HRM 635 What is most helpful on a job analysis for designing an appraisal tool?
HRM 635 What is most helpful on a job analysis for designing an appraisal tool?
Performance management systems are one of the major focuses in business today. Although every HR function contributes to performance management, training and performance appraisal play a more significant role. Whereas performance appraisal occurs at a specific time, performance management is a dynamic, ongoing, continuous process. Every person in the organization is a part of the PM system. Each part of the system, such as training, appraisal, and rewards, is integrated and linked for the purpose of continuous organizational effectiveness. With PM, the effort of each and every worker should be directed and aligned toward achieving strategic goals of the organization. If a worker’s skills need to be improved, training is needed. With PM systems, training has a direct tie-in to achieving organizational effectiveness. In addition, pay and performance are directly related to achieving organizational goals.
Robert J. Greene, CEO of Reward Systems Inc., said, “Performance management is the
single largest contributor to organizational effectiveness. If you ignore performance management, you fail.”4 Organizations must take a more strategic approach to performance appraisal. Instead of using the familiar “check the box, write a comment” ritual, organizations need to integrate the company’s mission, vision, and values into their performance management systems. Performance appraisal (PA) is a formal system of review and evaluation of individual or team task performance. A critical point in the definition is the word formal, because in actuality, managers should be reviewing an individual’s performance on a continuing basis. PA is especially critical to the success of performance management. Although performance
appraisal is but one component of performance management, it is vital, in that it directly reflects the organization’s strategic plan. Although evaluation of team performance is critical when teams exist in an organization, the focus of PA in most firms remains on the individual employee. Regardless of the emphasis, an effective appraisal system evaluates accomplishments and initiates plans for development, goals, and objectives. (Dessler, G. 2016) noted that job analysis provides information for the minimum qualifications or requirements of a specific role in an organization, this is the information use to recruit potential.
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According to (Kuvaas, 2007) one of the main goals of performance appraisal is to motivate employees toward higher levels of performance. However, for many workers, performance appraisal is not a source of motivation (Adler et al., 2016; Murphy, 2019). Therefore, as an alternative, strengths-based performance appraisal focuses on identifying, appreciating, and promoting the future use and development of employee strengths (Aguinis et al., 2012) and can therefore be seen as a powerful positive organizational intervention. Considering the name, this approach is more positive in outlook, and will be appreciated more than others. While the term performance appraisal has meaning for most small business owners, it might be helpful to consider the goals of an appraisal system. They are as follows:
- To improve the company’s productivity
- To make informed personnel decisions regarding promotion, job changes, and termination
- To identify what is required to perform a job (goals and responsibilities of the job)
- To assess an employee’s performance against these goals
What is the most difficult part in determining the dimensions to be appraised? The task of evaluating performance, is very difficult, in terms of the tools used, because a lot of issues are at play, both biases, socially and politically. There are also, a lot of environmental factors associated with national cultures to the climate, culture of the organizations, to the nature of the relationships between the managers and the employees. Besides, some organizations use the same strategies, year in and year out to implement and interpret performance appraisal, this makes it very difficult for individual workers to cope with the routine method. And also, poor communication, generic feedback and human error are all potential disadvantages of performance appraisals. This system may also create unhealthy competition in the workplace, leading to higher turnover, conflicts and disengagement. All the same, the task of evaluating workers, can not be over-emphasized. It should be encouraged to do it frequently, so as to identify the strength and weaknesses of the workers and the entire organizations at large. This is one of the authentic ways to know the needs of the organization, and to move it forward.
Adler, S., Campion, M., Colquitt, A., Grubb, A., Murphy, K., Ollander-Krane, R., et al. (2016). Getting rid of performance ratings: genius or folly? A debate. Ind. Organ. Psychol. 9, 219–252. doi: 10.1017/iop.2015.106
Aguinis, H., Gottfredson, R. K., and Joo, H. (2012). Delivering effective performance feedback: the strengths-based approach. Bus. Horiz. 55, 105–111. doi: 10.1016/j.bushor.2011.10.004
Dessler, G. (2016). Human resource management (15th ed.). Pearson.
Kuvaas, B. (2007). Different relationships between perceptions of developmental performance appraisal and work performance. Pers. Rev. 36, 378–397. doi: 10.1108/00483480710731338
Performance Appraisal is defined as evaluating an employee’s current or past performance relative to his or her performance standards. The most helpful job analysis for designing an appraisal tool is using the best-fitted appraisal method or tools that include graphic rating scales, alteration ranking, paired comparison, forced distribution, computerized performance appraisal, etc. An individual development plan/training for employees is helpful for the employer to complete the performance appraisal yearly but reviewed it 6 months before the yearly appraisal. Dressler(2017) states that the most difficult part in determining the dimension to be appraised I determining which appraisal tool to use and the appraisal can be improved by eliminating chronic problems that often undermine appraisals and graphic rating scales in particular. These problems include unclear standards, halo effect, central tendency, leniency or strictness, and bias.
