NRNP 6635 Factors That Influence the Development of Psychopathology

Sample Answer for NRNP 6635 Factors That Influence the Development of Psychopathology Included After Question

By Day 3 of Week 1

Explain the biological (genetic and neuroscientific); psychological (behavioral and cognitive processes, emotional, developmental); and social, cultural, and interpersonal factors that influence the development of psychopathology.

Read
 a selection of your colleagues’ responses

By Day 6 of Week 1

Respond to at least two of your colleagues on 2 different days by explaining the implications of why, as an advanced practice nurse, it is important to adopt a multidimensional, integrative model of psychopathology.

Note: For this Discussion, you are required to complete your initial post before you will be able to view and respond to your colleagues’ postings. Begin by clicking on the “Post to Discussion Question” link, and then select “Create Thread” to complete your initial post. Remember, once you click on Submit, you cannot delete or edit your own posts, and you cannot post anonymously. Please check your post carefully before clicking on Submit!

A Sample Answer For the Assignment: NRNP 6635 Factors That Influence the Development of Psychopathology

Factors that influence psychological development are often attributed to childhood exposure to biological and environmental factors. Psychopathology factors include gender, physiological, developmental, socioeconomics, threat, stress, refugee, overmedication, and access to treatment. Biological and genetic mental illnesses are attributed to gene combination transference. Biological and genetic factors increase the susceptibility to mental illness but are shaped by environmental factors such as exposure to low socioeconomic status and increasing poverty-related stress causing psychological issues.

Puberty is known to cause depression due to the developmental changes the person endures. Gender individualizes the increased risk for disorders such as anxiety and depression, and some risks may be determined by hormonal development. Threats such as trauma, abuse, disasters, and uprooting from another country increase the prevalence of PTSD, which influence negative psychological adjustments. Stress increases the risk of behavioral issues and can be associated with factors such as academics and interpersonal relationships at school with instructors or peers. Access to care and overmedication influence medical factors that increase psychological development, (Butcher, 2018).

Sociocultural factors such as gender, sexual orientation, class, race, and ethnicity influence the development of emotional and behavioral disorders. The rate of depression, self-harm, drug abuse, and mental disorders is higher in people with ethnic backgrounds, non-hetero orientation, low income, and other sociocultural influences. Bias thinking can influence the accuracy of clinical judgment and hinder the appropriate treatment for the patient if a multicultural perspective is not developed, (Cheung, 2018). Understanding early adolescent development of psychological issues increases the ability to acquire a developmental perspective to treat the patient’s lifespan by shaping pathways through multi-level processes (Masten, 2018).

Understanding causative factors and the association of neurological involvement with psychological development is fundamental in selecting the appropriate treatment for the patient. Disorders of brain regions such as the amygdala, cingulate gyrus, hippocampus, thalamus, insular cortex, and frontal cortex cause mental health conditions such as anxiety, depression, BPD, and PTSD. Knowledge of how each system will increase the ability to understand how the limbic system, orbitofrontal cortex, insular cortex, and orbital frontal cortex may be responsible for multiple disorders, but the limbic system is definitive to an anxiety disorder, (Jackson, 2018).

Resources

Butcher, J. N., & Kendall, P. C. (2018). Introduction to childhood and adolescent psychopathology. In J. N. Butcher & P. C. Kendall (Eds.), APA handbook of psychopathology: Child and adolescent psychopathology Links to an external site.., Vol. 2. (pp. 3–14). American Psychological Association. https://go.openathens.net/redirector/waldenu.edu?url=https://doi.org/10.1037/0000065-001

Links to an external site.

Cheung, F. M., & Mak, W. W. S. (2018). Sociocultural factors in psychopathology. In J. N. Butcher & J. M. Hooley (Eds.), APA handbook of psychopathology: Psychopathology: Understanding, assessing, and treating adult mental disorders., Vol. 1 Links to an external site.. (pp. 127–147). American Psychological Association. https://go.openathens.net/redirector/waldenu.edu?url=https://doi.org/10.1037/0000064-006

Links to an external site.

