NRS 429 Health Promotion in Minority Populations 

Sample Answer for NRS 429 Health Promotion in Minority Populations  Included After Question


Select an ethnic minority group that is represented in the United States (American Indian/Alaskan Native, Asian American, Black/African American, Hispanic/Latino, Native Hawaiian, or Pacific Islander). Using health information available from Healthy People, the CDC, and other relevant government websites, analyze the health status for this group.

In a paper of 1,000-1,250 words, compare and contrast the health status of your selected minority group to the national average. Include the following:

  1. Describe the ethnic minority group selected. Describe the current health status of this group. How do race and ethnicity influence health for this group?
  2. What are the health disparities that exist for this group? What are the nutritional challenges for this group?
  3. Discuss the barriers to health for this group resulting from culture, socioeconomics, education, and sociopolitical factors.
  4. What health promotion activities are often practiced by this group?
  5. Describe at least one approach using the three levels of health promotion prevention (primary, secondary, and tertiary) that is likely to be the most effective in a care plan given the unique needs of the minority group you have selected. Provide an explanation of why it might be the most effective choice.
  6. 6. What cultural beliefs or practices must be considered when creating a care plan? What cultural theory or model would be best to support culturally competent health promotion for this population? Why?
  7. Cite at least three peer-reviewed or scholarly sources to complete this assignment. Sources should be published within the last 5 years and appropriate for the assignment criteria and public health content.
  8. Prepare this assignment according to the guidelines found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center. An abstract is not required.
  9. This assignment uses a rubric. Please review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the expectations for successful completion. You are required to submit this assignment to LopesWrite. Refer to theLopesWrite Technical Support articles for assistance.

A Sample Answer For the Assignment: NRS 429 Health Promotion in Minority Populations 

Title: NRS 429 Health Promotion in Minority Populations 

The American healthcare system is faced with the great challenge of inequality which displays a disproportionate impact on marginalized communities, including people of color (Boyd et al., 2020). Such inequalities are the reason behind the gaps in the acquisition of health insurance coverage, leading to uneven access to care services and poor health outcomes among the minority populations.

Additionally, studies show that African Americans are significantly impacted by these inequalities contributing to the high prevalence of chronic conditions such as hypertension and diabetes, in addition to the increased mortality rates among this minority population. This discussion provides an analysis of the health status of African Americans, as part of the minority population, in comparison to the national average. 

Health Status of African Americans

African Americans make up approximately 13.4% of the United States population. The current health status of black Americans displays an increased prevalence of chronic conditions such as hypertension, obesity, cardiovascular diseases, sexually transmitted infections, and diabetes as compared to whites. Increased morbidity and mortality rates among African Americans have been associated with several economic and social factors. For instance, studies show that African Americans have a more likelihood of not seeing a doctor when they are sick, as a result of high healthcare costs (Yearby, 2018).

Despite the significant advances in the current healthcare system in the U.S., there is still evidence reporting that racial and ethnic minorities such as black Americans still receive a lower quality of care services leading to poor health outcomes as compared to the whites. As of 2019 August, it was reported that approximately 68 million people had been covered by the Medicaid program, with black Americans accounting for 20%. Given that most black Americans have lower social and economic status, they tend to be poorer than other demographic groups, hence making it harder for them to enroll in health insurance programs like Medicaid.

Health Disparities

The death rate among African Americans has declined by about 25% over the past 17 years precisely for populations above the age of 65 years, as reported by the Centre for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). However, studies also show that young African Americans have a higher probability of dying at an early age as a result of increased risks for stroke, heart disease, cancer, pneumonia, diabetes, and HIV/AIDs among other conditions, as compared to their white counterparts.

Social factors common among this minority group contributing to the above-mentioned health disparities include unemployment, smoking, alcoholism, obesity, sedentary lifestyle, and poverty among others (Bell et al., 2020). Consequently, this group of individuals is also faced with nutritional challenges such as unfavorable nutritional environments, food deserts, food swamps, and food insecurities. For instance, black Americans are associated with poverty and a low level of education, which makes it hard for them to access quality and healthy foods as compared to the economically rich racial majorities. They end up consuming fast foods, among other unhealthy foods, which increases their risk of cardiovascular conditions and obesity.

