NRS 429 Health Promotion and Community Resource Teaching Project 

Sample Answer for NRS 429 Health Promotion and Community Resource Teaching Project  Included After Question

Description:

This is a Collaborative Learning Community (CLC) assignment.

An important role of nursing is to provide health promotion and disease prevention. Review the 2020 Topics and Objectives on the Healthy People website. Choose a topic of interest that you would like to address, in conjunction with a population at-risk for the associated topic. Submit the topic and associated group to your instructor for approval.

Create a 15-20 slide PowerPoint presentation for your topic and focus group. Include speaker notes and citations for each slide, and create a slide at the end for References.

Address the following:

  1. Describe the approved topic and associated population your group has selected. Discuss how this topic adversely affects the population. How does health disparity affect this population?
    1. Explain evidence-based approaches that can optimize health for this population. How do these approaches minimize health disparity among affected populations?
    1. Outline a proposal for health education that can be used in a family-centered health promotion to address the issue for the target population. Ensure your proposal is based on

evidence-based practice.

  • Present a general profile of at least one health-related organization for the selected focus topic. Present two resources, national or local, for the proposed education plan that can be utilized by the provider or the patient.
    • Identify interdisciplinary health professionals important to include in the health promotion. What is their role? Why is their involvement significant?

Cite at least three peer-reviewed or scholarly sources to complete this assignment. Sources should be published within the last 5 years and appropriate for the assignment criteria and public health content.

Refer to the resource, “Creating Effective PowerPoint Presentations,” located in the Student Success Center, for additional guidance on completing this assignment in the appropriate style.

While APA style is not required for the body of this assignment, solid academic writing is expected, and documentation of sources should be presented using APA formatting guidelines, which can be found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center.

This assignment uses a rubric. Please review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the expectations for successful completion.

You are required to submit this assignment to LopesWrite. Refer to theLopesWrite Technical Support articles for assistance.

A Sample Answer For the Assignment: NRS 429 Health Promotion and Community Resource Teaching Project 

Title: NRS 429 Health Promotion and Community Resource Teaching Project 

Interdisciplinary Team in Health Promotion

Interdisciplinary teams play a critical role in health promotion based on different medical conditions. An interdisciplinary team comprises of different health and medical professionals with defined and related roles and responsibilities. These include registered nurses (RNs), nurse practitioners (NPs), dietician and nutritionists, and educators on different health conditions impacting individual patients, patient populations, families, and communities (Health Research & Educational Trust, 2018).

NRS 429 Health Promotion and Community Resource Teaching Project 
NRS 429 Health Promotion and Community Resource Teaching Project 

An interdisciplinary team also comprises of community leaders and social workers interacting with them to understand different issues and barriers to health promotion on management of different conditions like injury prevention among the elderly, diabetes and substance use disorders and abuse (van Rhyn & Barwick, 2019). The interdisciplinary team will also have physicians, especially general physicians who can be at disposal to assess a host of medical conditions for better interventions. The team will also comprise of therapists; physical and occupational therapists with the aim of developing effective and evidence-based practice interventions to prevent injury among the elderly under the program.

Roles of the Interdisciplinary Health Professionals

Injury prevention among the elderly requires effective interventions based on the roles and responsibilities played by the different stakeholders. Registered nurses and nurse practitioners are the frontline care providers who will monitor patients and identify possible injuries and risks to injuries because of their health condition and status. Dieticians and nutritionists will offer advice and recommend better diets and foods for the elderly to reduce susceptibility to injuries by increasing their energy levels and other critical aspects of body functioning (Health Research & Educational Trust, 2018). Educators will create and disseminate awareness programs and materials in collaboration with community leaders who understand the types of hazards that can hinder effective education.

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Physicians play a key role of assessing and diagnosing the types of injuries that individual elderly patients may be susceptible to and developing interventions based on their situations. For instance, injuries associated with falls among the elderly are more prevalent and physicians can seek information about their frequency and possible course of action to prevent their occurrence. Therapists are important components of injury prevention, especially falls as they perform assessments that evaluate balance, strength, endurance, and different aspects of motion and susceptibility for falls (Cancinotto et al., 2019).

