NUR 550 Benchmark-Evidence-Based Practice Project Literature Review

Sample Answer for NUR 550 Benchmark-Evidence-Based Practice Project Literature Review Included After Question

Assessment Description

The purpose of this assignment is to write a review of the research articles you evaluated in your Topic 5
“Evidence-Based Practice Project: Evaluation of Literature” assignment. If you have been directed by your
instructor to select diferent articles in order to meet the requirements for a literature review or to better
support your evidence-based practice project proposal, complete this step prior to writing your review.

A literature review provides a concise comparison of the literature for the reader and explains how the
research demonstrates support for your PICOT. You will use the literature review in this assignment in
NUR-590, during which you will write a fnal paper detailing your evidence-based practice project proposal.
In a paper of 1,250-1,500, select eight of the ten articles you evaluated that demonstrate clear support for your
evidence-based practice and complete the following for each article:

  1. Introduction – Describe the clinical issue or problem you are addressing. Present your PICOT statement.
  2. Search methods – Describe your search strategy and the criteria that you used in choosing and searching for
    your articles.
  3. Synthesis of the literature – For each article, write a paragraph discussing the main components (subjects,
    methods, key fndings) and provide rationale for how the article supports your PICOT.
  4. Comparison of articles – Compare the articles (similarities and diferences, themes, methods, conclusions,
    limitations, controversies).
  5. Suggestions for future research: Based on your analysis of the literature, discuss identifed gaps and which
    areas require further research.
  6. Conclusion – Provide a summary statement of what you found in the literature.
  7. Complete the “APA Writing Checklist” to ensure that your paper adheres to APA style and formatting criteria
    and general guidelines for academic writing. Include the completed checklist as an appendix at the end of
    your paper.
    Refer to the “Evidence-Based Practice Project Proposal – Assignment Overview” document for an overview of
    the evidence-based practice project proposal assignments.
    Page 27 Grand Canyon University 2023 © Prepared on: Feb 10, 2023, 11:55 PM
    You are required to cite eight peer-reviewed sources to complete this assignment. Sources must be published
    within the last 5 years and appropriate for the assignment criteria and nursing content.
    Prepare this assignment according to the guidelines found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student
    Success Center. An abstract is not required.
    This assignment uses a rubric. Please review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar
    with the expectations for successful completion.
    You are required to submit this assignment to LopesWrite. A link to the LopesWrite technical support articles is
    located in Class Resources if you need assistance.
  8. Benchmark Information
  9. This benchmark assignment assesses the following programmatic competencies:
    MBA-MSN; MSN-Nursing Education; MSN Acute Care Nurse Practitioner-Adult-Gerontology; MSN Family Nurse
    Practitioner; MSN-Health Informatics; MSN-Health Care Quality and Patient Safety; MSN-Leadership in Health Care
    Systems; MSN-Public Health Nursing
    3.2: Analyze appropriate research from databases and other information sources to improve health care practices
    and processes.

A Sample Answer For the Assignment: NUR 550 Benchmark-Evidence-Based Practice Project Literature Review

Title: NUR 550 Benchmark-Evidence-Based Practice Project Literature Review

The occurrence of medication administration errors hinders effective attainment of quality and safe patient care and outcomes. Medication administration errors are significant safety issue in health care sector, especially when there are different crises affecting healthcare and quality outcomes. The susceptibility of patients to medication administration errors increase with reduced number of healthcare workers against an increase in demand for services due to several factors. Medication administration errors (MAEs) increase the length of stay for critically ill patients and cost of care.

Studies demonstrate that leveraging health information technologies that include barcode scanning and other interventions can reduce and prevent the occurrence of these events, especially among the critically ill patients. The purpose of this literature review is to offer a comparison of the articles that supports the evidence-based practice project of using health information technology to reduce the occurrence of medication administration errors among the critically ill patients. The review also identifies the methods used to search the literature and synthesizes it for effective understanding and use for the selected eight articles.

