HLT 362 Using the research article selected for DQ 1, identify three key questions you will ask and answer when reading the research study and why these questions are important

HLT 362 Using the research article selected for DQ 1, identify three key questions you will ask and answer when reading the research study and why these questions are important

HLT 362 Using the research article selected for DQ 1, identify three key questions you will ask and answer when reading the research study and why these questions are important

Research Questions

The research questions are the first active step in the research project. In general, there are three types of research questions: Descriptive, Observational-Relational, and Causal questions. The descriptive question describes conditions that are happening or characteristics that exist. An observational-relational question examines the question of whether two or more variables affect, or do not affect, each other under a given set of circumstances. The causal question attempts to determine if changing one variable in a known and/or contained habitat has a measurable effect on another variable or set of variables within that same area or habitat.

Three key questions I will ask and why these questions are important

What other studies have been done on the same matter? 

This is important to know because there is a probability that a single study will not provide a definitive answer or the expected data. And if there is any controversial area it is important to clarify that with multiple studies.

How well did the study address causation?

The cross-sectional study design is limited to making inferences about correlations rather than causation and does not determine cause and effect. For example, the article I picked reported results that identify the impact of SIgAD on patients with DM1 but not the cause and effect. 

How are the study’s results are evaluated?

Evaluating results is important because provides information to other researchers so they can repeat the study and verify and confirm results. 

Objectives of social media use

The most common intended use of social media was for caregiver satisfaction (n = 9, 29%). Most studies that examined caregiver satisfaction used communication platforms (n = 8/9). Social networking sites were often used to improve self-care (n = 2/6, 30%), and content communities were mainly intended to improve patient safety (n = 2/4, 50%). There were few studies that addressed clinical decision-making (n = 4, 13%) and half (n = 2/4) used content communities. Five studies (16%) did not fit the framework, and were classified as “other”; three of these studies reported the prevalence of social networking use (n = 1) or of internet use more broadly (n = 2), and two compared mothers and fathers use of information and communication technology (n = 1) or frequency and length of webcam viewing (n = 1).

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Outcomes and measures

Usage feasibility and patient and caregiver experience outcomes were most commonly reported (n = 30 and n = 23, respectively) . Patient and caregiver knowledge outcomes were reported in 16 studies (52%), and use of services and cost products, and health behaviors and health status outcomes were reported in eight studies each. Among effects related to usage feasibility (n = 30), measures of usage and demographics were most common (n = 22, 73%) and were often accompanied by estimates of users’ attitudes and preferences (n = 20, 67%). Standards of patient or caregiver satisfaction or of clinician-patient/caregiver communication were most commonly reported for outcomes related to patient and caregiver experience (n = 13 and n = 12, respectively). provides a summary of developments as they relate to the study objectives. There were no defining trends between outcomes with regard to objectives for social media use, but measures associated with goals the use of services and cost, or to health behaviors and health status, were generally least reported among any objective. One study reported outcomes related to potential for unintended consequences or harm from social media tools.

HLT 362 Using the research article selected for DQ 1, identify three key questions you will ask and answer when reading the research study and why these questions are important
HLT 362 Using the research article selected for DQ 1, identify three key questions you will ask and answer when reading the research study and why these questions are important

Moorhead SA, Hazlett DE, Harrison L, Carroll JK, Irwin A, Hoving C. A new dimension of health care: systematic review of the uses, benefits, and limitations of social media for health communication. J Med Internet Res.

2013;15(4):e85 Epub 2013/04/26. 10.2196/jmir.1933 [PMC free article] [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

Ventola CL. Social media and health care professionals: benefits, risks, and best practices. P T. 2014;39(7):491–520. Epub 2014/08/02. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

My article was about stroke and CVA, today nurses professional have excellent jobs to do teaching the community about stroke

The first question what is stroke? A stroke is a brain attack. It is a sudden interruption of continuous blood flow to the brain and a medical emergency. A stroke occurs when a blood vessel in the brain becomes blocked or narrowed, or when a blood vessel bursts and spills blood into the brain. Just like a heart attack, a stroke requires immediate medical attention.

Some brain cells die because they stop getting the oxygen and nutrients needed to function. Other brain cells die because they are damaged by sudden bleeding in or around the brain. Some brain cells die quickly but many linger in a compromised or weakened state for several hours. Stroke causes permanent brain damage over minutes to hours.

My second question who is more likely to have stroke?

Each year nearly 800,000 Americans have a stroke, and about 600,000 are first strokes. Once a person suffers a first stroke, the risk of another stroke increases. The risk of a recurrent stroke is most significant right after a stroke and decreases with time. In fact, about 25 percent of people who recover from their first stroke will have another stroke within five years, and approximately three percent of individuals with stroke will have another stroke within 30 days of their first stroke. Overall, one-third of recurrent strokes take place within two years of the first stroke.

Stroke occurs in all age groups, in both sexes, and in all races in every country. Stroke can occur before birth, when the developing infant is still in the womb (a common cause of cerebral palsy).

Some risk factors for stroke apply only to females. These include pregnancy, childbirth, and menopause. These factors are tied to hormonal changes that affect females at different stages of life. In females of childbearing age, stroke risk is relatively low (with an annual incidence of one in 10,000). However, studies have shown that pregnancy increases that risk three times.

my third and last question how is stroke diagnosed and treated?

Doctors use several tools to help diagnose stroke quickly and accurately. The first step is a neurological examination, which is an observational evaluation of the nervous system. When a person suspected of having a stroke arrives at a hospital, a healthcare professional, usually a doctor or nurse, will carry out a detailed assessment of the person’s signs and symptoms. They also will ask when the symptoms began. Because of the importance of early treatment, judgment might even start in the ambulance.