For instance, they look at gait steadiness and speed, and conduct tests that offer a foundation for performance. Individual patients and their families are essential members of the team as they can share information and history about potential causes of injuries like falls (Grossman et al., 2018). Many individual patients and their families may ignore previous injuries suffered due to different events, including falls, and it would be critical to get sufficient information to mitigate future susceptibility.  

Conclusion

The presentation demonstrates the importance of interdisciplinary team in preventing injuries among the elderly. Organizations and providers at different levels have an obligation to develop interventions through an interdisciplinary team approach that will help reduce susceptibility to injuries due to events like falls among the elderly.

The presentation shows that injury prevention strategies allow the elderly to have improved quality of life, better gait, and increased level of awareness on activities to avoid to reduce vulnerability. The interdisciplinary team involves different professionals, patients and their families, and even community leaders for effective implementation of evidence-based practice interventions to reduce possible risks of injuries in different situations among the elderly.

References

Calcinotto, A., Kohli, J., Zagato, E., Pellegrini, L., Demaria, M., & Alimonti, A.

   (2019). Cellular senescence: aging, cancer, and injury. Physiological

   reviews, 99(2), 1047-1078. doi: 10.1152/physrev.00020.2018.

Grossman, D. C., Curry, S. J., Owens, D. K., Barry, M. J., Caughey, A. B.,

   Davidson, K. W., … & US Preventive Services Task Force. (2018).

   Interventions to prevent falls in community-dwelling older adults: US

   Preventive Services Task Force recommendation statement. Jama,

  319(16), 1696-1704. doi:10.1001/jama.2018.3097

Health Research & Educational Trust (June 2018). Falls with Injury Change

   Package:2018 Update. Chicago, IL: Health Research & Educational Trust.

   http://www.hret-hiin.org/

van Rhyn, B., & Barwick, A. (2019). Health practitioners’ perceptions of falls and fall

   prevention in older people: a Metasynthesis. Qualitative health research,

  29(1), 69-79. https://doi.org/10.1177/1049732318805753

A Sample Answer For the Assignment: NRS 429 Health Promotion and Community Resource Teaching Project 

Title: NRS 429 Health Promotion and Community Resource Teaching Project 

Health Care Associated Infections (HAI’s)

HAI’s happen in just about any facilities such as hospitals, outpatient rehabilitation centers, kidney care clinics, and most commonly in long-term care facilities. They can have a major impact on the patient such as emotional, financial, and medical consequences (OIDP, 2021).

Older Adults

Families and communities often use other socio-cultural referents to define age, including family status such as being called grandparents, physical appearance, or age-related health conditions (UNHCR, n.d.).

Patients who benefit the most from the services of a geriatrician have chronic illnesses, impaired physical function, impaired memory or cognitive function, depression or anxiety, weight loss, problems with balance or recurrent falls, and/or urinary incontinence. Some of the most common medical problems you will see in elderly patients are dementia, delirium, falls, polypharmacy, coordination, confusion and agitation, and coronary heart disease (Mount Sinai Health System, n.d.).

Adverse Effects of HAI’s on the Elderly

Frequently transferring patients from one facility (nursing homes, skilled nursing facilities, home care, and other specialty clinics) to another, these transitions cause care fragmentation, which can undermine the effectiveness of treatment and allow pathogens to be transferred from one setting to another and from one person to another. The risk of contracting HAIs  increases linearly with increasing age. More specifically, HAI prevalence is 11.5% in patients aged over 85 years, while it is 7.4% in patients aged under 65 years (Cristina et al., 2021).

Pneumonia is one of the most severe respiratory tract infections. Among hospital-acquired pneumonias (HAP), ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is the most clinically relevant in geriatric patients. UTIs are the second most common HAI. Catheters have been demonstrated to be a common source of infection. Gram-negative bacteria, is challenging, and may cause antibiotic treatment failures of urinary tract infections, other are predisposing factors for UTIs include neurogenic bladder, diabetes mellitus that’s poorly controlled, post-void residual urine, and incontinence (Cristina et al., 2021). Skin and soft tissue infections are other common HAIs that can occur following the development of pressure ulcers, pressure ulcers are frequent but potentially preventable in older people with compromised functional independence requiring complete bed confinement. Existing wounds can be secondarily infected by microorganisms transferred from other patients through the hands of healthcare personnel or the environment (Cristina et al., 2021).

