NRS 445 Benchmark – Ethical Conduct of Scholarly Activities

Sample Answer for NRS 445 Benchmark – Ethical Conduct of Scholarly Activities Included After Question

Assessment Description

The focus of this assignment is to apply the principles detailed in the Belmont Report to case studies involving human subjects in research or a quality improvement project.

Utilize the “Ethical Conduct of Scholarly Activities” document to complete this assignment.

While APA style is not required for the body of this assignment, solid academic writing is expected, and documentation of sources should be presented using APA formatting guidelines, which can be found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center.

This assignment uses a rubric. Please review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the expectations for successful completion.

You are required to submit this assignment to LopesWrite. A link to the LopesWrite technical support articles is located in Class Resources if you need assistance.

Benchmark Information

This benchmark assignment assesses the following programmatic competencies and professional standards:

RN-BSN

4.3: Promote the ethical conduct of scholarly activities [AACN ]

American Association of Colleges of Nursing Core Competencies for Professional Nursing Education

This assignment aligns to AACN Core Competency 1.2, 4.3, 9.1, 10.2

A Sample Answer For the Assignment: NRS 445 Benchmark – Ethical Conduct of Scholarly Activities

Title: NRS 445 Benchmark – Ethical Conduct of Scholarly Activities

Application of the Belmont Principles: Case Study 1

Belmont Report principles and the components of each principleExplain how the case meets the components of each principle.Explain how the case does not meet the components of each principle.What steps can the nurse researcher or quality improvement manager take to adhere to the ethical principles identified in the Belmont Report?
Respect for Person Respect the right to choose, hold views, and act according to personal beliefs. Protect those with decreased capacity to make their own choice. Ensure voluntary participation. Provide informed consent, explaining the harms and benefits.In the initial case, the woman diagnosed with breast, colon, and lung cancer consented to participate in the experimental therapy. This illustrates acknowledging individuals’ autonomy, self-determination, freedom, and decision-making abilities. In the second scenario, a cancer patient is willing to undergo experimental therapy. However, their partner opposes it, leading to an ethical dilemma regarding the principle of Respect for a Person (Pritchard, 2021).In the first case, the patient’s decision to undergo experimental therapy despite a low chance of survival may suggest a diminished capacity to exercise autonomous choice. In another instance, the patient experienced sudden cardiac arrest, possibly resulting from inadequate communication regarding the potential risks and benefits associated with the experimental treatment. In the scenario above, the woman’s access to experimental therapy may be hindered due to her spouse’s failure to acknowledge her autonomy and dignity as an individual (Pritchard, 2021).Before discussing the risks and benefits of pursuing aggressive therapy for a patient with aggressive cancer, nurse researchers should collaborate with the patient to determine the most effective approach for presenting medical information and aligning it with her values when communicating with her family or spouse. The patient can offer valuable perspective on how her spouse and family can better comprehend the medical information. They can also engage in a conversation about how to communicate her desire to pursue aggressive therapy to her family, even if she chooses not to disclose it directly (Pritchard, 2021).
Beneficence Minimize the harm/risks to the greatest extent possible. Maximize the potential benefits. Ensure that the patient’s rights and well-being precede science’s needs.In the initial case, a woman diagnosed with breast, colon, and lung cancers and a poor prognosis willingly participated in experimental therapy. Remarkably, this therapy effectively treated her tumors, resulting in her being cancer-free for six years, thus demonstrating its beneficial outcomes (Redman & Caplan, 2021).According to the researchers, the treatment has limited effectiveness and poses a significant risk, as evidenced by immediate cardiac failure observed in some trials (Redman & Caplan, 2021).Nurse researchers should assess the risk-benefit ratio of chemotherapy and use evidence to inform their recommendations to patients, ensuring that the chosen course of action is optimal for the patient’s health and well-being. Researchers should implement appropriate safeguards to minimize any potential discomfort or harm to adhere to the principle of beneficence. Researchers are obligated to safeguard participants from exploitation per the principle of beneficence (Redman & Caplan, 2021).
Justice Justly distribute the benefits and burdens of the research. Guard against using vulnerable populations. Ensure a fair selection of research participants. Guard against coercion and undue influence. Avoid potential financial or other conflicts of interest.In the initial case, the patient experienced positive outcomes from experimental cancer treatment as she remained cancer-free for six years, thereby exemplifying the ethical principle of justice (Millum, 2020).Although the patient-derived advantages from the experimental cancer treatment, she participated in the trial despite having a low likelihood of survival. In the second scenario, a patient had cardiac arrest; however, in the last scenario, the patient may be deprived of the chance to get potential advantages from experimental cancer treatment just due to their spouse (Millum, 2020).Nurse researchers must guarantee that the hardship imposed on the subjects is proportional to the likelihood of benefitting from the study results within the feasible constraints. There should be a greater emphasis on gathering as much information as possible from research before testing for the effectiveness of the experimental therapy (Millum, 2020).

