# MATH 225N Discussion Basic Statistics Data Used in Everyday Life

## Initial Post Instructions

1. Present two different types of data, or variables, used in the health field. Examples could be blood pressure, temperature, pH, pain rating scales, pulse oximetry, % hematocrit, minute respiration, gender, age, ethnicity, etc.
2. Classify each of your variables as qualitative or quantitative and explain why they fall into the category that you chose.
3. Also, classify each of the variables as to their level of measurement–nominal, ordinal, interval or ratio–and justify your classifications.
4. Which type of sampling could you use to gather your data? (stratified, cluster, systematic, and convenience sampling)

## MY TAKE ON SAMPLING TECHNIQUES

I would say that in an introductory course at this level that we briefly look at 6 methods of data collection and that among researchers and scholars 5 of them are considered to be sampling techniques but I think it is appropriate to mention the 6th method of data collection in this same breath anyway.

In our online text book on pages 16-17 the authors discuss simple random sampling, stratified sampling, cluster sampling, systematic sampling, and convenience sampling.

Convenience sampling is bar far the weakest of all these methods and leads to the greatest potential and opportunities for various forms of statistical bias in the resulting sample.  So in real life practice, convenience sampling should be avoided at all costs, and simple random sampling is often thought of as a bit of a “gold standard” in statistics and quantitative research.  But I can see or visualize in real life practice why once in a while that stratified sampling might be a pretty good idea and approach, so to speak, for example.

The 6th form of data collection that I want to mention here is a census.  The reason that a census is different from the 5 types of sampling mentioned above is that a census literally is “everyone” while the other 5 forms of data collection above definitely involve “less than everyone.”

Please see the following slides to see some pictures of some of these sampling techniques.

Please feel free to look around in the online text book and on the internet at large to see info about what a census is and to Post about it in one of your Week One Posts.

Thanks Friends and Best Wishes !!

## Reference:

Holmes, A., Illowsky, B., & Dean, S.  ( 2018 ).  Introductory business statistics.  OpenStax.

## MY TAKE ON THE TYPES OF VARIABLES

Our online text book discusses qualitative variables and quantitative variables on page 9 .

Qualitative variables are also called categorical variables.

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Very importantly, the online text book also discusses discrete data ( variables ) and continuous data ( variables ) on page 9 too.  Later in the course, we study discrete distributions and continuous distributions as well.  So these words discrete and continuous are very important for you all to become very familiar with during the course.

Please see the attached slides for some more details and examples of qualitative variables and quantitative variables.

Thanks Friends and Good Luck and Best Wishes with the Week One graded Posting assignment !!

🙂

## Reference:

Holmes, A., Illowsky, B., & Dean, S.  ( 2018 ).  Introductory business statistics.  OpenStax.

## MY TAKE ON RESEARCH AND RESEARCH METHODS

Sometimes when Folks talk about “research methods” part of what they are talking about is “the organization of the study.”  But there is much more to it than that and the “organization of the study” “issue” is not addressed much in the slides that follow here but it is addressed a little bit.  As you go on to take additional and more advanced and more detailed courses in quantitative research and data analysis and statistics and probability, knowing and understanding “the organization of the study” will become more and more important to you being able to understand and follow the types of things that you will be studying and learning about in those future courses.

So in this course you are not held very accountable for what is on many of the slides that follow here, but on the other hand understanding some of what is on the slides that follow here will help your overall understanding and comfort and confidence during this course here.

For example in this course here, it is very important to understand the difference between a sample and a population.  It is also very important to understand the difference between a statistic and a parameter.

Thanks Friends and the slides that follow here should give you a reasonable basis and foundation for approaching the upcoming Weeks 2-8 of the course.

Thanks and Best Wishes Friends !!

I was looking around on the attached APA seventh edition sample paper here and as far as I can tell when we use the online text book as a source the item entry in the References list at the end of the Post would look like:

Holmes, A., Illowsky, B., & Dean, S.  ( 2018 ).  Introductory business statistics.  OpenStax.