Health Disparities and the Elderly

Environmental factors related to income, education, occupation, retirement, and wealth may have a serious impact on key determinants of health over the life course and ultimately the health and well-being of older adults.

Social factors such as individual and structural forms of discrimination and bias can shape the everyday experience of individuals from minority or vulnerable populations.

Cultural factors can have a tremendous influence on approaches for managing stress, diet and food preferences, attitudes toward physical activity, and other critical health/coping behaviors.

Behavioral factors and psychological processes represent major pathways by which environmental and social factors affect health. Optimism, pessimism, and sense of control serve as risk or resilience factors for impacting health, while chronic stress exposure can enhance vulnerability.

Biological factors that are influenced by environmental and sociocultural factors — and transduced through behavioral processes may alter the course, severity and acceleration of disease and disability.

(National Institute of Aging, 2020)

Evidence-Based Practices to Optimize Health

Healthy Diet: A well-balanced and nutrient-rich diet is crucial for maintaining optimal health in the elderly. Consuming a healthy diet supports optimal nutrition and strengthens the immune system.

Chronic Disease Management: Effective management of chronic conditions, such as diabetes, hypertension, and arthritis, is essential for promoting health in the elderly. Controlling comorbidities in our patients can help prevent further infections and illnesses.

Medication Management:  Older adults often take multiple medications, which can increase the risk of adverse effects and drug interactions. If a patient is not properly taking their medications it can lead to resistance which then may lead to infections such as MRSA or VRE.

Physical Activity: has numerous benefits for the elderly, including improved cardiovascular health, muscle strength, balance, and cognitive function.

Fall Prevention: Falls are a significant health concern for the elderly, leading to injuries and reduced mobility. Fall can lead to wounds which can then lead to infection (Frieson et al., 2018).

Cognitive Stimulation: Engaging in mentally stimulating activities can help maintain cognitive function and reduce the risk of cognitive decline. Evidence suggests that activities like puzzles, reading, social interactions, and learning new skills can promote brain health and delay the onset of conditions like dementia and Alzheimer’s.

(Morsch et al., 2021)

Evidence-based approaches minimize health-associated infections among the elderly

 population by reducing exposure to infectious agents. Immunization reduces the risk of

contracting preventable infections such as pneumococcal and influenza viruses. Hand

hygiene practices, including showering, and regular disinfection of surfaces can help

prevent the spread of infection. Management of chronic diseases and medication optimization

reduces the risk of hospitalization where healthcare-associated infections can be contracted.

Health Education

•1- In the elderly population, their cognitive abilities decline and they may experience some difficulty remembering information. If this is the case then having family around for some of the learning would be a good idea so that they can remind the patient as needed about what was discussed

•2- Is this the patient’s baseline? Or are they altered in some way because of medication or an infection they already have like a UTI? If the patient is altered, we can find a better time to do education or if they have family at bedside we can use this time to focus more on family education than patient education.

•3- We should be sure that the information we are presenting to our patient is in their preferred language. We have translation resources to use if necessary.

•4- In order for the patient to learn best, they need to hear and see the best that they can.

•5- It is a good idea to ask the patient their preferred method of learning. If they do not know, that is totally fine, we can teach them in many different ways. With this population it is a good idea to use many modes of teaching anyway because the literacy skills in the older adult population is lower than other age groups. There was a study done that showed 71% of adults over the age of 60 had trouble with printed material that was a normal handout with paragraphs on it (US Department of Health and Human Services, 2009).

Pneumonia- infection in the lungs that can cause a cough, fever, and difficulty breathing (Mayo Clinic, 2020).

UTI-Infection in your urinary tract. Symptoms include voiding often or having the urge to void often, pain when voiding, urinary incontinence and with the older population confusion or altered mental status (Cleveland Clinic, 2023).