Jackson, C. E., & Milberg, W. P. (2018). Examination of neurological and neuropsychological features in psychopathology. In J. N. Butcher & J. M. Hooley (Eds.), APA handbook of psychopathology: Psychopathology: Understanding, assessing, and treating adult mental disorders., Vol. 1 Links to an external site.. (pp. 65–90). American Psychological Association. https://go.openathens.net/redirector/waldenu.edu?url=https://doi.org/10.1037/0000064-004

Links to an external site.

Masten, A. S., & Kalstabakken, A. W. (2018). Developmental perspectives on psychopathology in children and adolescents. In J. N. Butcher & P. C. Kendall (Eds.), APA handbook of psychopathology: Child and adolescent psychopathology., Vol. 2 Links to an external site.. (pp. 15–36). American Psychological Association. https://go.openathens.net/redirector/waldenu.edu?url=https://doi.org/10.1037/0000065-002

Click here to ORDER an A++ paper from our Verified MASTERS and DOCTORATE WRITERS NRNP 6635 Factors That Influence the Development of Psychopathology:

A Sample Answer 2 For the Assignment: NRNP 6635 Factors That Influence the Development of Psychopathology

Title: NRNP 6635 Factors That Influence the Development of Psychopathology

Psychopathology is likely influenced by a combination of biological, psychological, and social, cultural, and interpersonal factors. As we age and experience life, we unfortunately also experience trauma at times. These experiences and our ability to cope with them can cause psychiatric symptoms to manifest, especially if we were already predisposed. This is just an example though and many factors can contribute to one’s risk for psychopathology. Let’s look at some different factors.

Biological Influences (Genetic & Neuroscientific)

Genetics are known to increase the risk for certain mental illnesses. Diseases like bipolar and schizophrenia, autism, major depressive disorder, and even ADHD tend to run in families. There is usually a common gene variation seen in people diagnosed with these diseases (NIH, 2013). Heritability for schizophrenia and bipolar disorder is thought to be 75% or greater, while it ranges somewhere between 20%-45% for depression and anxiety (Kalin, 2020). These percentages are significant.

Epigenetics is also important to consider as these are genes that are present but turned off so to speak and not expressed or modified until they interact with either internal or external environmental factors (CDC, n.d.).

Things like hormones and neurotransmitters are also thought to potentially cause the onset of psychopathology. For example, some believe that decreased serotonin levels can cause disturbances in mood and lead to things like depression and anxiety (Moncrieff, et al., 2022).

Psychological Influences (Behavioral and Cognitive Processes, Emotional, Developmental)

Psychological factors that impact psychopathology are just as important to discuss as biological factors. It really is the whole nature vs nurture argument, but it’s likely that they both matter. You can take a perfectly healthy baby or young child and expose them to trauma, abuse, drugs, or even things like unhealthy water and increase their risk for developing psychopathology later in their lives. Growing up in an environment that is safe where needs are met, including emotional needs is vital to the overall well-being of a child.

As the child grows other things start to influence their risk for developing psychopathologies, like peer groups, social acceptance, and their identity. The child’s ability to be resilient and respond to stressors is important as from a developmental systems perspective their reaction to stressors can alter brain development and influence how they respond in the future (Masten & Kalstabakken, 2018).

NRNP 6635 Factors That Influence the Development of Psychopathology
NRNP 6635 Factors That Influence the Development of Psychopathology

Cognitively psychopathology can be influenced by how people perceive memory, how much attention and thought they give situations, and how they perceive incoming stimuli. If their reaction to incoming stimuli is disproportionate to the actual situation then we may see psychopathology emerge in the form of diseases like obsessive-compulsive disorder, ADHD, eating disorders, or anxiety to name a few. This is where approaches like Cognitive Behavioral Therapy or CBT may be useful for treatment (APA, n.d.).

Social, Cultural, and Interpersonal Influences

Our culture, environment, and those we surround ourselves with play a huge role in our emotional and mental health. For example, illnesses like anxiety and depression are often higher in those with less-than-ideal socioeconomic situations. Lack of access to education or quality education and employment opportunities are often associated with an increase in anxiety and or depression. Situations where people are struggling day in, and day out are optimal environments for stress, anxiety, and depression (Cheung & Mak, 2018).