Application of the Belmont Principles: Case Study 2

Belmont Report principles and the components of each principle.Explain how the case meets the components of each principle.Explain how the case does not meet the components of each principle.What steps can the nurse researcher or quality improvement manager take to adhere to the ethical principles identified in the Belmont Report?
Respect for Person Respect the right to choose, hold views, and act according to personal beliefs. Protect those with decreased capacity to make their own choice. Ensure voluntary participation. Provide informed consent, explaining the harms and benefits.Nurse researchers must guarantee that the hardship imposed on the subjects is proportional to the likelihood of benefitting from the study results within the feasible constraints. There should be a greater emphasis on gathering as much information as possible from research before testing for the effectiveness of the experimental therapy (Kimmelman, 2020).The use of technological tools such as mobile phone reminders and GPS monitoring poses a risk to the individuals’ confidentiality, compromising their fundamental principle of Respect for a Person. It may also result in apprehension and constant surveillance – often called the panopticon phenomenon (Kimmelman, 2020).Nurse researchers may promote respect for persons using innovative technology-enabled approaches to disseminate study material, ensure understanding, and monitor continuing consent and opt-out choices. The researcher is accountable for assessing a candidate’s proficiency, understanding, and suitability for the study (Kimmelman, 2020).
Beneficence Minimize the harm/risks to the greatest extent possible. Maximize the potential benefits. Ensure that the patient’s rights and well-being take precedence over science’s needs.Utilizing technology, such as sending text message reminders to participants about their research meetings and enabling rescheduling of visits and GPS monitoring, may enhance adherence to the treatment plan being evaluated. Consequently, this increases the likelihood of positive outcomes (Earl, 2020).The rural community generally lacks sufficient knowledge about the nature of GPS technology, which might overshadow the requirements and desires of the participants/patients (Earl, 2020).In order to uphold the principle of beneficence, nurse researchers must employ new technology to engage in various tasks such as patient recruitment, obtaining informed consent, extracting data from patient records, conducting follow-up appointments, and ensuring patient safety throughout the study (Earl, 2020).
Justice Justly distribute the benefits and burdens of the research. Guard against using vulnerable populations.Ensure a fair selection of research participants.Guard against coercion and undue influence. Avoid potential financial or other conflicts of interest.If patients consent to receive text message reminders and be monitored with GPS, the ethical principle of Justice may be followed. This will ensure that the study is successful and beneficial to both the researcher and participants (Schupmann & Moreno, 2020).Utilizing technology to locate and oversee research participants may result in unwarranted exclusion, prejudice, and stigma (Schupmann & Moreno, 2020).Before commencing the recruitment of study participants, the nurse researchers should provide comprehensive education to the general community on their intended utilization of technology in the study and its rationale. They should safeguard the system’s security by implementing suitable measures. Ultimately, only those who clearly comprehend the study’s nature and implications should be granted permission to participate (Schupmann & Moreno, 2020).

Personal Reflection

In less than 250 words, discuss how the ethical principles from the Belmont Report align with the Christian worldview. Reflect on your current nursing practice and describe how these ethical principles align with your nursing practice.
The ethical principles of the Belmont Report, namely respect for persons, beneficence, and justice, are based on the Christian worldview as they promote the adoption of shared values. The ethical principles prioritize carers’ demonstration of compassion, integrity, and recognition of the inherent value of all individuals, irrespective of their differences, backgrounds, and abilities (Millum, 2020). From a Christian standpoint, the principles align with biblical teachings that emphasize love, empathy, and the recognition of human dignity. These principles are essential for providing patient-centered care in my nursing practice. I consistently uphold the principle of respect for patients, ensuring their autonomy is honored. I have consistently upheld patients’ autonomy in making informed decisions regarding their health. Beneficence is demonstrated through the dedication to maximizing benefits and minimizing harm. This principle is consistent with the Christian value of altruism (Schupmann & Moreno, 2020). Nurses must adhere to the principle of justice, which entails ensuring equitable treatment and impartiality. The principle also involves promoting equal access to healthcare resources. The Christian worldview promotes compassion as an ethical foundation for justice in nursing. Furthermore, it promotes a mindset that extends beyond one’s professional obligations. In my current practice, I implement this concept by recognizing patients as unique individuals deserving of empathy and respect rather than viewing them solely as medical cases (Earl, 2020). Furthermore, I consistently prioritize the compassionate consideration of patients’ physical, emotional, and spiritual needs.


References

Earl, J. (2020). The Belmont Report and Innovative Practice. Perspectives in Biology and Medicine63(2), 313–326. https://doi.org/10.1353/pbm.2020.0021

Kimmelman, J. (2020). What Is Human Research For? Reflections on the Omission of Scientific Integrity from the Belmont Report. Perspectives in Biology and Medicine63(2), 251–261. https://doi.org/10.1353/pbm.2020.0017

Millum, J. (2020). International Clinical Research and Justice in the Belmont Report. Perspectives in Biology and Medicine63(2), 374–388. https://doi.org/10.1353/pbm.2020.0025

Pritchard, I. A. (2021). Framework for the ethical conduct of research: The ethical principles of the Belmont Report. Handbook of Research Ethics in Psychological Science., pp. 3–21. https://doi.org/10.1037/0000258-001

Redman, B. K., & Caplan, A. L. (2021). Should the Regulation of Research Misconduct Be Integrated with the Ethics Framework Promulgated in The Belmont Report ? Ethics & Human Research43(1), 37–41. https://doi.org/10.1002/eahr.500078

Schupmann, W., & Moreno, J. D. (2020). Belmont in Context. Perspectives in Biology and Medicine63(2), 220–239. https://doi.org/10.1353/pbm.2020.0028