CAUTI- Catheter associated Urinary Tract infections. The most common healthcare Associated Infection, affecting over one million patients per year in the US (Werneburg G., 2022).  Foley catheters are only meant to be in as needed because they have a high risk for infection associated with them.

CLABSI- Central Line Associated Bloodstream Infections- Bacteria can enter your bloodstream through a central line. Proper insertion of the line, changing of dressing and site care is the best way to prevent bacteria from entering (Annamaraju, 2022)

C Difficile Infection- Bacterial infection of the large intestine. Annually about 200,000 people are infected with C. Diff during their hospital stay. Symptoms can range from diarrhea to serious damage to the colon (Mayo Clinic, 2019)

Finally, what they can do to prevent these infections

In a study that was done over a 19 month period, staff had offered their patients the ability to wash their hands or use hand sanitizer before and after meals and after using the restroom and during this period there was a 70% decrease in VRE infections and a 63% decrease in MRSA infections (Ahrens et al., 2107)

Wash your hands before you eat and always after you use the bathroom. We can provide hand sanitizer for you if you are not able to stand at the sink to wash.

It is important to take the antibiotics as prescribed, both oral and IV (US Department of Health, 2019). We understand it can sometimes be a lot but some infections require a couple meds to get rid of it.

Don’t touch your wounds with bare hands and if there is a dressing over it, leave it there and let someone know if it does come off. If a wound is left open it could lead to bacteria getting inside and infecting the wound which could lead to bone or blood infection as well.

Allow the staff to do proper care on your line if you have one. Also pay attention to the line site, is it red, inflamed, warm or have drainage?(US Department of Health, 2019)

Some of the best ways to prevent pneumonia are to ambulate and move around as often as you can and also use the incentive spirometer to keep your lungs healthy!

The pneumococcal vaccination is a great way to help prevent pneumonia in the healthcare setting.

Website- infectionpreventionandyou.org

Patient education-

Be aware of HAI’s and what they are

Empower patients to advocate for their care

Clean hands often

Teach safe basic injection techniques- aseptic technique

Monitor are cleanliness

Ask questions about medications

Care for devices such as Foley catheter

Stay up to date on vaccinations

Ask to speak with infection preventionist

(Infection Prevention and You, 2023)

Tool to assess and decrease Healthcare associated infections

Providers can use the CDCs resources to implement in the healthcare setting

Demographics- forms for health care setting, contains questions that address basic information regarding the facility’s infection prevention access, accreditations, facility and unit types etc.

Facilitator Guide Assessment Modules- open and closed ended questions, observations. 10 modules include training, hand hygiene, transmission based precautions, environmental services, disinfection and sterilization, injections safety, POC testing, wound care, Laundry and Antibiotic stewardship

Observation forms- assesses and discusses policies and practices implemented, these forms are based on modules from part 2.

(Centers for Disease Control, 2023)

https://www.cdc.gov/hai/prevent/infection-control-assessment-tools.html

https://www.ahrq.gov/hai/index.html

 Organization officially founded in 1989 and funded by the US government.

Has a program in preventing, decreasing and educating on Healthcare Associated infections.

Toolkits & Resources to prevent HAI’s

Goals include Health systems research, Practice improvement and Data and analytics to improve healthcare

(Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, 2023)

Interdisciplinary Healthcare Team

Many different healthcare professionals are involved in the interdisciplinary healthcare team. All members work together with the patient and family to create the best goals and achieve the goals with the patients best interest in mind.

Significance of Involvement in the Interdisciplinary Health Professional

 The role of interdisciplinary health professionals is crucial in health promotion related to HAIs in the elderly. By collaborating, educating, and monitoring, they can develop effective strategies to prevent and manage these infections and improve the quality of care for elderly patients. 

Interdisciplinary healthcare professionals are crucial in preventing HAIs in elderly patients. Their involvement is significant in creating and implementing effective health promotion plans that promote infection prevention and control. Nurses, nutritionist, social worker, physical therapy, pharmacist and environmental services staff are just a few examples of professionals who play an important role in HAI prevention and can make a positive impact on the lives of elderly patients.

