NRS 428 Benchmark – Community Teaching Plan Community Teaching Work Plan Proposal
NRS 428 Benchmark – Community Teaching Plan Community Teaching Work Plan Proposal
Primary Prevention/Health Promotion-Handwashing
Nurses are a link between communities and healthcare organizations, who partner in promoting healthy lifestyles and enlightening communities on their health status. These practitioners specialize in developing the most suitable solutions to health issues within a community (Liburd et al., 2020). In addition, they combine their social skills and medical expertise to address issues ranging from lack of knowledge and inadequate access to healthcare among disadvantaged communities.
According to (Choudhary, 2021), increased awareness through education fosters outstanding accomplishments—like improved quality of life—for healthy communities. Community health education highlights the best public health practices and their implications to achieve a common objective of promoting health. Therefore, nurses provide necessary healthcare, alleviate disparities, and eliminate the causes of diseases by educating communities on healthy lifestyles.
The main purpose of primary prevention in community health is to identify and avoid any risk factors that could cause specific injuries or diseases. These measures target healthy individuals and limit their disease exposure (Kisling & Das, 2021). For instance, community hand-washing is a form of primary prevention. This proposal provides a community instruction plan on hand-washing to reduce the spread of illnesses within the community.
Planning Before Teaching
|Name and Credentials of Teacher: Amadu V. Conneh|
|Estimated Time Teaching Will Last: 55 minutes or more||Location of Teaching: Sacramento, CA|
|Supplies, Material, Equipment Needed: Hand sanitizers, Sinks, Water, Germ Juice, Chlorine Tablets, Alcohol-based Hand Rubs, Leaflets, Towels, UV Light, and PowerPoint.||Estimated Cost: $45.00|
|Community and Target Aggregate: All community members.|
|Topic: Primary Prevention and Health Promotion of Hygiene through Hand Washing.|
Identification of Focus for Community Teaching
This primary prevention and health promotion plan highlights the benefits of hand-washing as one of the effective ways to protect community members against illnesses. As the COVID-19 virus spreads worldwide, all community members should adopt frequent hand hygiene daily (Bank, 2020). Handwashing also prevents the transmission of deadly diseases like typhoid, cholera, and diarrhea.
Epidemiological Rationale for Hand Hygiene
Sustainable Development Goal 6 requires global community access to good hygiene by 2030. Hand hygiene is a crucial element, but the required facilities and behaviors are lacking in many communities. Empirical research shows that washing hands with soap is almost 85% effective in eliminating germs and pathogens. Besides, adequately-dried hands reduce the transmission of germs, unlike inadequately-dried ones (Suen, So, Yeung, Lo, & Lam, 2019). A recent report by UNICEF shows that 2.3 billion people around the globe lack hand-washing resources (UNICEF., 2021). Further, many public places, schools, and health care centers in developing countries lack the proper hand-washing services.
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Hand washing is a simple act that saves lives by reducing the spread of diseases. These diseases are mainly caused by surfaces, air, or foodborne germs. Since people frequently touch their surfaces, food, and face, hands play a crucial role in spreading infections. According to (CDC, 2020), only 19% of individuals globally wash their hands after using the toilet. Approximately half a million people die annually from acute respiratory infections and diarrhea (Organization., 2021). Communities can reduce these deaths and their financial costs through proper hand hygiene.
Proper hand-washing reduces the number of diarrhea infections by 23-40%, illnesses among vulnerable individuals by 58%, respiratory infections by 16-21%, and illnesses among school children by 29-57% (CDC, 2020). Overall, hand-washing prevents approximately 20% of respiratory-related illnesses and deaths.
Since COVID-19, hand washing has become an essential prevention strategy. The unprecedented attention provided a unique opportunity to consider the practice a permanent public health policy. It is a cost-effective strategy that provides massive health benefits (Vandepitte et al., 2021). The access rate to facilities remains relatively low, and governments should support healthcare practitioners in making it a habit among communities (Organization., 2021). Investment in innovation, governance, and education is a clear pathway to ensuring hand hygiene for all.