PICOT Statement

The use of health information technology can reduce and prevent the prevalence of medication administration errors (MAEs) among critically ill patients. The use of interventions like barcode scanning and electronic dispensation ensures that human errors that occur during medication dispensation are reduced or minimized, especially the critically-ill patients in different health settings.

PICOT Question for the Evidence-Based Practice Project

Among the critically ill patients (P), does the integration of health information technology (I) compared to conventional medication administration process (C), lead to a reduction in medication administration errors (O) during patient’s stay (T)?

Search Methods of the Literature

Effective search of articles comprises of using appropriate approaches and terms that align with the topic of interest. In this assignment, I employed different yet related strategies to search for the articles that support the EBP project. These included using institutional library to get databases of journals and their published peer-reviewed articles. I used terms like “peer review” and “scholarly works” about medication administration errors. Through these approaches, I obtained the articles that I used in providing this literature review as they support my EBP project. I also ensured that the article meet the criteria of being published within the last five years and are relevant to the nursing context and use.

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Synthesis of Literature

Article 1

The first article is by Alotaibi and Federico (2012) who discuss the impacts of health information technology on patient safety. Through a review of present scientific evidence on the effects of health information technologies on improving patient safety, the authors demonstrate the effectiveness of these interventions in reducing medication administration errors.

NUR 550 Benchmark-Evidence-Based Practice Project Literature Review
NUR 550 Benchmark-Evidence-Based Practice Project Literature Review

Their findings support the implementation of health information technology to reduce medication errors and mitigate adverse events while increasing compliance to established guidelines in nursing practice. The article supports the PICOT as it shows the interventions that can be used to improve quality care and enhance overall patient safety. The article also supports the PICOT by showing the time frame that facilities can use to attain the benefits of these interventions.

Article 2

The second article by Barakat and Franklin (2020) focuses on the effects of using barcode medication administration (BCMA) on nursing practice activity and workflow. The authors use a qualitative study design in two surgical wards at a large acute facility in London. Through observations, the authors found that BCMA increased the nursing workflow, patient verification and efficiencies in medication administration. The authors are emphatic that the use of barcode and other health information technologies can enhance care delivery by minimizing occurrence of medication administration errors. The article supports the PICOT as it addresses how nurse practitioners handling critically ill patients can use technology-based interventions to enhance workflow and increase efficiencies aimed at mitigating MAEs.

Article 3

The third article is by Alomari et al. (2020) which evaluates the effectiveness of nurse-based interventions in reducing medication errors in pediatric wards. The authors investigate the effects of using bundled interventions to reduce medication administration errors. The author also focused on enhancing nurses’ perspective of medication administration process. Using a quantitative research approach in their selected settings, the authors shows through phased action research that these interventions, including use of health information technology, can reduce medication errors by over 60%.

The authors emphasize that these benefits are not impacted by tan increase in the number of patients and prescribed medications. The article supports the PICOT question and statement as it shows the duration and interventions that can be implemented by nursing staff and other professionals to reduce and prevent the occurrence of medication administration errors.

Article 4

The fourth study by Devin et al. (2020) focuses on the effects of health information technologies in reducing prescribing errors in hospitals. The authors also focus on behavioral change techniques linked to HIT implementation that can reduce occurrence of medication errors. using a qualitative approach in different settings, the authors show that HIT prescribing reduces medication errors, especially prescribing errors.

The authors’ findings emphasize the need for providers to integrate different approaches to ensuring that medication errors do not occur during the entire medication process. The article supports the EBP PICOT statement as it integrates the use of health information technology as a critical intervention to reducing medication administration errors.

Article 5

The fifth article by Zadvinski et al. (2018) explores the experience of nurses working with health information technology over time in their facilities. Using a longitudinal qualitative study design, the authors demonstrate the effects of nurses embracing technologies in a medical-surgical unit for a period of 18 months. The findings show that personal and organizational issues impact the adoption of HIT.

The findings show that change of perception of these technologies is essential in attaining their intended benefits to the organization and patient safety goals. The article supports the PICOT statement as it shows that implementing health information technologies requires time for quality outcomes. Leveraging organizational policies and enhances the ability of nurses to adopt and use these technologies to enhance patient safety and quality outcomes.

