NRS 434 Developmental Assessment and the School-Aged Child

Sample Answer for NRS 434 Developmental Assessment and the School-Aged Child Included After Question

Assessment Description

The needs of the pediatric patient differ depending on age, as do the stages of development and the expected assessment findings for each stage. In a 500-750-word paper, examine the needs of a school-aged child between the ages of 5 and 12 years old and discuss the following:

  1. Compare the physical assessments among school-aged children. Describe how you would modify assessment techniques to match the age and developmental stage of the child.
  2. Choose a child between the ages of 5 and 12 years old. Identify the age of the child and describe the typical developmental stages of children that age.
  3. Applying developmental theory based on Erickson, Piaget, or Kohlberg, explain how you would developmentally assess the child. Include how you would offer explanations during the assessment, strategies you would use to gain cooperation, and potential findings from the assessment.

You are required to cite a minimum of three peer-reviewed sources to complete this assignment. Sources must be published within the last 5 years, appropriate for the assignment criteria, and relevant to nursing practice.  

Prepare this assignment according to the guidelines found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center. An abstract is not required.

This assignment uses a rubric. Please review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the expectations for successful completion. 

You are required to submit this assignment to LopesWrite. A link to the LopesWrite technical support articles is located in Class Resources if you need assistance. 

A Sample Answer For the Assignment: NRS 434 Developmental Assessment and the School-Aged Child

Title: NRS 434 Developmental Assessment and the School-Aged Child 

Assessment is an important practice in nursing. Assessment provides data that nurses utilize in making their diagnoses and appropriate treatment plans for their patients. Assessment methods differ significantly based on the age group of a client. For example, it is anticipated that the physical assessment methods used for a pediatric patient differs significantly from that of an adult patient. Similarly, the assessment tools utilized to determine the care needs of the patients of different ages vary. Therefore, this paper explores the comparison of physical assessments used in school-aged children, their modification, and assessment of a child based on Piaget’s theory of development.

Comparison of Physical Assessment Among School-Aged Children

The assessment of school-aged children differs significantly from that of the toddlers, infants and the preschoolers. School-aged children have an enhanced understanding of the reality unlike infants, preschoolers, and toddlers that live in a world of fantasy. The thinking also differs among them as seen from the fact that school-aged children have developed logical thinking and comprehension of events. They also understand the consequences of their actions. School-aged children also have developed social skills from interacting with others in their societies.

As a result, they have curiosity to learn new aspects in their lives and accomplish tasks for recognition. The children at the age group of 5-12 years can also express their health problems as well as their experience with them (Chiocca, 2019). Therefore, the appropriate modification of physical assessment techniques when working with them entails asking the children appropriate questions. It also entails involving the guardians or parents in the assessment process to obtain adequate data to inform the treatment plans. An additional modification entails beginning the assessment with areas that the children have a high level of awareness and moving to complex aspects of care (Tagher & Knapp, 2019).

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Typical Assessment for a Child of a Specific Age

The selected case study involved a seven-year-old female patient brought to the clinic by her parents for assessment. The patient was brought for the annual normal checkup. She was born through caesarian surgery and with an Apgar score of 10. The immunization history is up-to-date with developments appropriate for her age. She does not have any history of surgeries or hospitalizations. The patient should demonstrate a number of cognitive, social, emotional and motor developmental milestones. She should have developed the desired cognitive abilities, as evidenced by her ability to describe her thoughts, feelings, and experiences and appreciate those of others. Further, she should be independent in forming friends and seeks acceptance from others. Finally, she should be able to perform physical activities such as sports and coordinate body activities effectively.

Developmental Assessment of a Child Using a Developmental Theory (Piaget)

            Piaget’s theory of development can be applied in the above case study. According to Piaget, child’s development occurs gradually in four stages. The stages include sensory motor (birth to 2 years), preoperational (1.5-7 years), concrete operational (7-11 years), and formal operational (12-19 years). Based on the above, the child in the case study is in the concrete operational stage in Piaget’s model. Children in this stage are expected to have developed logical thinking. They have operational thought process characterized by their ability to relate abstract concepts with their experiences (Chiocca, 2019). Children in this stage also have the ability to express their feelings, emotions, and experiences.

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NRS 434 Developmental Assessment and the School-Aged Child
NRS 434 Developmental Assessment and the School-Aged Child

They also acknowledge the feelings and emotions of others. The focus of physical assessment when providing care to this client entails asking specific questions that they can answer to the best of their abilities and not her parents. The assessment should also focus on the exploration of issues relevant to the interests of the child. An example is asking questions related to the school, friends, her likes and dislikes. The nurse should provide information in simple language that is easy to understand for the children (Hockenberry et al., 2021). Since the visit by the client to the hospital was for regular assessment, it is anticipated that normal findings will be obtained.

Conclusion

            The physical assessment of pediatric patients utilizes different approaches. The assessment depends largely on the developmental stage of the children. Nurses should demonstrate adaptability by being able to change the physical assessment approaches to suit the age group of their patients. In addition, theories of development such as Piaget’s should be used to inform the assessment findings.

References

Chiocca, E. M. (2019). Advanced Pediatric Assessment. New York, NY: Springer Publishing Company.