According to diagnosis, when individuals do not clean and dry their hands properly, they are prone to contracting illnesses due to the spread of germs. Washing hands at least six times a day significantly decreases the frequency of influenza, cold, and COVID-19 (CDC B., 2022). Pathogens like Salmonella are active in animal and human waste and commonly result in diarrhea. It is advisable to wash hands after using the toilet, changing diapers, and touching raw meat (CDC, 2020). Germs invade our hands when we contact contaminated items/surfaces. Not only will hand washing keep one safe, but it also prevents the spread of infections to other people.
Readiness for Learning: Factors Indicating Readiness to Learn
Learning readiness means how well-equipped the target is to learn—including emotional and experiential readiness. The target population should adjust their actions to show desire and understanding of the benefits of hand washing. Regarding emotional readiness, they must show intentions to improve their hand-washing habits. Another factor to consider is the number of people who join the session and how well they understand the health promotion purpose. Besides, they should stay alert, be willing to contribute, and illustrate the theory content provided by the instructor. Experiential readiness involves asking and answering questions related to the practice of washing hands.
Learning Theory to Utilize
Hand washing is a psychomotor skill taught using the behavioral learning theory. The theory requires learners to learn through intentional practice (Gaube, Fischer, & Lermer, 2021). Forming the intention and positive attitude to washing hands most likely translates to a positive behavior of maintaining hand hygiene. The instructor will begin by providing concise and clear directives on how to wash hands. The learners will watch a short PowerPoint demo on the proper hand-washing procedure and then do it practically. They will repeat the action until they retain the skill/behavior. Utilizing the theory, the instructor ensures a positive attitude, increased perceived behavior control, and salient social norms among the learners.
The main aim of hand hygiene is to encourage and promote quality of life and equal health among communities. Health promotion through education is supported by Healthy People 2020 (HP2020). HP2020 addresses high-priority health issues and provides reliable objectives to promote public health. One of the critical objectives that align with hand hygiene is attaining high-quality and long lives free of diseases, premature deaths, or injuries (HP2020, 2020). Through hand-washing, communities can prevent certain illnesses which can cause premature deaths. Thus, it is essential to meet this objective by providing knowledge on the importance of hand hygiene and the proper techniques.
How Does This HP2020 Objective Relate to Alma Ata’s Health for All Global Initiatives?
The Healthy People 2020 and Alma Ata Health Declaration are global programs that closely relate to each other. The two programs share a common target of ensuring better health for all. The Alma Ata declaration focuses on primary health care to achieve equal health opportunities. Notably, the declaration calls for the community’s participation, values, priorities, needs, and vision for health care systems as a guide to achieving better health care (Pandey, 2018). Similarly, HP2020 seeks to ensure health equality, promote quality of life, promote healthy habits, and create conditions that foster better health for all (HP2020, 2020). More importantly, both programs adopt universal health coverage to influence the global healthcare agenda.
Develop Behavioral Objectives, Domains, Content, and Strategies/Methods
|Behavioral Objective and Domain||Content||Strategies/Methods|
|Learners will explain the necessary instances for washing hands.||Wash hands immediately: after handling shared items, after handling animal waste or garbage, after changing diapers, after using the toilet, coughing/sneezing, before and after handling the sick, after handling animals/pets, before and after cooking, and before eating.||The instructor will supply leaflets containing basic hand-washing information. The instructor will ask participants how they think germs spread.|
|The instructor will explain and describe the proper steps when using soap to wash hands.||Wet your palms with clean (warm or cold) waterApply soap and rub together for 20-30 seconds. This amounts to the time spent singing the Happy Birthday song twice.Wash the front and back of hands, between fingers, and under nails, as shown in the PowerPoint.Rinse hands thoroughly for 20 seconds, using the rubbing motionUse a clean, dry towel to dry your hands adequately. Do not be vigorous to avoid skin damageTurn off the tap using your elbow or the towel to avoid re-contamination.||The instructor will use a brief PowerPoint presentation to reinforce understanding. The participants will practically conduct a performance following the provided steps. The instructor will spread a germ-simulating gel on participants’ hands They will use a UV light to observe their hands immediately before and after cleaning.|
|Participants will identify the various perks of hand washing.||Proper and routine hand washing is vital for your health and those around you. It effectively kills germs, prevents sicknesses, and spreads viruses. Health experts advocate for better hand washing habits to fight the COVID-19 pandemic.||The instructor will issue enough leaflets connecting to the PowerPoint details. After explanations, participants will be allowed to provide additional points and examples from real-life routines.|
|The instructor will discuss infections that can be prevented through proper hand hygiene.||Proper hand washing habits protect us against respiratory infections (COVID-19, influenza, colds) and stomach-related illnesses like typhoid and diarrhea. Hand hygiene combats antibiotic resistance.||Participants will engage in an interactive question and answer session on all preventable diseases to avoid through hand hygiene. They will also refer to the PowerPoint notes and leaflets.|
Application of Creativity
The session will entail a consistent use of amusing reminders to achieve the right timing for hand washing. Specifically, participants will sing the happy birthday song twice to achieve the recommended 20 seconds of hand washing. Besides, we will use birthday balloons to provide a salient and timely reminder. Another effective reminder will be writing sticky notes and encouraging participants to put them in strategic areas of their homes (Holzwarth, 2020). The notes will contain a short and memorable message, “Wash Your Hands!”