Barriers to Health

Various barriers to the accessibility of quality health care services have been identified for the African American population. Predominating barriers include decreased understanding of care plans, inability to pay for care services, lack of transportation to care facility, and the inability of incorporating the recommended health care plans into their routine daily living pattern. These barriers are associated with several cultural, educational, socio-political, and socioeconomic factors.

For instance, cultural beliefs among African Americans promoting unhealthy eating habits and sedentary lifestyle, in addition to failure to follow up on routine screening, negatively affects their overall health and utilization of healthcare services irrespective of their social or financial status (Lewis & Dyke, 2018).

Consequently, the low socio-economic status among African Americans in terms of low income, unemployment, low education level, and occupation status is also a significant inhibitory factor towards accessibility to quality healthcare services. Lastly, as part of the minorities, blacks in the U.S have limited political influence towards the development of appropriate policies such as the “Obama Care,” to promote their access to quality care services.

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Health Promotion Activities

With regard to the numerous health disparities affecting African Americans, several health promotion activities have been proposed over the years to help promote the health and well-being of this minority group. The self-help initiative was introduced among African Americans to promote taking personal responsibility for their health and improving their quality of life.

Self-help health promotion practices among black Americans include routine screening for predominating health conditions, physical exercise, healthy diet plans, adoption of recommended care plans, and disease prevention practices at home (Fletcher et al., 2018). Consequently, for the religious members of the community, faith-basedorganizationslike churches have promoted structural health promotion activities including education, health fairs, and smoking cessation among others.

Approach for Health Promotion and Disease Prevention

One of the most effective approaches that can be utilized by African Americans in promoting their health as part of the care plan is the adoption of Pender’s health promotion model. According to the CDC, black Americans are at high risk of chronic diseases, with cardiovascular diseases being the leading cause of death among this group of individuals. Health promotion practices focusing on lifestyle modification have displayed great significance in reducing the risks of cardiovascular diseases.

NRS 429 Health Promotion in Minority Populations 
NRS 429 Health Promotion in Minority Populations 

Pender’s health promotion model, on the other hand, provides a foundation promoting the examination of the background influences of this minority population, in line with the health promotion practices that can lead to a healthy lifestyle (Fletcher et al., 2018). At the primary level, this model encourages regular exercise and a healthy diet to prevent chronic diseases and promote healthy living. At the secondary level, the model promotes routing screening for hypertension, diabetes, and cancer among other common diseases. Lastly, at the tertiary level, the model promotes education programs and rehabilitation among the affected individuals.

Cultural Beliefs and Practices

Other than social and economic factors, several cultural factors among black Americans must be considered when developing the most effective care plan. Some of such cultural beliefs include lack of trust in complementary medicine, misconceptions about immunization, and strong religious beliefs against organ donation among other medical procedures. With the theory of cultural humility, clinicians can now come up with flexible care plans, while still upholding the patients’ cultural values and beliefs (Boyd et al., 2020). This theory is based on the importance of preventing cultural discrimination and promoting the equal provision of care to the culturally diverse population.


Health promotion practices are crucial among the general population in disease prevention and improved quality of life. Minority populations such as African Americans, are faced with numerous health disparities as compared to the whites, hence the need for more health promotion activities. However, when coming up with a care plan for this minority population, it is necessary to identify and respect their cultural values and beliefs to promote positive outcomes. 


Bell, C. N., Sacks, T. K., Tobin, C. S. T., & Thorpe Jr, R. J. (2020). Racial non-equivalence of socioeconomic status and self-rated health among African Americans and Whites. SSM-population health10, 100561.

Boyd, R. W., Lindo, E. G., Weeks, L. D., & McLemore, M. R. (2020). On racism: a new standard for publishing on racial health inequities. Health Affairs Blog10(10.1377).

Fletcher, G. F., Landolfo, C., Niebauer, J., Ozemek, C., Arena, R., & Lavie, C. J. (2018). Promoting physical activity and exercise: JACC health promotion series. Journal of the American College of Cardiology72(14), 1622-1639.

Lewis, T. T., & Van Dyke, M. E. (2018). Discrimination and the health of African Americans: The potential importance of intersectionalities. Current Directions in Psychological Science27(3), 176-182.