One’s culture may impact whether someone seeks mental health treatment for an illness and what kind of treatment they accept if they do seek it. It could even impact their actual diagnosis. A lot of cultures are still hesitant to fully embrace the concept of mental health and illness. If you live in an area where mental illness is stigmatized, then chances are you are going to be reluctant to both talk about what you’re experiencing and seek treatment. Some cultures emphasize traditional treatment like prayer ceremonies and herbal medicines, whereas other cultures are more likely to use pharmaceutical or therapy-based treatments.

Conclusion

Regardless of the factors that impact psychopathology, those suffering from mental illness deserve our support and a safe place to seek treatment. Mental illness even when caused by things that are explainable like genetics and biology, is still highly stigmatized. Those suffering from mental illness often feel like outcasts and like they are blamed for their illness (Loughman & Haslam). As future providers, our ability to recognize our patient’s contributing factors to their psychopathology will help us support them as well as guide our treatment choices.  

References

American Psychological Association (APA), (n.d.). What is cognitive behavioral therapy? American Psychological Association. https://www.apa.org/ptsd-guideline/patients-and-families/cognitive-behavioral

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), (n.d.). What is epigenetics? U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. https://www.cdc.gov/genomics/disease/epigenetics.htm

Cheung, F. M., & Mak, W. W. S. (2018). Sociocultural factors in psychopathology. In J. N. Butcher & P.C. Kendall (Eds.), APA handbook of psychopathology: Psychopathology: Understanding, assessing, and treating adult mental disorders.,. Vol. 1. (pp-127-128. American Psychological Association. https://www.go.openathens.net/refirector/waldenu.edu?url=https://doi.org/10.1037/0000064-006

Kalin, N. H. (2020). Early-life environmental factors impacting the development of psychopathology. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 177(1). https://doi.org/10.1176/appi.ajp.2019.19111181

Loughman, A., & Haslam, N. (2018). Neuroscience explanations and the stigma of mental disorder: a meta-analytic study. Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications, 3(43). https://doi.org/10.1186/s41235-018-0136-1

Masten, A. S., & Kalstabakken, A. W. (2018). Developmental perspectives on psychopathology in children and adolescents. In J. N. Butcher & P. C. Kendall (Eds.), APA handbook of psychopathology: Child and adolescent psychopathology., Vol 2, (pp15-36). American Psychological Association.            https://go.openathens.net/redirector/waldenu.edu?url=https://doi.org/10.1037/0000065-002

Moncrieff, J., Cooper, R. E., Stockmann, T., Amedndola, S., Hengartner, M. P., & Horowitz, M. A. (2022). The serotonin theory of depression: A systematic umbrella review of the evidence. Molecular Psychiatry. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41380-022-01661-0

National Institutes of Health (NIH), (n.d.). Common genetic factors found in 5 mental disorders. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. https://www.nih.gov/news-events/nih-research-matters/common-genetic-factors-found-5-mental-disorders

A Sample Answer 3 For the Assignment: NRNP 6635 Factors That Influence the Development of Psychopathology

Title: NRNP 6635 Factors That Influence the Development of Psychopathology

Psychopathology is a branch of psychology that describes an individual’s clinical indications and symptoms. Clinicians can now use any of the diagnostic screening technologies available to rule out less likely causes of a patient’s symptoms. Because the signs and symptoms of many physical problems can be easily confused with mental health difficulties, a basic understanding of biology is required (Warren et al., 2020). Housing or assistance in obtaining housing is a critical component of mental health care (Tsemberis & Eisenberg, 2000). Reiterating the long-standing conflict between needs and desires.

A recent study reveals that schizophrenia and other mental illnesses are linked genetically (Genomic Relationships, 2019). I strongly hope that genetic testing will be used to diagnose mental problems in the near future. Your comprehensive yet succinct explanation of psychopathology’s various characteristics has convinced me to keep reading your writings. The medical community has an obligation to learn more about the causes of mental illness and to develop treatments that consider as many of these factors as possible.