To make the activity even more desirable, we will reward participants who undertake the practice as instructed. Mainly, we will give out fancy liquid soaps to the best performers. I will use short and vibrant slides to outline the content for the PowerPoint presentations. Lastly, participants will have the chance to use a UV light to observe their hands before and after washing them with soap and water.
Planned Evaluation of Objectives
- Participants will provide a summary of the topic to demonstrate their understanding levels. Participants who summarize the key points have effectively understood the hand washing concept.
- The instructor will engage in a question and answer session with the participants. Due to their different age levels, the questions will be suited for each level. All questions will relate to the hand washing subjects, and how the participants answer them will determine how they interpret the data.
- After answering all the relevant questions, participants will practically demonstrate the hand washing process. The instructor will verify if the participants can conduct the exercise without supervision.
- The instructor will randomly select participants of different ages to guide others through the described hand washing procedure. The instructor can establish if the participants captured the correct hand washing procedure.
Planned Evaluation of Goal
After introducing and demonstrating the hand washing concept and procedures, the instructor can accomplish the cumulative measurement efficacy of their teaching method. A successful session allows all participants to use the available materials and demonstrate how to wash hands effectively. Once the participants effectively summarize the hand hygiene concept, demonstrate proper hand washing skills, and answer any arising questions, I will assess the overall efficacy of my strategy.
Planned Evaluation of Lesson and Teacher
We will use two evaluation forms to assess the process—formative and summative. Formative evaluation monitors the level of participants’ thinking and takes place in the form of role-playing. Participants will pretend to wash their hands by following the proper steps. They will also answer and ask relevant questions to reinforce their understanding of the concept.
Summative evaluation will be conducted through short tests, quizzes, and products. Participants will have all the required hand washing materials. They will walk to the sinks in turns, and the instructor will play the recommended hand washing song. They should demonstrate how to effectively wash hands the entire time the song plays, using water and soap. They must interlace the fingers, thoroughly wash the required parts, dry their hands, turn off the tap, and throw the used towels in the garbage. During the observation, the observer will make short notes to document mastery and give feedback. However, participants will not get help during the demos.
Potential Barriers and Possible Solutions
Although hand hygiene is a crucial primary prevention measure, research shows that community compliance can be challenging. In this exercise, we could face barriers like participants with sensitive skin. The composition of the hand washing product might have adverse effects on some participants. They might experience discomfort or painful burning sensation—especially in cases of cracked or wounded hands. Thus, they may dislike the exercise, considering it toxic and uncomfortable. Others prefer washing with water only, which they perceive as efficient and less aggressive. In such a case, the instructor will encourage to try different products other than the ones provided in the exercise. If possible, we will provide various products in small quantities to consider different skin types.
The second barrier relates to participants inter and intra-personal beliefs, automatisms, and beliefs relating to hand washing. The automatic hand washing aspect could reduce their vigilance and interest, resulting in occasional forgetfulness. These habits mainly affect individuals with the mentality of ‘having a strong immunity and not being ready to adopt the routine. Education is the best solution for this group. The instructor should convince such participants and provide real-life examples of the dangers of a poor hand-washing routine.
Some participants may state organizational factors as a hindrance to consistent hand washing. These factors include; lack of time and huge workloads, which result in forgetfulness. This category entails the issue of less or no access to hand washing products. The instructor should recommend alternative products like hand sanitizers, which are practical to carry around.