Yearby, R. (2018). Racial disparities in health status and access to healthcare: the continuation of inequality in the United States due to structural racism. American Journal of Economics and Sociology77(3-4), 1113-1152.

A Sample Answer 2 For the Assignment: NRS 429 Health Promotion in Minority Populations 

Title: NRS 429 Health Promotion in Minority Populations 

An ethnic minority group refers to individuals who constitute less than half of the population in an entire State or country and whose members share common characteristics of language, culture, religion, or a combination of these. Socio-economic, cultural, and political factors often limit ethnic minority groups in the US from accessing quality health care. The purpose of this paper is to compare and contrast the health status of Native Hawaiians to the national average and discuss health promotion that can be applied to this minority group.

Identification and Description of Selected Minority Group

Native Hawaiians include people with origins in the original peoples of Hawaii, Samoa, Guam, or other Pacific Islands. The estimated population of Native Hawaiians as of July 2022 was 1,440,196 based on statistics from the .S. Census Bureau. Of this population, 5.7% are children below 5 years, 21.1% are persons below 18, and 19.6 % are adults above 65. Besides, females constituted 49.7% of the total population. The states with the highest population of Native Hawaiians are Hawaii, California, Washington, Texas, Utah, Florida, Nevada, Oregon, New York, and Arizona. Native Hawaiians suffer from poor health outcomes, like high rates of overweight/obesity, hypertension, asthma, and cancer mortality (Long et al., 2022). The major mortality causes among this group are heart disease, unintentional injuries, cancer, stroke, and diabetes.

Health Disparities and Nutritional Challenges for Minority Group

Health disparities refer to the differences in access to healthcare and outcomes between groups. Health disparities among Hawaiians include a 37 times higher rate of TB and an 80% higher overweight/obesity rate. In addition, they are four times more likely to develop a stroke and 30% more likely to die from a stroke (Long et al., 2022). The group also has almost double the infant mortality rate of the general population. Furthermore, diabetes is a major cause of mortality in Native Hawaiians. Data shows that Hawaiians are 2.5 times more likely to be diagnosed with diabetes or die from the disease than whites (McElfish et al., 2019). Statistics also reveal that 39% of the population has uncontrolled diabetes, which surpasses the Healthy People 2020 goal of 16.1%.

The high rates of overweight/obesity, hypertension, and diabetes can be attributed to poor dietary habits. Long et al. (2022) explain that Native Hawaiians have a high incidence of food insecurity, contributing to chronic illnesses. The population has poor dietary habits high in complex carbohydrates, and has moderate amounts of vegetables and minimal lean animal food. Hawaiians’ diet comprises 78% carbohydrate, 12% protein, and 10% fat, which contribute to overweight and obesity.

Barriers to Health for Minority Group

Poor health outcomes among Native Hawaiians can be attributed to cultural, socioeconomic, educational, and sociopolitical factors. Language and cultural barriers hinder many Hawaiians from accessing quality healthcare. Most healthcare providers are not conversant with the group’s cultural beliefs and practices, which hinders them from understanding their health needs and the best measures to address their health problems (McElfish et al., 2019). The median household income for Native Hawaiians in 2019 was $66,695, lower than whites at $71,664. Besides, more Hawaiians (15%) lived at or below the poverty level than whites 9%, and Hawaiians had higher unemployment rates (McElfish et al., 2019). These have affected access to health due to lack of insurance and limited access to healthy foods. Furthermore, 23% of Hawaiians face challenges paying medical bills compared to whites at 16%. The limitations in accessing health care contribute to poor health outcomes, lower quality of life, and inefficient use of health services.

Hawaiians have a lower level of educational attainment than Whites. Approximately 24% of Native Hawaiians have a bachelor’s degree or higher compared to 37% of whites. Besides, fewer Native Hawaiians have a graduate or professional degree than whites. Higher education levels are linked with better health outcomes and a longer lifespan. Native Hawaiians have a political history of long-term injustice and discrimination (Lee et al., 2022). They lost their agricultural and aquacultural way of life because of urbanization and had limited access to their Native foods limiting their ability to attain optimal health.

