NUR 550 Discuss the role of the Institutional Review Board

Sample Answer for NUR 550 Discuss the role of the Institutional Review Board Included After Question

Topic 3 DQ 2

Assessment Description

Discuss the role of the Institutional Review Board. Discuss ethical research considerations specifc to
population health. How are respect for the persons, potential benefts and burdens of the research, and
Page 14 Grand Canyon University 2023 © Prepared on: Feb 10, 2023, 11:55 PM
justice kept in balance? Provide an example

A Sample Answer For the Assignment: NUR 550 Discuss the role of the Institutional Review Board

Title: NUR 550 Discuss the role of the Institutional Review Board

All research subjects, human and animal, must be protected. Due to this, there are many safeguards in place to protect the safety and rights of these study subjects (DeNisco, 2021). When research studies are funded by the government or large foundations, the peer-review committee ensures the protection of research subjects. However, in hospital or academic settings, the institutional review board (IRB) ensures this safeguarding.

When conducting experimental population research, many ethical considerations arise. Within clinical trials, the study group will typically have one variable manipulated, to evaluate the outcome (DeNisco, 2021). This manipulation may lead to ethical issues within the study and control groups. For example, if the study is being done to identify a potential toxin that is causing illness, it is not ethical to expose the study group to this. Conversely, if the study is to identify if a medication has efficacy, it is not ethical to leave the control group untreated. Safeguards, such as IRB, are in place to protect the rights and safety of all research subjects. The intent of research must be to produce positive outcomes, minimize harm, and to respect the rights and safety of all research subjects.

References

DeNisco, S. M. (2021). Advanced practice nursing: Essential knowledge for the profession (4th ed.). Jones & Bartlett Learning.

A Sample Answer 2 For the Assignment: NUR 550 Discuss the role of the Institutional Review Board

Title: NUR 550 Discuss the role of the Institutional Review Board

 It is true that all research subjects, human and animal, must be protected. Different regulations are put in place to ensure that research subjects and other activities are conducted in the standard manner. Research is important in providing information on different healthcare aspects (Maxwell, 2019).  However, violating ethical and legal requirements discredits research and research findings. Therefore, researchers ensure that they have adhered to all research requirements when researching. Other research studies are funded by the government or large foundations.

NUR 550 Discuss the role of the Institutional Review Board
NUR 550 Discuss the role of the Institutional Review Board

These institutions may require important information that will influence policymaking process. Therefore, government and large institutions ensure that they conform to ethical and legal requirements of research. The institutional review board (IRB) is an important regulatory and oversight body in research (Lapid et al., 2019). IRB membership consists of experienced and competent healthcare professionals. These members understand the impact of research in healthcare settings. Therefore, the board provides credible information that can influence nursing practice and research.

References

Lapid, M. I., Clarke, B. L., & Wright, R. S. (2019, March). Institutional review boards: What clinician researchers need to know. In Mayo Clinic Proceedings (Vol. 94, No. 3, pp. 515-525). Elsevier. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mayocp.2019.01.020

Maxwell, B. (2019). Institutional Review Boards in Qualitative Research: Has it Gone Overboard?. The Canadian Journal of Action Research20(1), 52-70.

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A Sample Answer 3 For the Assignment: NUR 550 Discuss the role of the Institutional Review Board

Title: NUR 550 Discuss the role of the Institutional Review Board

The primary role of the Institutional Review Board (IRB) is to provide safety of the human participants and assess the use of animals in a research study (DeNisco, 2021). Generally, research-based studies have safety measure to ensure the safety and rights of the both the human and animal participants are well protected. The members of the IRBs review the scientific validity of the research design and the potential benefits that the study might add.  

The main ethical concern for the translational research process is the analysis of the risk-benefit ratio. Before embarking on the rigorous research process, an extensive risk-benefit analysis should be conducted in order protect the research subjects and the population from potential harm that may arise as the researchers attempts to satisfy their curiosity (Riva & Petrini, 2019). Second, the issue of informed consent is also a major ethical concern. It is important to work on this issue in order to avoid potential misconceptions. The financial conflicts of interest are an ethical issue likely to be encountered particularly during the preapproval phase of translational research.

One of the generally applied safeguards to ensure that the ethical conduct of the research is met is the involvement of external reviewers or the IRBs. Prior to starting the research process, the researchers are required to submit the research proposal that includes the mode of data collection, research advertisements, and informed consent records (Riva & Petrini, 2019). For example, the IRBs might require certain conditions be met. Second, the potential risks to the research subjects must be reduced and the potential benefits must be enhanced.

References

DeNisco, S. M. (2021). Advanced practice nursing: Essential knowledge for the profession (4th ed.). Jones & Bartlett Learning.

Riva, L., & Petrini, C. (2019). A few ethical issues in translational research for gene and cell therapy. Journal of Translational Medicine, 17(1), N.PAG. https://doi-org.lopes.idm.oclc.org/10.1186/s12967-019-02154-5.

A Sample Answer 4 For the Assignment: NUR 550 Discuss the role of the Institutional Review Board

Title: NUR 550 Discuss the role of the Institutional Review Board

I concur with you that the Institutional Review Board (IRB) provides the safety of the human participants and assess the use of animals in a research study. The board comprises of different health professionals who understand the importance of research in healthcare environment. However, the IRB acknowledges that some healthcare professionals may misuse animals and research participants when researching. Therefore, IRB provides oversight role in research (Bos & Bos, 2020). The board has website with various peer-reviewed journal articles that improve the quality of research studies.

Healthcare professionals can use the IRB website to access reliable information. The board has also indicated ethical and legal requirements in research (Navalta et al., 2019). The main ethical concern for the translational research process is the analysis of the risk-benefit ratio.  Before research, healthcare professionals and other participants should examine risks and benefits.  Research studies with risks outweighing benefits can be halted to avoid endangering the targeted population. However, some risks may be averted to ensure that the research proceeds.

