NRS 429 Compare and contrast the three different levels of health promotion (primary, secondary, tertiary)
NRS 429 Compare and contrast the three different levels of health promotion (primary, secondary, tertiary)
Primary promotion is considered prevention before the illness or injury usually has occurred it can be in the form of vaccinations or routine check-ups and technically takes place in the primary care centers and clinics. Primary prevention can also include educational interventions, also lifestyle factors like healthy eating habits and proper sleep, and better nutritional habits.
Secondary promotion is when you focus on early detection and treatment of disease and catch them before they progress into a irreversible state, an example could be catching and treatment of early stage cancer by of prevention screenings like mammograms and general health screening. If caught early certain type of cancers if caught and treated early can have a positive outlook and better outcomes for the patient.
Tertiary promotion is when a disease has already caused permanent damage and the goal of tertiary care is to get the patient to a level of functioning so that they can go back home or in a rehabilitation facility or in between such as home health care services to address any side effects that may arise from ongoing treatment of their disease. The goal is to help the patient try to get back to their baseline as much as possible so that they can be as independent as possible.
The education needs of the patient for all three levels of health promotion start with the fact that you have to be willing to accept the teaching methods and a huge is participating in their own care as much as they are able to as this will greatly help in education and learning about the diseases process.
Falkner, A., Grand Canyon University (Ed). (2018). Health promotion: Health & wellness across the continuum. Retrieved from https://lc.gcumedia.com/nrs429vn/health-promotion-health-and-wellness-across-the-continuum/v1.1/
The Registered Nurse should be prepared with an understanding of the three levels of health promotion: Primary, Secondary, and Tertiary. The assessments that a nurse performs at each level of health promotion can assist with determining a patient’s current and future needs. (Kumar & Preetha, 2012.)
Primary health promotion takes place at the Primary Care level. This usually takes place in a Primary Care Physician’s office or other primary care setting. Nurses can teach patients about their routine medications and any preventative measures that they can take to improve their overall health status and well-being. Patients can ask questions regarding their health in this setting. Questions should be encouraged and answered in order to ensure the patient has health literacy and is engaged in the process of learning.
Secondary health promotion involves encouraging and performing health screenings, or arranging for follow-up testing for patients. Patients are taught about routine screenings and encouraged not to neglect routine testing. Early detection and treatment has been shown to be key to recovery from many health conditions, including cancers.
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Health promotion at the tertiary level requires the nurse to have a broad clinical knowledge base. The nurse must have a good understanding of pathophysiology. Patients can be taught how to manage their disease or condition, and how to prevent further decline. For example, a Diabetic who has had multiple fluctuations in blood sugar, with extremely high readings and extremely low blood sugar levels, can be taught to manage the blood glucose level better and prevent further organ and tissue damage.
Levels of prevention can help the nurse to determine educational needs for patients. The nurse can provide anticipatory guidance and evidence-based data at all levels of health promotion and prevention. At the primary care level, the nurse can provide information to prevent the patient from having a crisis and requiring a visit to the Emergency Department. At the secondary level, the nurse can provide screening information, printed materials, and arrange for the screening to take place. The nurse can also teach the importance of follow-up care at this level. A screening is only as good as the follow-through on the test results. At the tertiary level, the patient may need more education and intervention, with the addition of community supports and services to aid in the patient’s recovery. Home Health is one example of a community support that can assist the patient to remain safely in the community. All levels of prevention and health promotion are designed to help the patient to stay out of crisis and out of the hospital setting. (Falkner, 2018.)
- Falkner, A., Grand Canyon University (Ed). (2018). Health promotion: Health & wellness across the continuum. Retrieved from https://lc.gcumedia.com/nrs429vn/health-promotion-health-and-wellness-across-the-continuum/v1.1/
- Kumar, S., & Preetha, G. (2012). Health promotion: an effective tool for global health. Indian journal of community medicine : official publication of Indian Association of Preventive & Social Medicine, 37(1), 5–12. https://doi.org/10.4103/0970-0218.94009
The three levels of disease prevention and health promotion include primary, secondary and tertiary. The primary approach to prevention focuses on stopping disease before it starts; The goal of secondary prevention is early disease detection and intervention; Tertiary prevention, on the other hand, focuses on managing an already-existing disease and avoiding further complications. Primary prevention aims to stop a person who is “well” from getting a disease or injury. The routine immunization of healthy individuals against communicable diseases like measles and influenza is an example of primary prevention, which has the potential to reach a large portion of the population and can, as a result, have a significant impact on the health of the population while remaining cost-effective. Secondary prevention aims to find people who have already have the disease or infection but are still asymptomatic. Following the United States Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF)’s evidence-based recommended screenings for diseases like cancer, diabetes, obesity, and hypertension, among others, is part of secondary prevention. The goal of these screenings is to identify a disease while it is still asymptomatic. Through screening, early disease identification enables earlier intervention, which, ideally, increases the likelihood of a cure or decreases the disease’s morbidity and mortality.