Hockenberry, M. J., Wilson, D., & Rodgers, C. C. (2021). Wong’s Essentials of Pediatric Nursing. Los Angeles, CA: Elsevier Health Sciences.

Tagher, G., & Knapp, L. (2019). Pediatric Nursing: A Case-Based Approach. Philadelphia, PA: Wolters Kluwer Health.

A Sample Answer 2 For the Assignment: NRS 434 Developmental Assessment and the School-Aged Child

Title: NRS 434 Developmental Assessment and the School-Aged Child 

Child development is the constant but expected sequential biological, emotional, and psychological changes in human beings from birth to the end of adolescence. A developmental assessment is conducted for children at this period to evaluate various aspects of a child’s functioning, including motor, cognition, behavior, communication, sensory abilities, adaptive skills, and social interaction (Aylward, 2020). The purpose of this paper is to discuss physical assessments among school-aged children and the typical developmental stages of a 10-year-old.

Physical Assessments among School-Aged Children

School-aged children are those between 6-12 years. Physical assessment of school-aged children takes the same approach, but some aspects differ based on the child’s age. It starts with vital signs and nutritional assessment (height and weight) (Choo et al., 2019). However, the normal range of vital signs differs with age. The physical exam is the same using a head-to-toe approach and applying inspection, palpation, percussion, and auscultation techniques. Dental, visual, and hearing exams are also performed in school-aged children (Choo et al., 2019). Children from 10 years are assessed for physical changes from secondary sexual characteristics, including the growth of pubic hair and breast development.

            The physical assessment can be modified to correspond to the school-age child’s age and development by giving simple instructions that the child understands as per their cognitive development. Besides, the examiner should begin with less-invasive and uncomfortable procedures and end with the most invasive and painful exams (Sheldrick et al., 2019). The examination can be done when the parent is present for children below eight years. However, children above eight years may feel uncomfortable having their caregivers around, and thus privacy should be upheld to promote comfort.

Typical Developmental Stages of 10-Year-Old

A ten-year-old undergoes physical, cognitive, emotional, and social development. Physically, they begin exhibiting growth patterns related to gender, and signs of puberty may start showing. They should demonstrate endurance and have more advanced fine motor skills (Misirliyan & Huynh, 2021). In the cognitive aspect, a 10-year-old should: Know the complete date; Name months of a year in order; Read books with chapters; Read and understand a paragraph with complex sentences; Have calculation skills in addition and subtraction; Write simple stories; Have speech patterns almost at an adult level (Misirliyan & Huynh, 2021). Typical development in the emotional and social aspects include: Enjoying interacting with their friends; Having friends of the same gender; Enjoying team and group activities; Being aware of the body.

Developmental Assessment Using Erickson’s Developmental Theory

In Erickson’s psychosocial developmental theory, a 10-year-old belongs to the Industry vs. Inferiority stage. Children in this developmental stage get encouraged and reinforced by their initiative (Maree, 2021). They become industrious and have a high confidence level in their capability to attain goals. However, if the initiative is discouraged or restricted, the child starts to feel inferior, doubting their abilities, and may not attain their potential. The Erickson theory would be employed in developmentally assessing a child by assigning them a task to do independently (Maree, 2021). I would then assess the sense of industry and inferiority by evaluating their feelings after succeeding or failing to complete the task. 

Strategies to gain the child’s cooperation include explaining the exams that will be performed in simple terms, including the painful procedures. A non-threatening language will be used in giving instructions to foster cooperation. Besides, I would allow the child to play with some assessment tools, such as the stethoscope, to relieve anxiety during examination and foster cooperation (Choo et al., 2019). I would explain to the child in simple terms the assessment findings, including normal and abnormal findings, probable causes, and further examinations or treatments that will be ordered.  

Conclusion

Physical assessment of school-aged children takes a similar approach, and the same exams are conducted in all children. However, different ranges determine the findings as normal or abnormal. The exam can be modified by having painful and invasive procedures last and using simple instructions during the assessment. Erickson’s developmental theory can be applied to assess a child by evaluating their attitude when they succeed or fail in completing a task.

References

Aylward, G. P. (2020). Conducting a Developmental Assessment in Young Children. Journal of Health Service Psychology46(3), 103-108. https://doi.org/10.1007/s42843-020-00015-0

Choo, Y. Y., Yeleswarapu, S. P., How, C. H., & Agarwal, P. (2019). Developmental assessment: practice tips for primary care physicians. Singapore medical journal60(2), 57–62. https://doi.org/10.11622/smedj.2019016

Maree, J. G. (2021). The psychosocial development theory of Erik Erikson: a critical overview. Early Child Development and Care, 191(7-8), 1107–1121. https://doi.org/10.1080/03004430.2020.1845163

Misirliyan, S. S., & Huynh, A. P. (2021). Development Milestones. In StatPearls. StatPearls Publishing.

Sheldrick, R. C., Schlichting, L. E., Berger, B., Clyne, A., Ni, P., Perrin, E. C., & Vivier, P. M. (2019). Establishing new norms for developmental milestones. Pediatrics144(6). https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2019-0374