NRS 410 Describe some of the more common pathophysiological changes and abnormal findings associated with musculoskeletal, metabolic, and multisystem health dysfunctions.

Sample Answer for NRS 410 Describe some of the more common pathophysiological changes and abnormal findings associated with musculoskeletal, metabolic, and multisystem health dysfunctions. Included After Question

Topic 5 DQ 1

Describe some of the more common pathophysiological changes and abnormal findings associated with musculoskeletal, metabolic, and multisystem health dysfunctions. Explain what symptoms are associated with the findings and how these affect patient function.

A Sample Answer For the Assignment: NRS 410 Describe some of the more common pathophysiological changes and abnormal findings associated with musculoskeletal, metabolic, and multisystem health dysfunctions.

Title: NRS 410 Describe some of the more common pathophysiological changes and abnormal findings associated with musculoskeletal, metabolic, and multisystem health dysfunctions.

Metabolic health dysfunctions include metabolic abnormalities of insulin resistance,
hypertension, atherogenic dyslipidemia, and central obesity. The pathogenesis of metabolic
abnormalities involves acquired and genetic factors that lead to the pathway of inflammation resulting in cardiovascular disease. Risk factors include excessive intake of high calories and
lack of physical activities Visceral adiposity is the major trigger of pathways involved in
metabolic health dysfunctions. Chronic inflammation, insulin resistance, and neurohormonal
activation are the main mechanisms to the development of metabolic health dysfunctions. Key
symptoms of metabolic syndrome include large waist circumference and when the level of blood
sugar is high the patient may have signs of diabetes such as frequent urination, fatigue, increased
thirst, and blurred vision 
National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; Health and Medicine Division;
Board on Health Care Services; Committee on Identifying Disabling Medical Conditions Likely
to Improve with Treatment. Selected Health Conditions and Likelihood of Improvement with
Treatment. Washington (DC): National Academies Press (US); 2020 Apr 21. 5, Musculoskeletal
Disorders. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK559512/

A Sample Answer 2 For the Assignment: NRS 410 Describe some of the more common pathophysiological changes and abnormal findings associated with musculoskeletal, metabolic, and multisystem health dysfunctions.

Title: NRS 410 Describe some of the more common pathophysiological changes and abnormal findings associated with musculoskeletal, metabolic, and multisystem health dysfunctions.



Jessiya, metabolic health dysfunctions is such an umbrella term, don’t you think? I mean,
since so many other diseases and disorders can fall under its realm.
Metabolic syndrome comprises a cluster of symptoms including hypertension,
dyslipidemia, fatty liver disease, and type 2 diabetes mellitus. The underlying
pathological process is insulin resistance, which distorts metabolism. Temporal and
mechanistic connections have been described between hyperinsulinemia, obesity, and
insulin resistance. Insulin levels rise, potentially stimulated by an excess intake of refined
carbohydrates and in addition the metabolic actions of insulin focus on target tissues such
as the liver, skeletal muscle, and fat. Although much attention has been focused on
restricting calories and treating elevated lipids with medication (statins), evidence is now
emerging that this does not have the desired effect of decreasing the incidence
cardiovascular disease. Metabolic syndrome is thought to be an obese person’s disease,
but there are people who are not obese who are also at risk of developing metabolic
syndrome due to insulin resistance. There is, in fact, a full spectrum of clinical types
ranging from the overweight to the slim. The degree of insulin resistance has been shown
to be related to a person’s body composition with increased ratio of whole-body fat to
lean mass. Although this confuses the picture somewhat, it also simplifies the approach.
In all cases one important lifestyle modification is exercise.

REFERENCE

Lanktree, M.B. & Hegele, R.A. (2018), Metabolic syndrome. Genomic and Precision
Medicine. https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/medicine-and-dentistry/metabolic-
syndrome

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associated with musculoskeletal, metabolic, and multisystem health dysfunctions.:

A Sample Answer 3 For the Assignment: NRS 410 Describe some of the more common pathophysiological changes and abnormal findings associated with musculoskeletal, metabolic, and multisystem health dysfunctions.

