NUR 630 Topic 6 DQ 1

Sample Answer for NUR 630 Topic 6 DQ 1 Included After Question

What is the difference between primary and secondary data? How can primary and secondary source data be used to drive CQI? Provide a specific example of how each source can be used to drive CQI.

Knowledge Check

Select a possible CQI project; identify one source of primary data and one source of secondary data. How would both be used to inform your project?

A Sample Answer For the Assignment: NUR 630 Topic 6 DQ 1

Title: NUR 630 Topic 6 DQ 1

The main difference between primary data and secondary data is that primary data is data collected from research for a specific purpose, and secondary data comes from other sources for another purpose or project  (Butlion, 2023). Both can be used in a quality improvement project. The pro of using the secondary data is it allows for data in instances where it would be unethical to submit it to a controlled study, and the data can also be collected more quickly, because it is data that already exists (Mendlowitz, 2020). The con of using the secondary data is that the true quality of the source is not always known (Mendlowitz, 2020). The pro’s and con’s of using primary data is that it is reliable data, this is because it is data that you have collected yourself, and have full knowledge of what method was used during the collection (Butlion, 2023).

A con of using primary data is you collect it yourself so it can be time consuming and costly (Mendlowitz, 2020). Primary data for CQI purposes is important, it is used to measure processes and outcomes; an example of primary data would be collecting the percentage of patients who have an albumin less than or equal to 4, and this data was only used for CQI project (Mendlowitz,2020). An example of secondary data being used is collecting it from administrative data sight, this data can be used in other ways, other than just CQI (Mendlowitz,2020). 


Mendlowitz, A., Croxford, R., MacLagan, L., Ritcey, G., & Isaranuwatchai, W. (2020). Usage of primary and administrative data to measure the economic impact of quality improvement projects. BMJ open quality9(2), e000712.

Butlion, J. (2023). Primary or secondary data analysis: which method should you choose?

A Sample Answer 2 For the Assignment: NUR 630 Topic 6 DQ 1

Title: NUR 630 Topic 6 DQ 1

Nursing continues to rely on data to guide continuous quality improvement (CQI). Through data, healthcare practitioners can identify performance gaps and other inefficiencies requiring evidence-based interventions (Lu et al., 2020). Generally, data involves labeled or unlabeled information, numbers, and facts. Data could also be arranged or unarranged depending on the type and intended use. Since data should be processed to be meaningful and form various outputs, health professionals should understand its sources and classifications.

In healthcare and other practices, primary and secondary data are the main information sources. Primary data is the first-hand data that researchers collect about a particular topic. In this case, primary data is collected directly from participants using interviews, observations, focus group discussions, and questionnaires (Taherdoost, 2022). Primary data is characterized by high accuracy, objectivity, and authenticity. On the other hand, secondary data represents data from already available sources; it is collected for other purposes and by other investigators. Nursing professionals can obtain secondary data from internal and external sources. Published materials and sources from nursing databases are common sources of secondary data.

Both primary and secondary data sources can be used to drive CQI. As a data-driven process, CQI identifies improvement areas related to structure, processes, and outcomes (Tibeihaho et al., 2021). A suitable example of primary data is patient interviews on experiences with care or the feasibility of a particular approach. Nurses can thematically analyze concern areas and use the feedback to improve processes and care structure. Secondary data involves past studies on the effectiveness of a particular intervention. For instance, past randomized controlled trials and literature reviews support patient education as a feasible intervention for preventing falls among older adults (Heng et al., 2020; Schoberer et al., 2022). Nurses can evaluate how patient education was implemented to improve outcomes from secondary sources and use the findings to drive CQI.


Heng, H., Jazayeri, D., Shaw, L., Kiegaldie, D., Hill, A. M., & Morris, M. E. (2020). Hospital falls prevention with patient education: a scoping review. BMC Geriatrics20, 1-12.

Lu, S. J., Kao, H. O., Chang, B. L., Gong, S. I., Liu, S. M., Ku, S. C., & Jerng, J. S. (2020). Identification of quality gaps in healthcare services using the SERVQUAL instrument and importance-performance analysis in medical intensive care: a prospective study at a medical center in Taiwan. BMC Health Services Research20(1), 1-11.

Schoberer, D., Breimaier, H. E., Zuschnegg, J., Findling, T., Schaffer, S., & Archan, T. (2022). Fall prevention in hospitals and nursing homes: Clinical practice guideline. Worldviews on Evidence‐Based Nursing19(2), 86-93.

Taherdoost, H. (2021). Data collection methods and tools for research; a step-by-step guide to choose data collection technique for academic and business research projects. International Journal of Academic Research in Management (IJARM)10(1), 10-38.

Tibeihaho, H., Nkolo, C., Onzima, R. A., Ayebare, F., & Henriksson, D. K. (2021). Continuous quality improvement as a tool to implement evidence-informed problem solving: experiences from the district and health facility level in Uganda. BMC Health Services Research21, 1-11.

A Sample Answer 3 For the Assignment: NUR 630 Topic 6 DQ 1

Title: NUR 630 Topic 6 DQ 1

Quality initiatives are absolutely crucial for enhancing the overall quality of products and services offered by organizations. In order to achieve successful quality initiatives, organizations must have access to both primary and secondary data. Primary data, which is collected firsthand through direct observation, surveys, or experiments, is particularly valuable as it is usually specific to the issue being addressed Research Guides at Benedictine University Library, n.d.). For instance, in the hospital setting, conducting leadership rounds with patients and families is an essential step towards assessing patient satisfaction and identifying areas that need improvement. Our goal is to gain real-time insights into the patient experience while hospitalized with the aim of fixing any deficiencies and celebrating areas where we excel. This primary data provides valuable insights into the areas that are of key concern for patients.

Secondary data, on the other hand, is information that has already been collected by another person or organization and is readily available for use. It can include data from industry dashboard reports, nationwide or regional statistics, or other hospital organizational research data. Secondary data can provide valuable context for the problem at hand and help organizations understand industry trends and benchmarks. By using both primary and secondary data, quality initiatives can gain a more comprehensive understanding of the situation and make more informed decisions. For example, an organization could use primary data to pinpoint specific areas for improvement and then use secondary data to compare its performance against industry standards. By looking at rounding data, an organization can assess its responses compared to the responses of other patients in the same situation within a comparable organization to understand how each organization ranks in relation to one another. This holistic approach to data collection enables organizations to identify and address quality issues more effectively, ultimately leading to improved care delivery, products/services, and increased customer satisfaction.


Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. (n.d.). Why improve patient experience?

Research Guides at Benedictine University Library. (2023, April 18). Research guides: Public health research guide: Primary & secondary data definitions