Nurses play a critical role in HAI prevention by implementing infection control practices, educating patients and their families, and monitoring patients for signs of infections. They can also provide guidance on proper hygiene practices, such as handwashing and respiratory etiquette, which can reduce the spread of infections.

Nutritionists can work collaboratively with other members of the interdisciplinary team, such as nurses, physicians, and infection preventionists, to develop patient-specific nutritional plans that address the underlying conditions and comorbidities that contribute to HAIs. For example, malnutrition is a common risk factor for infection in older adults, and nutrition interventions that address specific nutrient deficiencies can help reduce the risk of HAIs (Marsh et al., 2017).

One way social workers can support patients and their families is by providing emotional support and education about the infection and treatment options. This can help reduce anxiety and stress and improve patient satisfaction with care (Hines et al., 2018). Social workers can also collaborate with other team members to identify and address social determinants of health that may contribute to HAI risk, such as housing instability or food insecurity.

One way physical therapists can support patients is by implementing fall prevention strategies. Falls are a common cause of injuries in the elderly, and injuries can increase the risk of developing infections. Physical therapists can evaluate patients’ balance, gait, and mobility and develop personalized exercise programs to improve strength, balance, and coordination, reducing the risk of falls.

Pharmacists are crucial members of the healthcare team and can contribute to reducing the incidence of HAIs by ensuring that elderly patients receive appropriate antimicrobial therapy. They can also provide guidance on reducing the use of unnecessary antibiotics, which can lead to the development of antibiotic-resistant bacteria.

Environmental services staff members play a vital role in preventing HAIs by ensuring that hospital environments are clean and free from harmful pathogens. They can also provide education on proper cleaning and disinfection techniques and assist in implementing infection control measures.

References

Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. (2023). AHRQ’s Healthcare-Associated Infections Program. Agency https://www.ahrq.gov/hai/index.html

Ahrens, M., Freeman, R., Goodrich, C., Haverstick, S., Kullar, R., James, S. (2017). Patients’ Hand Washing and Reducing Hospital-Acquired Infection. Critical Care Nurse, 37(3) e1-e8. https://doi.org/10.4037/ccn2017694

Al-Tawfiq, J. A., Abed, M. S., & Al-Yami, N. (2019). Interdisciplinary team approach to hospital infection control and prevention programs: A 3-year overview. American Journal of Infection Control, 47(7), 792-796. doi: 10.1016/j.ajic.2018.12.011

American Diabetes Association. (2020). Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes 2020. https://care.diabetesjournals.org/content/43/Supplement_1/S14

American Geriatrics Society. (2019). 2019 Updated AGS Beers Criteria. https://www.americangeriatrics.org/sites/default/files/2019-05/2019%20AGS%20Beers%20Criteria%C2%AE_PocketCard_053019_3.pdf

Annamaraju, P., Haddadin, Y., Regunath, H. (2022). National Library of Medicine. Central line associated Bloodstream Infections. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK430891/

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2020). Adult Vaccinations. https://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/adults/index.html

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2023). Infection control assessment tools. https://www.cdc.gov/hai/prevent/infection-control-assessment-tools.html

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2016). Vital signs 2016. https://www.cdc.gov/socialmedia/tools/buttons/vitalsigns/2016.html

Chung, C. F., Lapane, K. L., & Goldstein, R. L. (2019). Medical Management of Diabetes in the Elderly. The Medical Clinics of North America, 103(6), 1073–1085. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mcna.2019.08.006

Cleveland Clinic. (2023). Urinary Tract Infections. https://my.clevelandclinic.org/health/diseases/9135-urinary-tract-infections

Cristina, M. L., Spagnolo, A. M., Giribone, L., Demartini, A., & Sartini, M. (2021). Epidemiology and Prevention of Healthcare-Associated Infections in Geriatric Patients: A Narrative Review. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 18(10), 5333. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18105333