Title: NRS 410 Describe some of the more common pathophysiological changes and abnormal findings associated with musculoskeletal, metabolic, and multisystem health dysfunctions.

The disease manifestations in a patient result from different pathophysiology that may affect the
organ functions. Some of the common musculoskeletal disorders such as osteoporosis, gouty
arthritis, and osteomyelitis have different pathophysiology. Whereas osteoporosis results from
reduced calcium deposition in the bones, deposition of urate crystals in the joint causes gouty
arthritis, and bone infections cause osteomyelitis (Puntillo et al., 2021). Despite the difference in
pathophysiology, the patient complaints may be similar for the affected individuals as the
diseases cause bone pain and may easily lead to immobilization (Malik et al., 2018). The
increased risk of fracture is also common for chronic osteomyelitis and osteoporosis.
           The metabolic condition that most patients present with is diabetes mellitus. The condition
results when the pancreas is destroyed and cannot produce adequate insulin or when the
peripheral tissues do not respond to the levels of insulin that are produced. These pathologies are
responsible for type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus respectively (Banday et al., 2020). The
patients present with polyuria, polydipsia, polyphagia, chronic fatigue, or even depression
resulting from the chronicity of the condition (Khan et al., 2020). Further, the condition may
increase the rate of hospitalization and cost of care thus impacting the patient’s social and
economic wellbeing (Banday et al., 2020).
           On the other hand, sepsis and septic shock are amongst the most encountered multisystem
health dysfunctions. The conditions results when infections overwhelm the immune system and
therefore spread uncontrollably in the body. Septic shock presents as cardiac dysfunction with
low blood pressure in presence of severe sepsis (Font et al., 2020). Such presentation may cause
organ failures, contribute to a prolonged hospital stay, and even high costs of care (Malik et al.,
2018). Prevention of this condition through sepsis control measures would be appropriate in
reducing its burden in healthcare.
 

NRS 410 Describe some of the more common pathophysiological changes and abnormal findings
associated with musculoskeletal, metabolic, and multisystem health dysfunctions.
NRS 410 Describe some of the more common pathophysiological changes and abnormal findings associated with musculoskeletal, metabolic, and multisystem health dysfunctions.

References


Banday, M. Z., Sameer, A. S., & Nissar, S. (2020). Pathophysiology of diabetes: An
overview. Avicenna Journal of Medicine, 10(4), 174–188.
https://doi.org/10.4103/ajm.ajm_53_20
Font, M. D., Thyagarajan, B., & Khanna, A. K. (2020). Sepsis and Septic Shock – Basics of
diagnosis, pathophysiology, and clinical decision making. The Medical Clinics of North
America, 104(4), 573–585. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mcna.2020.02.011
Khan, M. A. B., Hashim, M. J., King, J. K., Govender, R. D., Mustafa, H., & Al Kaabi, J. (2020).
Epidemiology of type 2 diabetes – Global Burden of Disease and forecasted trends. Journal of
Epidemiology and Global Health, 10(1), 107–111. https://doi.org/10.2991/jegh.k.191028.001
Malik, K. M., Beckerly, R., & Imani, F. (2018). Musculoskeletal disorders a universal source of
pain and disability misunderstood and mismanaged: A critical analysis based on the U.s. model
of care. Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, 8(6), e85532. https://doi.org/10.5812/aapm.85532

Puntillo, F., Giglio, M., Paladini, A., Perchiazzi, G., Viswanath, O., Urits, I., Sabbà, C., Varrassi,
G., & Brienza, N. (2021). Pathophysiology of musculoskeletal pain: a narrative
review. Therapeutic Advances in Musculoskeletal Disease, 13, 1759720X21995067.
https://doi.org/10.1177/1759720X21995067

A Sample Answer 4 For the Assignment: NRS 410 Describe some of the more common pathophysiological changes and abnormal findings associated with musculoskeletal, metabolic, and multisystem health dysfunctions.