Other obstacles include the participants’ unwillingness to cooperate, refusal to follow the required measures, and language barriers between the instructor and participants. The instructor will present evidence-based knowledge to handle the issues of unwilling participants and refusal to follow instructions. The language barrier is a common issue in healthcare interventions. We can overcome the barrier by involving interpreters. It is essential to understand that collaborating with interpreters is an activity that should be considered before the actual training. According to (Krampe, Fabry, & Langer, 2022), healthcare practitioners can utilize innovative educational interventions to learn how to address potential language barriers and professionally work with interpreters.
As the key speaker, maintaining the audience’s attention for a long could be one of the biggest tasks. I would not imagine a situation where the audience scrolls through their phones, daydream or chat with their neighbors due to boredom. This situation will make me nervous and unable to deliver the message effectively. Interacting with my audience will ensure better understanding and ensure retention of information for better outcomes. Thus, I will make the presentation more interactive and fun.
The perfect way to start is by asking simple questions (icebreakers) to warm up the participants. Icebreakers will change them from passive to active listeners from the word go. Besides, it will allow me to relax before presenting the essential message. I will ensure that my presentation is brief and easy to follow. I will only provide specific explanations orally during the Q&A sessions.
Moreover, the use of humor ensures a lighter mood and create a good rapport with the audience. People tend to remember the points described using humor. While at it, there is power in eye contact. Good eye contact strengthens stage appearance and helps to deliver content effectively. I will try to connect with each part of the audience and not stare at specific people. A professional speaker strictly avoids awkward instances that could make the audience nervous. My body posture and gestures will determine the influence on the audience. This posture entails standing firm, sounding confident, and creating a connection with the audience. Notably, moving around the stage will command the attention of the audience.
Utilizing precise and inspiring language while adjusting voice tone is vital. My language should match the presentation’s style and tone. Considering the demographic of the audience, I will avoid too complex or unsuitable terms to explain concepts. Further, the use of audio and visual effects will make the presentation not so dull. Music and pictures evoke emotions and help the audience to recall or relate to concepts.
The audience will get a chance to ask questions and give opinions. Besides, putting them in control of the presentations would ensure better understanding. If time allows, I can use storytelling to share experiences as the best way to capture attention and ensure active listening. They will want to hear what happens in reality, making the presentation memorable.
To conclude, guests or audience members will get a short moment to share their remarks and thoughts on the session. This will re-engage the audience. If possible, we will have a crowd photo and end the session in a high mood.
This proposed plan provided a community instruction plan on proper hand-washing to reduce the spread of illnesses within the community. Maintaining proper hand-washing needs focused efforts and strategies. Proper hand washing habits protect us against respiratory infections and stomach-related illnesses like typhoid and diarrhea. Better hand hygiene reduces transmitting infection rates, improving quality of life and health outcomes. Thus, education interventions focused on communities significantly increase knowledge and practices regarding proper hand washing techniques.
Bank, W. (2020, April 30). COVID-19 Makes Handwashing Facilities and Promotion More Critical Than Ever. https://www.worldbank.org/en/news/feature/2020/04/30/covid-19-makes-handwashing-facilities-and-promotion-more-critical-than-ever.
CDC. (2020, September 10). Hand-washing in Communities: Clean Hands Save Lives.
Choudhary, S. (2021). Community Health and Its Importance. Primary Health Care: Open Access, 11(2), pp. 1-2.
Gaube, S., Fischer, P., & Lermer, E. (2021). Hand (y) hygiene insights: Applying three theoretical models to investigate hospital patients’ and visitors’ hand hygiene behavior. PloS one, 16(1), e0245543.
Holzwarth, A. (2020, March 26). 16 Ways To Promote Handwashing With Behavioral Science. https://www.forbes.com/sites/alineholzwarth/2020/03/25/handwashing-with-behavioral-science/?sh=24266a1768d9
HP2020. (2020, December 14). National Center for Health Statistics. Retrieved from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/healthy_people/hp2020.htm
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Pandey, K. R. (2018). Alma Ata is still relevant, from health for all to universal health coverage. Globalization and health, 14(1), pp. 1-5.
Suen, L. K., So, Z. Y., Yeung, S. K., Lo, K. Y., & Lam, S. C. (2019). Epidemiological investigation on hand hygiene knowledge and behavior: a cross-sectional study on gender disparity. BMC Public Health, 19(1), pp. 1-14.
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