References

Bos, J., & Bos, J. (2020). Research Ethics Step by Step. Research Ethics for Students in the Social Sciences, 227-273.

Navalta, J. W., Stone, W. J., & Lyons, S. (2019). Ethical issues relating to scientific discovery in exercise science. International journal of exercise science12(1), 1. Available at: https://digitalcommons.wku.edu/ijes/vol12/iss1/1

A Sample Answer 5 For the Assignment: NUR 550 Discuss the role of the Institutional Review Board

Title: NUR 550 Discuss the role of the Institutional Review Board

The role of the Institutional Review Board (IRB) is to protect patients. There are federal regulations and research protocols that must be followed to ensure the rights, welfare, and well-being of people participating in the research are protected (Marzinsky & Smith-Miller, 2019). Ethical principles that should be considered in population health research include non-maleficence, beneficence, respect for persons, and justice. These principles are kept in balance by ensuring there is no harm to patients, there is benefit to the patient, and the patient is treated as an individual.

There should be informed and shared decision making using a collaborative approach using evidence based practice, the patient’s history, including patient’s preferences and cultural differences. Marzinsky & Smith-Miller (2019) note “IRBs seek to ensure that study designs maximize benefits while minimizing potential harm and that those who agree to participate in research do so voluntarily with a full understanding of participation expectations and risks” (p. 22).

There are different IRB review categories based on risk, and the IRB process must be followed to protect patients and gain IRB approval. For example, clinical trials, a survey where illegal activities may be disclosed, or a study involving a vulnerable population such as prisoners would be considered in the full board category. Research cannot begin until the IRB has granted approval of the study. 

References

Marzinsky, A. & Smith-Miller, C. A. (2019). Nurse research and the institutional review board. American Nurse Today, 14(10), 20-24. https://research.unc.edu/wp-content/uploads/sites/61/2019/12/IRB-101-American-Nurse-article.pdf

A Sample Answer 6 For the Assignment: NUR 550 Discuss the role of the Institutional Review Board

Title: NUR 550 Discuss the role of the Institutional Review Board

Since establishing of Institutional Review Board (IRB) healthcare providers and workers have maintained discipline when engaging their patients. As a result, the board has been credited for protecting patients.  Besides, the IRB provides ethical and legal considerations that define the scope of work for healthcare professionals (Rahimy et al., 2020). Also, the agency has federal regulations and research protocols that must be followed to ensure the rights, welfare, and well-being of people participating in the research are protected. 

The institutional review board contains healthcare professionals as members (Kerezoudis et al., 2022). Therefore, the board is competent and recognized by the law in overseeing healthcare practice.  The board is also involved in the authoring and production of peer-reviewed journal articles that help healthcare professionals in acquiring reliable health information. There are different IRB review categories based on risk, and the IRB process must be followed to protect patients and gain IRB approval. The board also review research studies.

References

Kerezoudis, P., Gyftopoulos, A., Alexander, A. Y., Starnes, D. K., Nickels, K. C., Worrell, G. A., … & Miller, K. J. (2022). Safety and efficacy of responsive neurostimulation in the pediatric population: evidence from institutional review and patient-level meta-analysis. Epilepsy & Behavior129, 108646. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.yebeh.2022.108646

Rahimy, E., Koong, A., Toesca, D., White, M. N., Panjwani, N., Fisher, G., … & Pollom, E. (2020). Outcomes and tolerability of definitive and preoperative chemoradiation in elderly patients with esophageal cancer: a retrospective institutional review. Advances in Radiation Oncology5(6), 1188-1196. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.adro.2020.05.001

As a nurse leader and change agent, it is important to approach the committee from a conflict resolution and negotiation standpoint. Spiritual views can be a hot topic for some, so it is important to allow everyone to have input. Listening carefully and hearing the real message are the basis for negotiating and critical to obtaining the right outcome (Weberg & Mangold, 2022). Perhaps there is a common theme from input shared that could be built upon. Nonetheless, it is important to get to the root of the conflict to determine how it can be negotiated. Some of the negotiation skills that Weberg & Mangold (2022) discuss are:

  • Understand your own position. 
  • Collect information to understand the other person’s position. 
  • Reach a mutual solution focused on the purpose of the community outreach.  

 Additionally, as a transformational leader, I would display integrity, model fairness, set clear goals, encourage and support others, and inspire vision and purpose as part of the process. 

I would draw from a change model informed by complexity science to address the concerns and encourage collaboration on the committee. DeNisco (2023) lists an eight-step process for this model. For this situation of a position statement on the role of spiritual care, the first two steps have been established. I would focus on the rest of the process in bold.

  • Making sense/unfreezing
  • Leading or serving on an interprofessional change team
  • Developing a team vision and charge- Developing a vision helps the team appreciate the meaning and purpose of their work and steer towards a common goal or desirable outcome. 
  • Identifying and analyzing forces of change– Seek input from committee members resistant to the change to understand their position. Use conflict resolution and negotiation skills. 
  • Developing a work plan for change implementation– Once a mutual agreement has been reached, work on a revision of the position statement. 
  • Implementing change- New draft of position statement is written. 
  • Evaluating outcome and refining as needed- Committee evaluation of position statement and revision if needed. 
  • Incorporating changes into the culture/refreezing- Final position statement on spiritual care is adopted. 

References:

DeNisco, S. M. (2023). Advanced practice nursing: Essential knowledge for the profession (5th ed.). Jones & Bartlett Learning.

Weberg, D., & Mangold, K. (2022). Leadership in nursing practice: The intersection of innovation and teamwork in healthcare systems (4th ed.). Jones & Bartlett Learning.