NR 439 Discussion Data Collection and Measurement

NR 439 Discussion Data Collection and Measurement

NR 439 Discussion Data Collection and Measurement

Class, the tools that we use to collect data need to be reliable and valid. Define these terms with respect to research and explain why they are important.

We will be working on the following: 2 Course OutComes:

CO(s) to which it is mapped:

CO2: Apply research principles to the interpretation of the content of published research studies. (PO: 4, 8)

CO4: Evaluate published nursing research for credibility and clinical significance related to evidence-based practice. (PO: 4, 8)

Consider data collection and measure methods as you read the following online or after you download it.

American Nurses Association. (2014). Fast facts: The nursing workforce 2014: Growth, salaries, education, demographics & trends. Retrieved from

1. Review these facts and describe what the results say about this sample of the nursing workforce. 
2.What do you believe was the intent of the researcher who designed the survey?  

3. Define these terms with respect to research, and explain why they are important. 4.Consider data collection and measurement methods for your nursing clinical issue. Explain how you would collect data and what measurement methods you would use.

When doing research and presenting information, it is always imperative to use data that is considered valid and reliable. The term valid is defined as “well-grounded or justifiable: being at once relevant and meaningful” (, 2017). Information that is considered valid, is information believed to be precise and accurate. When information is considered to be reliable, it is known to be true/ factual with data to prove so. If there is ever any doubt I the validity and reliability in the information being presented, the confidence in the study is devalued.

NR 439 Discussion Data Collection and Measurement
NR 439 Discussion Data Collection and Measurement

After reviewing the designated study, the intent of the researcher seems to be to give information on the nursing profession using data from actual nurses highlighting both positive and negative data. The data collection method used in this study was psychometric which uses scales and survey. According to this week’s lesson, “Variables must be expressed as numbers in order to analyze them statistically, but different types of numbers have different levels of measurement” (Chamberlain, 2017). The measurement method used is the nominal level of measurement presenting categorized data such as age, gender, salaries, etc.

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When collecting data for my nursing clinical issue, I would also use the psychometric method by evaluating the number of readmissions in relation to patients that receive 48- hour post discharge calls. The measurement method I would use is ratio showing a decrease in readmissions of newly diagnosed HF patients with 48-hour post discharge phone calls. I would collect data by locating newly diagnosed HF patients, administer 48-hour post discharge call, and monitor readmission rates of designated patients within a 30-day period for 3 months at a time. I would then compare the data against HF patients that never received 48-hour post discharge calls and the rate of readmission.


Chamberlain College of Nursing (CCN). (2017). NR-439- Week 5 Lecture: Reading Research Implementing the Study, Data Collection Methods [Online lesson]. Downers Grove, IL: DeVry Education Group

Valid. (n.d.). Retrieved August 1, 2017, from

The American Nurses Association (ANA) released a report in 2014 to share the growth, salaries, educational level, demographics and trends across the nursing profession.  Since the data listed was retrieved from other sources, it is considered secondary data.  “Secondary data can reveal important relationships and offer a good way to retrieve data efficiently and effectively” (Houser, 2018). Julie, when you are looking for patients that did not receive post discharge phone calls, would that be a chart review? Would you consider that secondary data?

American Nurses Association. (2014). Fast facts: The nursing workforce 2014: Growth, salaries, education, demographics & trends. Retrieved from

Houser, J. (2018).  Nursing research: Reading, using, and creating evidence (4th ed.). Sudbury, MA: Jones & Bartlett.

Great post. But I would like to disagree with you regarding your explanation of Psychometric method. Your example of evaluating the number of readmissions in relation to patients that receive 48-hour post discharge calls falls under secondary data instead of primary data because it is coming from an outside source. Primary data are recorded by the researcher from a subject, and the researcher uses specific rules to obtain and retain the a record of the responses (Houser, 2018). Thermometers, digital cameras, pain rating scales are some examples of tools that can be used to collect measures involving primary data. Your example seems to be that of a secondary data, because they’re coming from outside sources. In most cases the reliability and validity of secondary data is questioned. One way to check if the secondary data is reliable and valid, is by making sure that the data is clear and consistent and unbiased. Physiologic measurements are used for the collection of objective data (primary data), while   psychometric measurements are used for the collection of subjective data (secondary data). I think your example falls under secondary data.(psychometric measurements). Thanks


Houser, J. (2018). Nursing research: Reading, using, and creating evidence (4th ed.). Sudbury, MA: Jones & Bartlett.

Primary data can have some limitations as Houser (2015) states, “Primary data are time consuming to collect, and the quality of the data depends on many factors.” (p. 191).    Some of the factors that can lead to limitations can include many things from information provided from the subjects, their recollection and/or ability to verbalize the information provided.  Other limitations that can be involved can include the honesty of the subjects providing the information, as well as the subjects own beliefs related to the subject.  For example, the definition of pain may be different for each subject. Not only is the subject one of the keys and also can be one of the limitations to a research, the data collector can also be another limitation.  The data collector can elicit information by the questions that are asked.  However the inflection of the voice, and or the structure of the question can influence the subjects answers.  Both subject and collector can be limitations, however they are both key in research studies and the efforts used to minimize errors must be implemented. 

