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People in the remote part of Nigeria do not believe that vaccines are for their own good. This is caused by illiteracy and alienation from the urban life. The lack of knowledge about vaccines leads to wild misconceptions that affect the entire vaccination and immunization system (Ophori et al., 2014).

Religious prohibition: the part that has the lowest coverage in Nigeria is the northern Nigeria home to a vast Muslim population (Ophori et al., 2014). The religion influences the peoples’ views on immunization and vaccination which makes the immunization and vaccination system ineffective in those regions thereby dragging down the national immunization childhood coverage (Ophori et al., 2014).

Political problems: the northern region of Nigeria is inhabited by Muslims and has become home to Boko Haram, a terrorist organization that does not recognize the authority of the Nigerian government (Ophori et al., 2014). Political wrangles between the group and the government has led to hostility in the region affecting the immunization activities (Ophori et al., 2014).

Technical challenges: vaccines need to be stored in cold chain equipment. There is a shortage of cold chain equipment’s in Nigeria especially in the rural area, which affects the activities of the National Program on Immunization (Ophori et al., 2014).

Inadequate immunization and Vaccine supplies: Lack of enough funds to purchase enough immunization supplies, as well as vaccines has been a leading perennial challenge for Nigeria (Ophori et al., 2014). As the National Program on Immunization attempts to collaborate with state and local authorities in Nigeria to carry out vaccinations, it still grapples with the problem of resources to achieve childhood immunization coverage.

Vaccination System in Angola

Angola like Nigeria is an African country of the Southern Africa region. Angola’s case is worse than Nigeria’s. Diseases preventable through vaccination are the leading causes of majority of childhood deaths in Angola. According to a case study by De Oliviera and colleagues, it was revealed that immunization coverage of Angolan children is 37%, which is below the target set by the Angolan government (2014). Through the national Immunization program, the Angolan government had set out to achieve immunization coverage of more than 80%. However, research indicates non-adherence to the target (De Oliveira et al., 2014). The same disparity that was reported in different regions of Nigeria was also observed in Angola. The following factors were fronted as the possible reasons behind discrepancies and inefficient vaccination systems in Angola.

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