Dessler, G. (2017). Human Resource Management. (5th ed.) Pearson.
Profili, S., Sammarra, A., Innocenti, L., Gabrielli, G. (2014) Performance Appraisal at
Telespazio: Aligning Strategic Goals to People Development. International Journal of
Case Studies In Management. 12(1) .1-16. https://viewer.gcu.edu/NXPTPG
One of the most helpful tools on a job analysis for designing an appraisal tool is utilization of the job description. It is important for candidates to know what tasks they are responsible for performing. “Performance evaluations show the strengths and weaknesses of individuals and provide insights into gaps in development, training or processes among groups.” (Leonard, 2019)Tasks and responsibilities should clearly listed and examples should be given for reference. Often employees are not aware that they are not operating at standards and need specific instruction and training. The appraisal process helps managers identify areas of concern and allow acknowledgement in areas that employees excel in. It is important all categories being evaluated are clearly communicated.
One of the most difficult parts of in determining the dimensions to be appraised is selecting the correct performance appraisal. It is important to evaluate employees correctly. Evaluate employees on their job description and make sure you clearly communicate responsibilities and expectation. “Different types of performance appraisals help identify different aspects of employee success.” (Leonard, 2019) For example, standard rating scale, self assessment appraisal, 360 degree feedback, and management by objectives all are performance appraisals used to evaluate the performance of employees. “For selecting the correct performance ;appraisal helps to analyze the strengths and weaknesses of employees so that new jobs can be d designed for efficient employees. (Management Study Guide, 2022)
Leonard, K. (2019) the Pros & Cons of Performance Appraisal Methods. http://smallbusiness.chron.com
Perfomrance Appraisal – Meaning, Objectives and Advantages. (2022). http://managementstudyguide,com
One factor that can be most helpful on a job analysis for designing an appraisal tool is it provides individuals with a broad assessment of their performance based on the views of those around them, including their supervisor or manager, direct reports, peers, customers, suppliers, and so on. Results are confidentially tallied and presented to the employee, usually by a manager(bing.com). This allows the individual to review what needs to be corrected or improved without feeling inadequate or unqualified in front of the whole organization. Competency can evaluate the individuals’ skills and/or behaviors through job-related skills and motivation competencies. Rating scale could assess how the employee performed within achieving specific cost, profit, and/or efficiency goals (Dessler, 2017).
Ranking Method-The ranking system requires the rater to rank his subordinates on overall performance. This consists in simply putting a man in a rank order. Under this method, the ranking of an employee in a work group is done against that of another employee. The relative position of each employee is tested in terms of his numerical rank. It may also be done by ranking a person on his job performance against another member of the competitive group(managementstudyguide).
What is the most difficult part in determining the dimensions to be appraised? The primary reason an organization will perform a job analysis is to ensure the selection procedures they use to choose between job applicants are valid and defensible. If the correct tools are not effective for the process, employees could be matched for positions they are not qualified for and qualifies individuals could be pasted up for employment or other opportunities(bing.com). Companies and industries evolve, and an analysis helps you stay on top of changing skills and experience.
Dessler, G. (2017). Human resource management (15th ed.). Pearson.
Performance appraisals are the best and the worst administrative work you can do as a manager. I say the worst, because (in my experience in the military) they are painful, require a lot of eyes on them, and have a direct effect on the career prospects of the individual you are appraising. I say they are the best because if you did all of the work as a supervisor or a manager correctly, everyone should have a solid idea of how their performance appraisal will go, and you will be able to set them up for future success or continue to point them back on to the correct (desired) path.
As Dressler rightfully explains, “effective appraisals actually begin before the actual appraisal” (2016). It is on management to establish and effectively communicate the expected standard of performance. Then, supervisors will compare individuals against the established standard. Throughout the year, supervisors should update the employee about their work status, providing feedback as needed, and providing areas of development for career progression.
In order to appraise someone on their ability in doing their job, you first have to analyze what their job is. SHRM explains in their toolkit, “in job analysis is that the job, not the person doing the job, is assessed” (2022). As Levinson says in the Harvard Business Review, “Static job descriptions are catastrophic for managers” (2014). Management has to have established the correct job descriptions for employees, so management understands what the expectation is for them as well.
The most difficult aspect of knowing what should be appraised is, understanding your organization’s core desires. What do you really want to be good at? Then your appraisals should be focused in that direction. Another area that management needs to be aware of is biases, which could affect how people are rated during appraisals.
Dessler, G. (2016). Human Resource Management (15th ed.). Pearson Education.
SHRM. (2022). Performing job analysis. SHRM. https://www.shrm.org/resourcesandtools/tools-and-samples/toolkits/pages/performingjobanalysis.aspx Levinson, H. (2014, August 1). Appraisal of what performance? Harvard Business Review. Retrieved May 14, 2022, from https://hbr.org/1976/07/appraisal-of-what-performanc