Article 6

The study by Naidu and Alicia (2019) aims at evaluating the use of barcode medication administration and electronic medication administration records (e-MAR), outcomes, practice and policies and their effects on nurses in the medication administration duties in their nursing practice areas. Through an annotated literature review, the authors’ findings demonstrate that compliance to these interventions enhance patient safety and reduces reported medication administration errors.

The use of these practices and policies also improves the efficiency of the BCMA system. The article is essential as it supports the PICOT by discussing the use of the health information technologies as interventions to reducing and preventing the prevalence of medication administration errors.

Article 7

The study by Jheeta and Franklin (2017) focuses on the how hospital electronic prescribing and medication administration system can enhance medication administration safety. Through an observational design, the authors show that implementation of these interventions encourages the occurrence of certain errors but also mitigates others. The implication is that using these interventions helps in reducing errors and enhancing patient safety. The article supports the PICOT statement as it emphasizes the need to use effective interventions and encourage their applications among all stakeholders in healthcare systems.

Article 8

The article by Härkänen et al. (2019) provides an analytical perspective of reported medication errors and their associated mortality in England and Wales for a period of nine years. The authors analyze medication errors in acute care that lead to death, identify the used drugs and describe the associated characteristics of the medication administration errors. Their findings show that most of deaths occurring due to medication administration errors happen in inpatients and among patients aged over 75 years with errors of omission being the most common form. The article supports the PICOT as it shows that medication errors occur due to several factors and should be addressed through integration of health information technologies.

Comparison of the Articles

The most prevalent issue in all these articles is the adoption of different health information technologies in mitigating and reducing the occurrence of medication administration errors (MAEs). Using an evidence-based practice approach, most of the articles demonstrate the effectiveness of having protocols and policies that supplement the use of technology in healthcare settings among healthcare workers.

A majority of these articles use systematic reviews as they are considered the best level of evidence, especially in EBP projects. These reviews provide different interventions that healthcare providers can use to integrate health information technologies and reduce and prevent the occurrence of medication administration errors.

The main themes in these articles include use of medication administration processes, medication administration errors’ occurrence, the role of healthcare workers in embracing these interventions, and the effectiveness of the approaches to reduce medication administration errors. Some of the articles like the one by Jheeta and Franklin (2017) don not emphasize the effectiveness of health information technology in mitigating MAEs. However, the article emphasizes the need to have a multifaceted approach to the use of technologies to enhance care delivery.

Each of the article has its unique shortcomings and areas not addressed. However, a common theme also emerges about the need to conduct further research to validate the outcomes and effectiveness of health information technology approaches to reduce and prevent medication administration errors, especially in acute care settings. Each of the article does not contain any controversy as the researchers complied with established guidelines to enhance validity and reliability.

Suggestions for Future Research

A majority of these articles recommend the need for further research on different aspects of the topic. The authors are categorical that while their studies offer evidence based on their research, it is imperative to conduct more studies on different aspects of these technologies to ascertain their overall effectiveness in addressing the issue under consideration (Alomari et al., 2020; Alotaibi & Federico, 2017). Gaps in effective research illustrating the interactions among various interventions and outcomes may require more approaches for better implementation of suggested approaches.


Medication administration errors (MAEs) remain a core concern in attaining better patient safety levels in different care settings. These events affect the quality of care and safety, especially for critically ill patients in hospitals who die for other causes other than their afflicted conditions. Therefore, stakeholders need interventions that leverage the best practices to reduce and prevent the occurrence of these events.

The findings from these articles demonstrate the need for nurses and other healthcare workers to implement evidence-based practice interventions to reduce medication administration errors (MAEs). The selected articles show the need for enhance patient care and safety for better outcomes.


Alomari, A., Sheppard-Law, S., Lewis, J. & Wilson, V. (2020). Effectiveness of Clinical Nurses’

interventions in reducing medication errors in a pediatric ward. The Journal of Clinical Nursing, 29(17-18): 3403-3413.