The reason I used the year 2018 as the year of publication was that I have an actual physical copy of the textbook and inside the front cover it showed 2018 as the year of publication.

However, depending on where class members find the text book or what version that they use, I have seen class members put 2017, 2019, or 2020 for the year of publication too.      😉

However the in-text citations for this source look quite a bit different from this.

For an in-text citation at the beginning of a sentence – this would look like:

Holmes et al. ( 2018 ) blah blah blah

But at the end of a sentence the in-text citation would look like:

blah blah blah ( Holmes et al., 2018 ).

These examples of in-text citations here are all for paraphrases.

Direct quotes require an extra piece of information, the page number( s ) where the direct quote was taken from, if page numbers are available.

The attachment here does have one or more concrete examples of an in-text citation for a direct quote where page number( s ) was / were available.

And just to keep your lives as interesting as possible and as complicated as possible, please see page 11 of 12 of the attachment here to see another acceptable way to do in-text citations for and References list item entry for the Weekly Lessons in Modules.

HOWEVER if I am honest I very very strongly prefer the examples in the two Posts just previous to this Post and NOT the examples provided on page 11 of 12 of the document attached here.

Thanks Friends and Good Luck and Best Wishes too !!

😉

APA_7th_Edition_Chamberlain_Guidelines_for_Writing_Professional_Papers.pdf

In the Mental Health and addiction field data that we measure are reports of anxiety. As a variable, anxiety is a qualitative measure as it can only be reported as a subjective experience. We use quantitative data to support reports of anxiety such as measuring a blood pressure and respirations per minute. After reading about the measurement of variables, I believe that an anxiety rating would be Ordinal as it is ranked on a scale of 1 to 10 however it has no mathematical application. (week 1 Lesson: Introduction to Statistics: Data Collection and Data Concepts).

If I needed to gather data on how different medications best treat the symptom of anxiety, I would use Stratified sampling as studying people who take a specific medication for anxiety would mean I would have to locate and study a portion of a population (people who have anxiety vs those who seek medical treatment to manage anxiety).

## Reference

week 1 Lesson: Introduction to Statistics: Data Collection and Data Concepts

Please see the three Instructor Posts just previous to your Post here to see the fine tuned details for how to do APA Style Manual seventh edition in-text citations and References list item entry for the Weekly Lesson in Modules.  Thanks much !  I prefer the examples in the Word document “APA Particulars” in the Instructor Post just a bit further above here.

It is possible to EDIT your Posts but there is no need to EDIT this Post here unless you just want to.  But in future graded Posts please follow the format and style examples in the “APA Particulars” Word document.

Stratified sampling is a powerful and reasonable sampling technique when the circumstance and occasion call for it.  Simple random sampling is a bit of a “gold standard” in statistics and quantitative research but stratified sampling certainly makes sense and is sometimes better in certain select circumstances.  Stratified sampling sometimes serves as a proactive effort to trying to insure that samples are as representative as possible.

Be well Ashanti and Enjoy Week One !  Excellent work here !

The slides that you all are probably talking about are the first 5 slides on the attachment here.

Don’t worry that the attachment says Math 399 and don’t worry that the attachment says Week 5 !    😉

You can see all images for the course including the images you had trouble seeing here by clicking Files along the left of the computer screen and then scrolling down to Week One Instructor only Files and clicking on that.

However, there is so much in there that you usually would feel hard pressed to look through all that and find what you are looking for.

So a better strategy would be this:

If you are using Fire Fox try using Google Chrome and if you are using Google Chrome try Fire Fox.

Doing things like that often solves Folk’s problems.

I am not familiar with Micro Soft Edge but you might try that as an alternative too.

But short of all that – please just keep me informed Post by Post and Week by Week if you cannot see an image in your web browser. By letting me know, I can then try to provide you the image( s ) / graphic( s ) in