Title: NRS 410 Describe some of the more common pathophysiological changes and abnormal findings associated with musculoskeletal, metabolic, and multisystem health dysfunctions.

The musculoskeletal system is made up of connective tissues and voluntary muscles including
cartilage, joints, ligaments, tendons, and fascia that operates independently allowing body

motion (Jull & Hall, 2018). The most experienced pathophysiology alterations and the abnormal
developments can be connected with infections, inflammatory illnesses, injury, and non-
inflammatory conditions or tumors. Most common musculoskeletal system abnormalities include
osteoporosis and rheumatoid arthritis. Among symptoms of these musculoskeletal system
complications are limited motion, pain, edema, spams of the muscle, warmth, tenderness, and
stiffness. Normally, diagnostic tests are run to diagnose and detect the intensity of the condition.
For starters, osteoporosis is triggered by the loss of minerals in the bones weakening and
thinning bones that can eventually lead to reduced heights, fractures, and the curving of the
upper back.
Rheumatoid arthritis on the other hand refers to a condition acquired when the immune system
attacks the healthy tissues leading to inflammation and destruction of connective tissues, loss of
function, and deformity (Fautrel, 2018). The symptoms of these musculoskeletal systems greatly
impacts the normal function of the patient by messing with pain and mobility. Additionally,
patients suffering from musculoskeletal complications undergo depression and stress due to the
abnormal changes that comes with the illnesses affecting their day to day lives. Musculoskeletal
system problems might affect the career of an individual causing increased financial and
emotional stress. It goes without a doubt that musculoskeletal complications affects daily life of
an individual calling for medical assistance and an all-rounded for the victims and their loved
ones.

References 

Fautrel, B. (2018). Therapeutic strategy for rheumatoid arthritis patients who have achieved
remission. Joint Bone Spine, 85(6), 679-685. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbspin.2018.02.002
Jull, G., & Hall, T. (2018). Cervical musculoskeletal dysfunction in headache: How should it be
defined?. Musculoskeletal Science And Practice, 38, 148-150.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.msksp.2018.09.012

A Sample Answer 5 For the Assignment: NRS 410 Describe some of the more common pathophysiological changes and abnormal findings associated with musculoskeletal, metabolic, and multisystem health dysfunctions.

Title: NRS 410 Describe some of the more common pathophysiological changes and abnormal findings associated with musculoskeletal, metabolic, and multisystem health dysfunctions.

Metabolic health dysfunctions include metabolic abnormalities of insulin resistance,
hypertension, atherogenic dyslipidemia, and central obesity. The pathogenesis of metabolic
abnormalities involves acquired and genetic factors that lead to the pathway of inflammation
resulting in cardiovascular disease (Eslam & George, 2020). Risk factors include excessive
intake of high calories and lack of physical activities. Visceral adiposity is the primary trigger of
pathways involved in metabolic health dysfunctions. Chronic inflammation, insulin resistance,
and neurohormonal activation are the primary mechanisms for developing metabolic health
dysfunctions (Eslam & George, 2020). Critical symptoms of metabolic syndrome include large
waist circumference. When the blood sugar level is high, the patient may have signs of diabetes
such as frequent urination, fatigue, increased thirst, and blurred vision.

Since risk factors for the
condition include excessive intake of high calories and lack of physical activities, reducing
calorie intake and increasing physical exercise can reduce the risk. Pathophysiological changes
associated with musculoskeletal health dysfunctions include discomfort such as pain, tiredness,
muscle weakness, stiffness, numbness and sensory loss, movement limitation, joint noises,
reduced range of motion, and high heat because of inflammation (Lassale et al., 2017). In
musculoskeletal health dysfunctions, there is an incongruity between the external loads because
of the physical exertion and posture, along with the ability of the body to withstand the load. The
pathophysiology of multisystem health dysfunction involves the interaction of physiological
aspects that include infection, tissue ischemia, injury, and treatments used to ensure organ

function (Lassale et al., 2017). During multisystem health dysfunction, various cellular and
humoral cascades are activated. Effective management of multisystem health dysfunction
involves controlling and treating the underlying disease process. Multisystem health dysfunction
may present as organ dysfunction in acute kidney injury, hepatic dysfunction, cardiomyopathy,
acute respiratory distress, and encephalopathy.
References

Eslam, M., & George, J. (2020). Reply to: Correspondence regarding “A new definition for
metabolic dysfunction-associated fatty liver disease: An international expert consensus
statement”. Journal of Hepatology, 73(6), 1575. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhep.2020.07.045

Lassale, C., Tzoulaki, I., Moons, K. G., Sweeting, M., Boer, J., Johnson, L., Huerta, J. M.,
Agnoli, C., Freisling, H., Weiderpass, E., Wennberg, P., Van der A, D. L., Arriola, L., Benetou,
V., Boeing, H., Bonnet, F., Colorado-Yohar, S. M., Engström, G., Eriksen, A. K., …
Butterworth, A. S. (2017). Separate and combined associations of obesity and metabolic health
with coronary heart disease: A pan-European case-cohort analysis. European Heart Journal,
39(5), 397-406. https://doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/ehx448

A Sample Answer 6 For the Assignment: NRS 410 Describe some of the more common pathophysiological changes and abnormal findings associated with musculoskeletal, metabolic, and multisystem health dysfunctions.

Title: NRS 410 Describe some of the more common pathophysiological changes and abnormal findings associated with musculoskeletal, metabolic, and multisystem health dysfunctions.

Some common musculoskeletal abnormal findings can be caused by injury, inflammation,
tumors, infection, or noninflammatory conditions (Falkner & Green, 2018).  Some signs of
abnormalities in the musculoskeletal system can be bone loss, muscle atrophy, pain, numbness,
edema, decreased ROM, or tenderness (Falkner & Green, 2018). A primary care practitioner or
specialist is needed to diagnose the issue. They may order diagnostic tests and most commonly
musculoskeletal problems can be attributed to osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, or osteoporosis
(Falkner & Green, 2018). Conditions like this can affect the patient’s ability to function by
causing pain, deformities, and limitations in mobility (Falkner & Green, 2018).
When a patient is dealing with a metabolic syndrome it is often due to an interruption in the body
caused by stress, illness, trauma, cancer, autoimmune disease, or congenital defect that alters the
production and secretion of hormones (Falkner & Green, 2018). Some of these conditions
include diabetes, hypothyroidism, Cushing’s syndrome, and polycystic ovarian disorder (Falkner
& Green, 2018). These conditions can lead to increased BP, excessive abdominal fat, high
cholesterol/triglyceride levels, and high blood sugar (Mayo Clinic, 2021).

Multisystem health dysfunction may start as a basic infection or traumatic injury in which the
body’s response may lead to systemic inflammation and could possibly lead to septic shock
(Falkner & Green, 2018). Septic shock can lead to systemic inflammatory response, sepsis, or
severe sepsis. More than 1.5 million people are diagnosed with sepsis every year and those who
are most susceptible include children, the elderly, burn patients, and trauma patients (Falkner &
Green, 2018). Without proper treatment and rigorous protocol sepsis can be fatal.

Falkner, A., & Green, S. (2018). Musculoskeletal, Metabolism, and Multisystem Complexities
(Chapter 5), Pathophysiology Clinical Applications for Client Health. Grand Canyon University
(Eds.). https://lc.gcumedia.com/nrs410v/pathophysiology-clinical-applications-for-client-
health/v1.1/#/chapter/5

Mayo Clinic. (2021, May 6). Metabolic syndrome – Symptoms and causes.
https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/metabolic-syndrome/symptoms-causes/syc-
20351916