References

American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). https://doi.org/10.1176/appi.books.9780890425596 
Genomic Relationships, Novel Loci, and Pleiotropic Mechanisms across Eight Psychiatric Disorders. (2019). Cell, 179(7), 1469. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2019.11.020 
Tsemberis, S., & Eisenberg, R. F. (2000). Pathways to Housing: Supported Housing for Street Dwelling Homeless Individuals With Psychiatric Disabilities. Psychiatric Services, 51(4), 487–493. 
Warren, N., O’Gorman, C., Blum, S., Kisely, S., Swayne, A., Flavell, J., & Siskind, D. (2020). Evaluation of the proposed anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor encephalitis clinical diagnostic criteria in psychiatric patients. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 142(1), 52–57. https://doi.org/10.1111/acps.13197

A Sample Answer 4 For the Assignment: NRNP 6635 Factors That Influence the Development of Psychopathology

Title: NRNP 6635 Factors That Influence the Development of Psychopathology

 Factors that influence psychological development are often attributed to childhood exposure to biological and environmental factors. Psychopathology factors include gender, physiological, developmental, socioeconomics, threat, stress, refugee, overmedication, and access to treatment. Biological and genetic mental illnesses are attributed to gene combination transference. Biological and genetic factors increase the susceptibility to mental illness but are shaped by environmental factors such as exposure to low socioeconomic status and increasing poverty-related stress causing psychological issues.

Puberty is known to cause depression due to the developmental changes the person endures. Gender individualizes the increased risk for disorders such as anxiety and depression, and some risks may be determined by hormonal development. Threats such as trauma, abuse, disasters, and uprooting from another country increase the prevalence of PTSD, which influence negative psychological adjustments. Stress increases the risk of behavioral issues and can be associated with factors such as academics and interpersonal relationships at school with instructors or peers. Access to care and overmedication influence medical factors that increase psychological development, (Butcher, 2018).

Sociocultural factors such as gender, sexual orientation, class, race, and ethnicity influence the development of emotional and behavioral disorders. The rate of depression, self-harm, drug abuse, and mental disorders is higher in people with ethnic backgrounds, non-hetero orientation, low income, and other sociocultural influences. Bias thinking can influence the accuracy of clinical judgment and hinder the appropriate treatment for the patient if a multicultural perspective is not developed, (Cheung, 2018). Understanding early adolescent development of psychological issues increases the ability to acquire a developmental perspective to treat the patient’s lifespan by shaping pathways through multi-level processes (Masten, 2018).

Understanding causative factors and the association of neurological involvement with psychological development is fundamental in selecting the appropriate treatment for the patient. Disorders of brain regions such as the amygdala, cingulate gyrus, hippocampus, thalamus, insular cortex, and frontal cortex cause mental health conditions such as anxiety, depression, BPD, and PTSD. Knowledge of how each system will increase the ability to understand how the limbic system, orbitofrontal cortex, insular cortex, and orbital frontal cortex may be responsible for multiple disorders, but the limbic system is definitive to an anxiety disorder, (Jackson, 2018).

Resources

Butcher, J. N., & Kendall, P. C. (2018). Introduction to childhood and adolescent psychopathology. In J. N. Butcher & P. C. Kendall (Eds.), APA handbook of psychopathology: Child and adolescent psychopathology Links to an external site.., Vol. 2. (pp. 3–14). American Psychological Association. https://go.openathens.net/redirector/waldenu.edu?url=https://doi.org/10.1037/0000065-001

Links to an external site.

Cheung, F. M., & Mak, W. W. S. (2018). Sociocultural factors in psychopathology. In J. N. Butcher & J. M. Hooley (Eds.), APA handbook of psychopathology: Psychopathology: Understanding, assessing, and treating adult mental disorders., Vol. 1 Links to an external site.. (pp. 127–147). American Psychological Association. https://go.openathens.net/redirector/waldenu.edu?url=https://doi.org/10.1037/0000064-006

Links to an external site.

Jackson, C. E., & Milberg, W. P. (2018). Examination of neurological and neuropsychological features in psychopathology. In J. N. Butcher & J. M. Hooley (Eds.), APA handbook of psychopathology: Psychopathology: Understanding, assessing, and treating adult mental disorders., Vol. 1 Links to an external site.. (pp. 65–90). American Psychological Association. https://go.openathens.net/redirector/waldenu.edu?url=https://doi.org/10.1037/0000064-004

Links to an external site.

