQI) work. They both provide information that facilitates the identification of opportunities for improvement and helps identify if quality improvement (QI) processes need to be redesigned (Johnson & Sollecito, 2020). Therefore, the quality of data is very important and should be the heist quality. Clinicians and researchers must be aware of the limitations that both types of data may have and be mindful when deciding on data sources. One of the concerns that is described with primary data is “non-sampling” errors – “those that cannot be controlled by traditional sample design and statistical analysis adjustments” (Johnson & Sollecito, 2020, p. 195).

The example provided was measuring patient satisfaction and surveys that had no response. Meaning that the number of surveys to be studied was much higher than the number of surveys that had responses. This error can lead to selection bias and under-representation. Another issue that needs to be considered is sample size. If the sample size was not achieved, for example, the number of returned surveys would be much lower and may cause high margins of error that will invalidate conclusions based on survey data (Johnson & Sollecito, 2020). By its definition, secondary data is collected for purposes other than the specific process performance and as a result, has been criticized for poor quality (Johnson & Sollecito, 2020).

Some of the limitations that can lead to poor quality of data are lack of control over the collection process, data being out-of-date, and pre-existing bias (Indeed Editorial Team, 2022). Since secondary data is collected by using surveys from a previous study, it would be impossible to adjust or create the survey to meet the specific needs resulting in a lack of control of the process and how long the data was collected. A high chance of bias results from clinicians/researchers interpreting or presenting the information in a way that suits their study (Indeed Editorial Team, 2022). The important step would be to examine only facts and watch out for bias when using secondary data. To conclude, being aware of the limitations of primary and secondary data provides clinicians with the needed skills to critically analyze the information to ensure that the data that is used for CQI work is of the highest quality.


Johnson J. K., & Sollecito, W. A. (2020). Continuous quality improvement in health care (5th ed.). Jones & Bartlett Learning. ISBN-13: 9781284126594

Indeed Editorial Team (2022). Primary vs. secondary data (with definitions and benefits).

A Sample Answer 3 For the Assignment: NUR 630 Topic 6 DQ 2

Title: NUR 630 Topic 6 DQ 2

Primary data refers to original data collected for a specific purpose by a researcher or team that has not been previously published, analyzed, or otherwise reviewed (Hassan, 2023).  This type of data is collected directly from the source of study by methods including surveys, interviews, observations, and case studies, to name a few (Hassan, 2023).  One of the limitations to primary data is that it’s time-consuming to collect, especially when large volumes of data are required (Hassan, 2023).  Data collection would need to be done by multiple people who would first need to be trained on exactly what you are looking for, which leads to the second limitation of primary data: potential for errors (Hassan, 2023).  Those collecting data can make mistakes in data entry or in measurement of data, which could affect the accuracy of results.  Knowing these limitations can help one decide if primary data is the correct approach when implementing performance improvement initiatives.  Primary data would be most useful when solving problems that require up-to-date, accurate data on a specific patient population that might not have been studied yet or has limited data already available.

Secondary data has already been collected as primary data, has been analyzed, and published along with the findings after being analyzed (Walker, 2023).  While secondary data is much more readily available and can be collected much faster, there are some disadvantages to using this type of data.  Just as primary data can be up-to-date, secondary data can be outdated depending on when it was collected (Walker, 2023).  Secondary data can also have quality and accuracy issues, depending on how it was collected and by whom (Walker, 2023).  You are relying on someone else’s data collection skills, which may not be thorough enough or follow the specific criteria set forth in the collection process.  If you are looking for the most recent best practice information to solve a current problem in your organization, secondary data can be tricky.  You would need to find recent data, with collection methods fully disclosed so that you can be sure you are using accurate research to assist in solving your problem.


Hassan, M. (2023, October). Primary data-types, methods, and examples. Research Method:

Walker, J. (2023, August). Disadvantages of secondary research-a difinitive guide . Research Prospect: