NR 503 Assignment Healthy People 2020 Impact Paper
NR 503 Assignment Healthy People 2020 Impact Paper
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a disease that destroys the CD4 cells (T cells) that fight off disease and infection. No cure has been developed for HIV. The disease can be managed with the proper care and medication. In the U.S., people typically get HIV through having unprotected anal or vaginal sex with a partner(s) or through using infected needles or syringes. Untreated, HIV develops into acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
Overview of concern
HIV is transmitted through direct contact with infected bodily fluids, such as blood, semen, rectal and vaginal fluids, and breast milk (CDC: Fact Sheet…, 2017). The prevalence is an estimated 1.2 million people have been diagnosed with HIV, but even worse is, one out of eight people (15 percent of U.S. population) have HIV and do not even know it (Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention et al., 2018). 2016 data compiled by the CDC reports the incidence rate within that year was 39,782 new diagnosed HIV cases (CDC: Fact Sheet…, 2017). Specifically, 32,131 of the cases affected males 13 years and older, 7,529 adult and adolescent females, and 122 children under age 13 years (Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention et al., 2018)
The morbidity rate within the U.S. population is an estimated 38,513 new HIV infections per year (CDC: National Center for Health Statistics, 2017). The mortality rate from 1987 through 2015 totals 507,351; in 2015, a reported 6,465 people died (CDC: HIV in the United States…, 2018). Distribution of new infections differs by race, gender, and sexual orientation: Caucasians 41percent, African Americans 40 percent, and Hispanics 19 percent; the female distribution is African Americans 61 percent, Caucasians 23 percent, and Hispanics 16 percent (CDC: HIV in the United States…, 2018). Gay/bisexual men account for 67 percent of all newly acquired HIV cases and 83 percent among males. African-Americans account for 44 percent and Hispanics account for 25 percent of all HIV diagnoses (CDC: HIV in the United States…, 2018). The U.S. government spends $26 billion annually to fight HIV (HIV.gov, 2018).
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HealthyPeople 2020 goals
The National HIV/AIDS strategy has three primary goals: to reduce the number of new HIV infections, improve access to care and health outcomes for HIV patients, and minimize HIV-related health inequities (HealthyPeople.gov, 2018). Guidelines for screening and diagnosis of HIV include routine screening for pregnant women and the recommendation for anyone between ages 13 and 64 to get tested at least once a year (HealthyPeople.gov, 2018). There are three types of HIV tests: nucleic acid tests (NAT), antigen/antibody, and antibody (HealthyPeople.gov, 2018). If a test reads positive, the individual will be referred to a health care provider for follow-up testing (Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention et al., 2018).
Activities and implementation strategies
The federal government has established 28 agencies that focus on reducing HIV acquisition and transmission, as well as treating and monitoring HIV patients (Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention et al., 2018). Agencies pass out free condoms and needles, show patients how to properly take HIV medications, and suggest that non-HIV persons engage in low-risk sex (Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention et al., 2018). One federal program that has seen a 90 percent success rate is the Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) Framework (CDC: Effectiveness of prevention strategies…, 2017). PrEP involves taking a pill daily to reduce the risk of transmission and improve health (CDC: effectiveness of prevention strategies…, 2017). This program also focuses on reducing homelessness among HIV patients and providing free testing and resources to care (CDC: effectiveness of prevention strategies…, 2017).
CDC: National Center for Health Statistics. (2017, May 3). AIDS and HIV. Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/fastats/aids-hiv.htm
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (2017, March 7). Effectiveness of prevention strategies to reduce the risk of acquiring or transmitting HIV. Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/hiv/risk/estimates/preventionstrategies.html
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (2018, June 26). HIV in the United States: At a Glance. Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/hiv/statistics/overview/ataglance.html
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2017, February). CDC fact sheet HIV incidence: Estimated annual infections in the U.S., 2008-2014, overall and by transmission route. Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/nchhstp/newsroom/docs/factsheets/hiv-incidence-fact-sheet_508.pdf
Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention, National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, HIV Incidence and Case Surveillance Branch, Data Management Team of the Quantitative Sciences and Data Management Branch, Linley, L., … Morgan, M. (2018). Estimated HIV incidence and prevalence in the United States 2010–2015. HIV Surveillance Report, 23(1), 1-77. Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/hiv/pdf/library/reports/surveillance/cdc-hiv-surveillance-supplemental-report-vol-23-1.pdf
HealthyPeople.gov. (2018, July 13). HIV. Retrieved from https://www.healthypeople.gov/2020/topics-objectives/topic/hiv
HIV.gov. (2018, January 15). Federal funding for HIV?AIDS. Retrieved from https://www.hiv.gov/federal-response/funding/budget