Masten, A. S., & Kalstabakken, A. W. (2018). Developmental perspectives on psychopathology in children and adolescents. In J. N. Butcher & P. C. Kendall (Eds.), APA handbook of psychopathology: Child and adolescent psychopathology., Vol. 2 Links to an external site.. (pp. 15–36). American Psychological Association. https://go.openathens.net/redirector/waldenu.edu?url=https://doi.org/10.1037/0000065-002

A Sample Answer 5 For the Assignment: NRNP 6635 Factors That Influence the Development of Psychopathology

Title: NRNP 6635 Factors That Influence the Development of Psychopathology

Influences on the Development of Psychopathology

The development of psychopathology often involves a complex interplay between psychological, biological, and social factors that affect a person’s mental health trajectory. In this discussion, I will explore the nuanced web of influences shaping various psychopathological conditions’ emergence. From the biological perspective, neuroscientific factors and genetics are at the core of one’s susceptibility to psychopathology. Certain genetic predispositions may put one at a higher risk of inheriting mental disorders such as schizophrenia or depression. Neuroscientific research has shed light on the matter, showing that brain structure abnormalities are among the leading causes of psychopathological manifestations (Besteher et al., 2020). Additionally, dysregulation of neurotransmitters and neural circuits disrupts cognitive processes, mood regulation, and emotional responses, leading to disorders like bipolar disorder.

On the other hand, psychological perspectives typically involve developmental, cognitive, behavioral, and emotional elements. When individuals adopt behavioral patterns through observation and conditioning, they may adopt maladaptive responses, further propagating psychopathological symptoms. Similarly, cognitive processes such as dysfunctional beliefs and biased thinking patterns often lead to a state where patients develop psychological disorders such as obsessive-compulsive disorder (Fineberg et al., 2020). Additionally, emotional dysregulation, which often stems from developmental factors, significantly increases one’s vulnerability to mental health issues and may underpin disorders such as borderline personality disorder.

Social, cultural, and interpersonal variables also influence psychopathology. For instance, adolescent mental health problems can be exacerbated by social exclusion, peer rejection, and poor family ties. Cultural norms and values often influence how psychopathological symptoms become apparent and understood. Additionally, stigma around mental health in some cultures might make it difficult to seek treatment, thus delaying action (Vaid & Lansing, 2020). Whether supportive or antagonistic, interpersonal connections can either buffer or intensify psychopathology. Furthermore, cultural pressures, economic gaps, and structural inequalities all contribute to stresses that raise the likelihood of mental health problems.

In summary, the development of psychopathology often involves a multifaceted process. Psychological factors set the stage for the perpetuation and expression of symptoms, while biological factors influence one’s vulnerability to mental health issues. To further complicate matters, cultural, social, and interpersonal factors often come into play and can mitigate or amplify psychopathological tendencies. Healthcare providers must, therefore, understand the intricate interplay between these factors to ensure they develop patient-centered and effective treatment strategies that address the holistic nature of psychopathology.

References

Besteher, B., Gaser, C., & Nenadić, I. (2020). Brain structure and subclinical symptoms: a dimensional perspective of psychopathology in the depression and anxiety spectrum. Neuropsychobiology, 79(4), 270–283. https://doi.org/10.1159/000501024

Fineberg, N. A., Van Ameringen, M., Drummond, L., Hollander, E., Stein, D. J., Geller, D., Walitza, S., Pallanti, S., Pellegrini, L., Zohar, J., Rodriguez, C. I., Menchon, J. M., Morgado, P., Mpavaenda, D., Fontenelle, L. F., Feusner, J. D., Grassi, G., Lochner, C., Veltman, D. J., & Sireau, N. (2020). How to manage obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) under COVID-19: A clinician’s guide from the international college of obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorders (ICOCS) and the obsessive-compulsive and related disorders research network (OCRN) of the European college of neuropsychopharmacology. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 100, 152174. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.comppsych.2020.152174

Vaid, E., & Lansing, A. E. (2020). Discrimination, prejudice, and oppression and the development of psychopathology. Springer EBooks, 235–248. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-35517-3_14