Alotaibi, Y. K. & Federico, F. (2017). The impact of health information technology on patient

            safety. Saudi Medical Journal, 38(12):1173-1180. doi: 10.15537/smj.2017.12.20631

Barakat, S. & Franklin, B. D. (2020). An Evaluation of the Impact of Barcode Patient and

Medication Scanning on Nursing Workflow at a UK Teaching Hospital. Pharmacy (Basel), 8(3):148.  doi: 10.3390/pharmacy8030148

Devin, J., Cleary, B. J. & Cullinan, S. (2020). The impact of health information technology on

prescribing errors in hospitals: a systematic review and behavior change technique analysis. BMC Systematic Reviews, 9(275).

Jheeta, S. & Franklin, B. D. (2017). The impact of a hospital electronic prescribing and

medication administration system on medication administration safety: an observational study. BMC Health Services Research, 17(547).

Härkänen, M., Vehviläinen-Julkunen, K., Murrells, T., Rafferty, A. M., & Franklin, B. D.

(2019). Medication administration errors and mortality: Incidents reported in England and Wales between 2007 ̶ 2016. Research in Social and Administrative Pharmacy, 15(7), 858-863.

Naidu, M.  and Alicia, Y.L.Y. (2019). Impact of Bar-Code Medication Administration and

Electronic Medication Administration Record System in Clinical Practice for an Effective Medication Administration Process. Health, 11, 511-526.

Zadvinskis, I. M., Smith, J. G., & Yen, P. Y. (2018). Nurses’ experience with health information

technology: Longitudinal qualitative study. JMIR medical informatics, 6(2), e38. doi: 10.2196/medinform.8734

A Sample Answer 2 For the Assignment: NUR 550 Benchmark-Evidence-Based Practice Project Literature Review

Title: NUR 550 Benchmark-Evidence-Based Practice Project Literature Review

Urinary Tract Infection is an infection that involves any part of the urinary system, including kidneys, ureters, urethra, and bladder. The common type of UTI is a healthcare-associated infection common in various healthcare organizations. CAUTI accounts for 75% of all the infections associated with the urinary urethra. Despite the cases of CAUTI receiving a great attention, the cases have remained high in the healthcare system. Therefore, measures which are taken to reduce CAUTI should have a positive impact in the patient outcome. The PICOT question guiding this research is: Among patients using indwelling urinary catheters, what is the efficacy of using CAUTI bundle care compared to no intervention in lowering the rates of CAUTI by 25% within six months? The purpose of this assignment is to write a review of the research articles and their comparisons concerning the provided evidence-based project.

Search Methods

A literature review is key to the success of the project. Therefore, a literature review was accomplished using databases accessed through the university. Some of them include Cochrane databases of systematic reviews. The American Journal of Psychiatry, Ovid, ProQuest, PubMed, MEDLINE, CINAHL, and journals by Professional organizations such as CDC using only recent articles of 5 years or less, and obtaining appropriate evidence from databases required using keywords related to the project topic. Therefore, the keywords used include urinary tract infection, bundle care intervention, and nurse education. These key words were essential in finding relevant articles that support the PICOT question.

Literature Review

Elkbuli et al. (2018) carried out a study on CAUTI among the trauma population. Their study aimed at determining whether the implementation of a 5-S CAUTI bundle would reduce CAUTI rates among trauma patients. This quantitative included 2926 trauma patients. The findings showed that 94 of these patients developed CAUTIs. Secondly, the average injury severity score was 16 in patients with CAUTIs compared with 9 in non-CAUTI patients (p < .0002). It was evident that the implementation of a 5-S CAUTI bundle would reduce CAUTI rates among trauma patients. Therefore, this article will support the PICOT question as it shows that using CAUTI bundles among trauma patients significantly reduces CAUTI rates.

Another article authored by Davies et al. (2018) also relays more information on the PICOT question. Their study compared pre and post-outcomes after the implementation of the CAUTI bundle. This quantitative study was carried out among 6236 patients in a trauma care environment. The findings showed that fewer patients in the post-bundle group received a urinary CAUTI bundle decreasing CAUTI rates in patients. This is the desired outcome that the PICOT question would want to meet.

The study by Reynolds et al. (2022) examined the effect and sustainability of a multifaceted intervention to reduce CAUTI rates. Their study occurred in three large adult intensive care units in a healthcare facility. The authors observed three different outcomes. For example, the urine culture rates dropped, catheter utilization also dropped, and CAUTI incidence rates. The findings of this study make it important in the evidence based-project as it shows an analysis of how a multifaceted approach led to reduced rates of CAUTI.

Mundle et al. (2020) conducted a study to explore the impact of implementing a CAUTI bundle care on developing CAUTI rates. This research took place in internal medicine units where all admitted patients were eligible to participate. The study found that using the intervention reduced the CAUTI rates by 79% among patients. This significant outcome makes the study reliable and important in supporting the proposed intervention since it shows a reduction in the rates of CAUTI upon using CAUTI bundles.

Another study by Sultan et al. (2022) focused on investigating the impact of using a CAUTI bundle in preventing CAUTI among critically ill patients. This research was done in intensive care units among 80 patients in an Egyptian hospital and found that implementing CAUTI bundle care reduced CAUTI by 50%. The outcome of this article is important in supporting the evidence-based project as it aligns with the desired outcome of the proposed PICOT question.

According to Tyson et al. (2020), implementing a nurse-driven protocol for catheter removal is important in decreasing the CAUTI rate. Their study aimed to compare the rates of CAUTI and indwelling urinary catheter use before and after using a nurse-driven CAUTI bundle approach among patients in the surgical trauma intensive care unit. They found that catheter utilization was reduced when nurse-driven protocols were implemented among the patients. In doing so, it is imperative to approve that the findings of this study are significant in supporting the proposed ideas on the PICOT question.  

Another study by Shadle et al. (2021) also explored the impact of using CAUTI bundle care in reducing CAUTI rates. This study adopted a quantitative study design approach where the data on the study was collected from EHRs. The study found that no catheter-associated urinary tract infections were reported during the intervention period. This outcome shows that implementing bundle care among patients was important in reducing CAUTI rates. This article supports the proposed intervention since it showed that bundle care significantly reduced the rate of CAUTI in intensive care settings.

Pajerski et al. (2022) also researched CAUTI, where their research aimed to reduce the rates of CAUTI using a care bundle approach. This research was carried out in a traumatic brain injury rehabilitation unit. The findings of the study showed a significant reduction in CAUTI rates. The outcome of the study supports the findings of another author in supporting the importance of CAUTI bundle care in addressing the issue of CAUTI among patients. This supports the proposed intervention because the results show that utilization of the CAUTI bundle care approach reduced the CAUTI rates to zero during the intervention.

Soundaram et al. (2020) conducted a study to explore the effectiveness of implementing a CAUTI bundle in reducing CAUTI incidence. This study was carried out in the adult intensive care units, where every patient admitted to the units was recruited to participate. The study found that cases of CAUTI were reduced by 60%. This is a desired outcome that can be replicated in future studies. Consequently, this proposed intervention will support its implementation using this article as it has shown the efficacy of the CAUTI bundle in reducing the rates of CAUTI.

Another study by Ravi and Joshi (2018) aimed to explore the efficacy of the CAUTI care bundle in lowering the incidences of CAUTI. This research was conducted in a zonal hospital. The authors found that the catheter care bundle approach, along with the education of the staff, reduced the CAUTI incidence by 60.64. This outcome is important in the PICOT question as it supports the proposed intervention.

Comparison of the Articles

The articles in this study include the ideas of various authors on the efficacy of using CAUTI bundle care. The selected articles approached their research question using a quantitative research design, making these studies look similar on the approach design that these empirical studies apply to address the issue of CAUTI bundle care. Again, the articles have varying sampled participants. While others have large sampled patients, others resorted to acquiring information from electronic health records. The intervention used in each study differs in the ways of data analysis and the tools deployed in analyzing the collected data. However, they reach an outcome that supports the significance of the bundle care intervention. Therefore, all these articles are significant in supporting the ideas of the proposed intervention as they approach CAUTI through various interventions that give a positive result.

Suggestions for Future Research

In the future, more studies must develop a more technological approach to CAUTI. More studies in the recent past include the importance of technologically generated patient data to address an issue such as CAUTI. The inclusion of these strategies in the future would enable studies to consider a wide range of data through the years and analyze the trend over time. Such studies are significant in giving an outcome with high generalizability. This would create another line of thinking in research that could improve quality. Besides, it supports the use of technology in offering bundle care intervention.


CAUTI is one of the common issues in healthcare that has been attracting the attention of many scholars worldwide. The above review shows the findings of various scholars on the issues and the direction that future research on bundle care would have on CAUTI. The constant improvement of patient safety and quality will be defined by the drastic reduction of healthcare issues such as CAUTI within the healthcare system. Therefore, these studies’ outcome effectively supports the proposed intervention.


Davies, P. E., Daley, M. J., Hecht, J., Hobbs, A., Burger, C., Watkins, L., … & Brown, C. V. (2018). Effectiveness of a bundled approach to reduce urinary catheters and infection rates in trauma patients. American Journal of Infection Control46(7), 758-763

Elkbuli, A., Miller, A., Boneva, D., Puyana, S., Bernal, E., Hai, S., & McKenney, M. (2018).   Targeting catheter-associated urinary tract infections in a trauma population: a 5-S bundle preventive approach. Journal of Trauma Nursing| JTN25(6), 366–373. 10.1097/JTN.0000000000000403

Mundle, W., Howell-Belle, C., & Jeffs, L. (2020). Preventing catheter-associated urinary tract infection: A multipronged collaborative approach. Journal of Nursing Care Quality35(1), 83-87. Doi: 10.1097/NCQ.0000000000000418

Pajerski, D. M., Harlan, M. D., Ren, D., & Tuite, P. K. (2022). A clinical nurse specialist–led initiative to reduce catheter-associated urinary tract infection rates using a best practice guideline. Clinical Nurse Specialist36(1), 20-28.Doi: 10.1097/NUR.0000000000000643.

Ravi, P. R., & Joshi, M. C. (2018). Role of “bladder care bundle” and “infection control nurse” in reducing catheter-associated urinary tract infection in a peripheral hospital. Journal of Marine Medical Society20(2), 116. Doi: 10.4103/jmms.jmms_8_18

Reynolds, S. S., Sova, C. D., Lewis, S. S., Smith, B. A., Wrenn, R. H., Turner, N. A., & Advani, S. D. (2022). Sustained reduction in catheter-associated urinary tract infections using multifaceted strategies led by champions: a quality improvement initiative. Infection Control & Hospital Epidemiology43(7), 925-929.

Shadle, H. N., Sabol, V., Smith, A., Stafford, H., Thompson, J. A., & Bowers, M. (2021). A bundle-based approach to prevent catheter-associated urinary tract infections in the intensive care unit. Critical Care Nurse41(2), 62-71.

Soundaram, G. V., Sundaramurthy, R., Jeyashree, K., Ganesan, V., Arunagiri, R., & Charles, J. (2020). Impact of care bundle implementation on the incidence of catheter-associated urinary tract infection: A comparative study in intensive care units of a tertiary care teaching hospital in South India. Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine: Peer-reviewed, Official Publication of Indian Society of Critical Care Medicine24(7), 544.

Sultan, M. A., Ahmed, H., & Kandeel, N. A. (2022). The Effect of Implementing CAUTIs Bundle on Prevention of Hospital-Acquired Urinary Tract Infections among Critically Ill Patients. Mansoura Nursing Journal9(1), 141-153.

Tyson, A. F., Campbell, E. F., Spangler, L. R., Ross, S. W., Reinke, C. E., Passaretti, C. L., & Sing, R. F. (2020). Implementation of a nurse-driven protocol for catheter removal to decrease catheter-associated urinary tract infection rate in a surgical trauma ICU. Journal of Intensive Care Medicine35(8), 738-744.