Based on the ANA (2014) report, the nursing workforce is highly concentrated in the south, which has the lowest average(mean) in the nursing occupation. However, the west has a high annual growth with highest salaries for nurses. Nursing demand has increased because of the need for more new nurses and replacement of nurses leaving the occupation. Even though the percentage of male nurses has increased, there is still a low percentage of male nurses compared to female nurses. Working nurses over 50 years old carry a high concentration of nurses in the work force, however, the percentage of nurses under 40 years old declined over a five-years period, according to ANA (2014).

I believe the Researcher’s intent in designing this survey was to give a quantitive design, an empirical design research report that shows statistical result and comparison of nurses based on education, age, demographics, and salary, giving nurses a clearer picture of the areas of nursing demands(shortages) and surpluses. The researcher also base this report on the economy when he mentioned annual growth rate. Nurses retained employment status when the economy is in a recession. Because at this time, employment rate decreases and unemployment rate increases.

I would consider my nursing clinical issue to be tardiness in the workplace. Data collection would be of the mixed method, qualitative and quantitative design. measurement would involve collecting and using “qualatitive data to explore quantitative findings”, Wisdom & Creswell (2013). My sample will be employees. I will obtain permission for my data collection. I will ask open ended questions and use statistical measurements. Data collection could also be done by a survey. The information obtained has to be proven reliable and valid.

American Nurses Association. (2014). Fast facts: The nursing workforce 2014: Growth, salaries, education, demographics & trends. Retrieved from to an external site. 

Wisdom; J., Creswell; J., W. (2013). Mixed Methos. Integrating Quantitative and Qualitative Data Collection and Analysis While Studying Patient-Centered Medical Home Models. Evidence od Evaluation. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 540 Gaither Road, Rockville, MD 20850, to an external site.

I live in the state of Georgia. According to GNA (2014), There is a nursing shortage in Georgia. The shortage is expected to be nearly 50,000 by 2020, based on the analysis of Georgia Center for Health Workforce. Even though the number of young nurses increased in Georgia, there still is a gap between young nurses (23-26) and nurses approaching retirement ( 50 years or older). UGA”s Center for Health Workforce Planning and Analysis 2010 profile of Georgia’s registered Nurses Workforce shows 60 percent of Georgia’s workforce is 50 years or older. A shortage of nurses is due to the slow enrollment into the Georgia nursing programs. The slow enrollment into the nursing program is because of a shortage of faculty members and a reason for the increasing demand for nurses is that hospitals are requiring BSN-MSN nurses due to a higher level of complexity they provide in their practice.

GNA (2014 ). Georgia Nurses Association. Georgia Nursing Workforce at a Glance. Retrieved from:

“Scope of the Problem and Strategies for Expanding the Supply, published by the American Association of Colleges of Nursing (AACN)Links to an external site.( to an external site.). This article summarizes the faculty shortage from its start to the present, identifying factors contributing to the shortage and strategies to expand the current nursing faculty workforce. In their 2012-2013 report of Enrollment and Graduations in Baccalaureate and Graduate Programs in Nursing, U.S. nursing schools turned away 78,089 qualified applicants from baccalaureate and graduate nursing programs in 2013 due to an insufficient number of faculty, clinical sites, classroom space, clinical preceptors, and budget constraints ( to an external site.).

The Lienhard School of Nursing leadership at Pace University chose to address the challenges of the faculty shortage as they directly affect our institution, in a number of creative ways, moving through different models over time, while endeavoring to continue to provide a quality education for our growing population of undergraduate and graduate students. We believe, however, that the ideas are transferrable to other nursing programs and universities as a whole. The school is situated in a medium-sized private multicampus institution. The nursing program itself is located on the two main campuses, which are 40 miles apart. Faculty is assigned to a home campus; however, faculty is expected to, and many do, travel between campuses to teach courses within their specialty areas. Extensive videoconferencing helps to bridge the two campuses for many meetings; however, courses are for the most part delivered within a single location.

During the period from 1998 to 2004, our enrollments plummeted because of a confluence of the following factors: closure of our associate degree program in 1997 (with about 250 students enrolled), layoffs and downsizing of nursing staff in local hospitals and medical centers as a result of changes in reimbursement systems, and an ensuing precipitous fall in traditional undergraduate enrollment as one response to questioning job security in nursing, mirroring the national decline. Shortly after closure of the associate degree program, a retirement incentive program at the university yielded a retirement of eight faculty members in nursing, and another four faculty members left for various reasons, all in the same calendar year. The smaller faculty body turned out to be a temporarily good fit to accommodate the smaller enrollments and helped keep us financially stable.”(Feldman, H.R., Greenberg, M.J., Jaffe-Ruiz, M., Kaufman, S.R., Cignarale,S., 2015) Feldman, H.R., Greenberg, M.J., Jaffe-Ruiz, M., Kaufman, S.R., Cignarale,S.(2015)Hitting the nursing faculty shortage head on:strategiesmto recruit, retain, and develop nursing faculty.Journal of Professional Nursing V 31