Frieson, C. W., Tan, M. P., Ory, M. G., & Smith, M. L. (2018). Evidence-based practices to reduce falls and fall-related injuries among older adults. Frontiers Media SA.https://www.frontiersin.org/research-topics/4231/evidence-based-practices-to-reduce-falls-and-fall-related-injuries-among-older-adults

Goff, D. A., Fleming-Dutra, K. E., Bauer, K. A., & Mangino, J. E. (2020). The role of pharmacists in antimicrobial stewardship. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 71(10), 2753-2759. doi: 10.1093/cid/ciaa544

Hines, J. R., Brown, R., & Stein, S. (2018). The critical role of social work in addressing the emotional and psychosocial impact of healthcare-associated infections. American Journal of Infection Control, 46(3), 312-316. https://doi: 10.1016/j.ajic.2017.11.006

Infection Prevention and You. (2023). Educate Your Patients. https://infectionpreventionandyou.org/protect-your-patients/educate-your-patients-on-infection-prevention/

Johnson, J. K., Dumyati, G. K., Felsen, C., Sorkin, J. D., & Aksamit, D. (2020). Improving nursing staff knowledge and practice related to healthcare-associated infections through a collaborative team approach. American Journal of Infection Control, 48(6), 643-647. https://doi: 10.1016/j.ajic.2019.12.013

Li, X., Zhang, Y., Zhang, X., Shi, J., Li, H., & Wu, S. (2018). Nutritional support in preventing and treating healthcare-associated infections in elderly patients: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Nutrients, 10(9), 1211, https://doi: 10.3390/nu10091211

Marsh, K., Zeuschner, C., & Saunders, A. (2017). Mucosal immunity, obesity and malnutrition in the elderly – A role for nutrition? Nutrients, 9(8), 815. https://doi: 10.3390/nu9080815

Mayo clinic. (2019). C. Difficile Infection. https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/c-difficile/symptoms-causes/syc-20351691

Mayo Clinic. (2022). Pneumonia. https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/pneumonia/symptoms-causes/syc-20354204

Morrissey, M., Hirsch, M. A., & Lehman, R. R. (2018). Physical therapists’ roles in preventing and managing healthcare-associated infections: A scoping review. Physical Therapy, 98(9), 821-832. https://doi: 10.1093/ptj/pzy080

Morsch, P., Pelaez, M., Vega, E., Hommes, C., &  Lorig, K. (2021). Evidence-based programs for older persons in the Americas. Revista panamericana de salud publica = Pan American journal of public health. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8369133/

Mount Sinai Health System. (n.d.) What is Geriatrics? Retrieved June 2, 2023, from https://www.mountsinai.org/care/geriatrics/what-is#:~:text=There%20is%20no%20specific%20age

National Institute on Aging. (2020). Goal F: Understand health disparities related to aging and develop strategies to improve the health status of older adults in diverse populationshttps://www.nia.nih.gov/about/aging-strategic-directions-research/goal-health-disparities-adults

National Institute on Aging. (2018). Healthy Eating for Older Adults. https://www.nia.nih.gov/health/healthy-eating-older-adults

OIDP. (2021). Health Care-Associated Infections. HHS.gov. https://www.hhs.gov/oidp/topics/health-care-associated-infections/index.html#:~:text=Healthcare%2Dassociated%20infections%20(HAIs)

Selvey, L. A., Whitby, M., Smith, D., Taylor, K., & Kyan, A. (2020). The role of environmental cleaning in the control of hospital-acquired infection. Journal of Hospital Infection,106(2), 246-251. doi: 10.1016/j.jhin.2020.05.010

Tarrant, C., Hardy, K. J., & Sheikh, A. (2021). Exploring the role of nurses in preventing healthcare-associated infections: a qualitative study. Journal of Hospital Infection, 110, 23-30. doi: 10.1016/j.jhin.2021.02.015

Tavares, A. V., Marra, A. R., Oliveira, M. M., Santos, O. F. P., & Edmond, M. B. (2020). Assessing the impact of an interdisciplinary intervention to reduce healthcare-associated infections among elderly patients in Brazil: A quasi-experimental study. BMC Infectious Diseases, 20, 803. doi: 10.1186/s12879-020-05574-8