Health Promotion Activities Practiced by Minority Group

Native Hawaiians engage in various activities to improve and promote their health. They seek traditional healers’ services that provide massage and treatment with herbs. Hawaiians use massage to alleviate pain during childbirth and manage inflammation, rheumatism, asthma, and bronchitis to improve circulation to specific body parts (Kaholokula et al., 2018). Herbs are used to manage burns, headaches, high BP, GI distress, toothache, worm infections, respiratory symptoms, and hyperglycemia.

Three Levels of Health Promotion Prevention

Primary prevention would be the most effective level of health promotion for Native Hawaiians. The population has a high prevalence of chronic diseases associated with poor lifestyle practices like poor dietary habits (excess fat and energy intake), smoking, and inadequate physical activity. Primary prevention will focus on educating Hawaiians on measures to prevent these chronic illnesses, particularly lifestyle modification. Lee et al. (2022) recommend culturally-appropriate measures to increase physical activity among Hawaiians, which can alleviate high rates of overweight, obesity, and diabetes. Hawaiians can be educated on reducing caloric consumption while considering their cultural practices. For instance, the health provider can help create a healthy meal plan using their native foods. Primary prevention is key to reducing the incidence of new diagnoses of chronic illnesses since it promotes behavior change.

Cultural Competent Health Promotion for Ethnic Minority Population

A health promotion care plan for a minority group should incorporate the population’s health beliefs, health and ethnic customs, religious practices, diet customs, and interpersonal customs. Leininger’s Culture Care Theory can be applied to support culturally competent health promotion for Native Hawaiians. It asserts that different cultures have different caring behaviors as well as values on health and illness, beliefs, and behavioral patterns (McFarland & Wehbe-Alamah, 2019). The theory’s primary aim is for nursing care to have beneficial meaning and health outcomes for people from similar or different cultural backgrounds.


Health disparities are apparent among Native Hawaiians and have contributed to a poor health status compared to the general US population. They have high rates of overweight/obesity, hypertension, asthma, and cancer, contributing to poor health outcomes, low quality of life, and reduced life span. Poor diet habits among Hawaiians have contributed to the high obesity and diabetes rates. Primary prevention should aim to increase Hawaiian’s knowledge of lifestyle practices contributing to poor health outcomes to encourage them to modify their behavior.


Kaholokula, J. K., Ing, C. T., Look, M. A., Delafield, R., & Sinclair, K. (2018). Culturally responsive approaches to health promotion for Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders. Annals of human biology, 45(3), 249–263.

 Lee, Y. J., Braun, K. L., Wu, Y. Y., Burrage, R., Muneoka, S., Browne, C., … & Hossain, M. D. (2022). Physical activity and health among Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander older adults. Journal of Aging and Health34(1), 120–129.

Lee, Y. J., Braun, K. L., Wu, Y. Y., Hong, S., Gonzales, E., Wang, Y., … & Browne, C. V. (2022). Neighborhood social cohesion and the health of native Hawaiian and other Pacific Islander older adults. Journal of Gerontological Social Work, 65(1), 3–23.

Long, C. R., Narcisse, M. R., Bailey, M. M., Rowland, B., English, E., & McElfish, P. A. (2022). Food insecurity and chronic diseases among Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders in the US: results of a population-based survey. Journal of Hunger & Environmental Nutrition17(1), 53–68.

McElfish, P. A., Purvis, R. S., Esquivel, M. K., Sinclair, K. I. A., Townsend, C., Hawley, N. L., … & Kaholokula, J. K. A. (2019). Diabetes disparities and promising interventions to address diabetes in Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islander populations. Current diabetes reports19, 1–9.

McElfish, P. A., Yeary, K., Sinclair, I. A., Steelman, S., Esquivel, M. K., Aitaoto, N., Kaholokula, K., Purvis, R. S., & Ayers, B. L. (2019). Best Practices for Community-Engaged Research with Pacific Islander Communities in the US and USAPI: A Scoping Review. Journal of health care for the poor and underserved30(4), 1302–1330.

McFarland, M. R., & Wehbe-Alamah, H. B. (2019). Leininger’s Theory of Culture Care Diversity and Universality: An Overview With a Historical Retrospective and a View Toward the Future. Journal of transcultural nursing: official journal of the Transcultural Nursing Society30(6), 540–557.