The prevention of complications in individuals who have already developed disease and for whom disease prevention is no longer an option is referred to as tertiary prevention. Tertiary prevention’s objective for these patients is to minimize disease-related morbidity and maximize outcomes. Initiating cardiac therapy and rehabilitation in a patient who has had a myocardial infarction is one example. The heart damage cannot be repaired; However, the patient will be able to achieve maximum cardiac output and avoid additional mortality and morbidity from the myocardial infarction if appropriate cardiac therapy and rehabilitation are provided.
David, D. Celentano. (2019). Population Health. https://www.sciencedirect.com/topic/nursing-and-health-professionals/prevention
Three levels of health prevention and promotion are primary, secondary, and tertiary. Depending on the health journey of the client, education is different at each level. The following are definitions and examples of each of the levels along with the educational needs specific to each level.
Primary prevention is health promotion and dealing with genetic and social risk factors. This level of promotion occurs before the client becomes ill or injured. Some examples include going to a clinic to receive the flu vaccine, altering risky behavior like smoking or poor eating habits, and communities adding fluoride to drinking water for dental health (Falkner, 2018). This level also includes public health initiatives, like banning smoking inside public buildings (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC], n.d.). It is essential for nurses to provide clients with correct, current, individually relevant information in order for them to make quality health decisions on a daily basis.
The secondary prevention level of health promotion focuses on early detection and early treatment. This includes controlling risk factors, screening for those at risk of a health problem, and early treatment (Falkner, 2018). This early treatment occurs before the disease causes unrepairable damage. Two examples are regular mammograms and blood pressure monitoring. Nurses should provide education materials to prevent further complications, address various treatment plans, and include family members to provide support for the client and minimize their risks for similar health problems.
The tertiary prevention level deals with improving the client’s quality of life, rehabilitation, and preventing further complications (Falkner, 2018). This level is defined by the CDC (n.d.) as disease management to slow or stop the advancement of the disease. Examples include chemotherapy and rehabilitation. If the client is at this level of health promotion, the disease process has caused permanent damage of some kind. The nurse should advocate for the client to receive assistance or resources to fully function at home including home health care or specialized medical equipment (Falkner, 2018). Education for these clients should include management techniques for highest functional level and ways to prevent further complications of their disease or injury.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (n.d.) Prevention. https://www.cdc.gov/pictureofamerica/pdfs/picture_of_america_prevention.pdf
Falkner, A. (2018). Health promotion in nursing. In Grand Canyon University (Ed.), Health promotion: Health & wellness across the continuum. Grand Canyon University. https://lc.gcumedia.com/nrs429vn/health-promotion-health-and-wellness-across-the-continuum/v1.1/#/chapter/2
There are three different levels of health promotion, such as primary, secondary, and territorial. While taking care of a patient, a nurse uses different levels to figure out what kind of education the patient needs. When it comes to the prevention of disease and providing care for patients, three levels of health care promotion are equally important for the healthcare provider. In nursing, all levels of health promotion are important because nurses can be involved in almost every part of the process. Nurses can help their patients live healthier lives by using non-traditional preventive care (Lisa & Joe, 2022). Primary prevention includes the promotion and protection of health, secondary prevention includes monitoring and early identification; and tertiary prevention focuses on treating the underlying disease and preventing any further complications that may occur. It is important for registered nurses to understand how important their job is to the overall health care of their patients. Always try to stop a problem from happening in the first place, before it gets sick, or get involved. The primary emphasis is placed on preventative treatments and screenings, as well as vaccinations. This is regarded as individualized protection as well as education (Angel, 2018). Primary prevention is raising public awareness about the importance of a healthy diet and an active lifestyle for individuals who are at a high risk of developing diabetes or cardiovascular disease in order to stop the problem from happening to more people. This kind of knowledge is beneficial to maintaining a healthy lifestyle. At this point in the preventative process, both active and passive involvement are utilized. Active involvement necessitates the person’s participation in some manner, for instance, getting a vaccination and attending seminars regarding healthy lifestyle.
Angel, F.( 2018) Health Promotion in Nursing Care. In Health promotion: Health & wellness across the continuum. (Chapter 2). ). Grand Canyon University. https://lc.gcumedia.com/nrs429vn/health-promotion-health-and-wellness-across-the-continuum/v1.1/#/chapter/2
Lisa A, K., & Joe M, D. (2022). Prevention Strategies.https://doi.org/https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK537222/