One test that helps doctors judge the severity of a stroke is the standardized NIH Stroke Scale, developed through research supported by the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS). Healthcare professionals use the NIH Stroke Scale to measure neurological function and deficits by asking the person to answer questions and perform several physical and mental tests. This checklist of questions and tasks scores a person’s level of alertness and ability to communicate and perform simple movements. Other scales that may be used include the Glasgow Coma Scale, the Modified Rankin Scale, and the Barthel Index. These scales can sensitively measure disabilities that result from stroke.

MDH developed a Transitions of Care for Stroke Patients Toolkit which provides resources for staff at hospitals to help implement post-discharge follow-up strategies. The toolkit offers tips, tools, and resources including project planning steps, quality improvement projects, post- discharge follow-up and data collection methods, templates, tools, and other helpful information. The Toolkit is available at the MDH Stroke Program Resources page (https://www.health.state.mn.us/diseases/cardiovascular/stroke/resources.html)

… Information on NINDS Stroke Research Priorities Meeting 2012 Charge to the PRG The … PRG members were asked to take a broad view in identifying and prioritizing unmet scientific needs and opportunities … report describing the PRG’s findings and recommendations for deliberation by the National Advisory Council on …

… Wednesday, May 19, 2021 May is Stroke Awareness Month, an opportunity to remember that despite impressive advances in research and clinical care, stroke continues to be the fifth leading … Heights area of Northern Manhattan, and the Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) …

My study was on assessing the effect of a gratitude intervention on a community sample of adults in relation to aspects involving well-being and mental health. The outcomes analyzed were affect, depression, happiness and life satisfaction. The gratitude intervention managed to increase positive affect, subjective happiness and life satisfaction, and reduced negative affect and depression symptoms. Scientific evidence suggests there is a relationship between gratitude and well-being, thus leading to an improved health (Cunha et al, 2019).

The first question I will ask is, think back over the past day and write down five hassles or annoying situations that you had to face. How did you handle it? We sometimes encounter hassles and annoying situations that may bother and irritate us. They can occur in various realms of our lives. Having a positive attitude towards issues even when they are not favorable plays a great part in our inner feeling which goes a long way to affect our health and wellbeing.

The second question is, think back over the past day and write down five events that somehow affected you. During the day, there are events, both large and small, that end up affecting us. As indicated earlier, our attitude to issues affects our wellbeing one way or the other. When we sit back and recollect the past, we learn from it and use the experiences and outcomes to mold the present hence a positive attitude and improved wellbeing.

The third question is, think back over the past day and write down five things in your life that you are grateful for. There are many things in our lives, both large and small, that we might be grateful for. Expressing gratitude is associated with a host of mental and physical benefits. Studies have shown that feeling thankful can improve sleep, mood and immunity (Harvard Medical School, 2021). Gratitude can decrease depression, anxiety, difficulties with chronic pain and risk of disease. Gratitude is strongly and consistently associated with greater happiness. Gratitude helps people feel more positive emotions, relish good experiences, improve their health, deal with adversity, and build strong relationships (Harvard Medical School, 2021).


Cunha, L. F., Pellanda, L. C., & Reppold, C. T. (2019). Positive psychology and gratitude interventions: A randomized clinical trial. Frontiers in Psychology, 10. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2019.00584

Harvard Medical School Health Manual, (August 14, 2021). Giving thanks can make you happier. Retrieved February 9, 2023

The chosen article is called Safe Nurse Staffing is More than Numbers and Ratios by Kathleen Rice PhD, RNC, CNS-BC, FAAN.

The first question I have about this article is how does this study propose to fix the safe staffing ratio issues faced among nurses? This is an important question because although we can all recognize that there is an issue, there must be a proposed solution to solve said issue. This study concludes that the only way to guarantee safe nurse to patient ratios is to enforce either federal or state mandated ratios for nurses depending on the unit and acuity of the patients being cared for by the nurse.

The second question would be are there any issues with this proposed solution? With any study conducted, it is important to identify any possible weak areas and how to strengthen these. I believe that there would be an issue with a ratio based on the acuity of patients. To remain as “fair” as possible, I believe that the ratios would have to be department based. For example, the emergency room sees patients of all acuities ranging from those with little to no issues to life threatening injuries. In my department, we may have a patient on comfort care awaiting placement at a hospice facility, or we may have a patient who needs to be in the ICU but there aren’t any available beds. Going by this, it would not be fair for nurses in the same department to have a drastically different number of patients.

The third question I have is how has evidence-based practice proven that patients are safer when cared for by a nurse who has a safe number of patients? Since the foundation of this study is rooted in how mandated ratios should be enforced, it is important to know why this is needed. A study using a population of 845 patients showed that patients were 95% more likely to survive when cared for by a nurse who followed a mandated staffing ratio (Heath, 2018).


Heath, S. (2018, August 14). How nurse staffing ratios impact patient safety, access to care. PatientEngagementHIT. https://patientengagementhit.com/news/how-nurse-staffing-ratios-impact-patient-safety-access-to-care#:~:text=The%20analysis%20of%20845%20patients,staffing%20ratios%20and%20patient%20safety.

Rice, K. (2017). Safe Nurse Staffing is More than Numbers and Ratios. Login. https://oce-ovid-com.lopes.idm.oclc.org/article/00005721-201709000-00014/HTML

Referring to the article by Moss et al. (2022), three key questions I asked when reading the research article were:

1)    How were the participants selected?

The participants were selected from a population of all eligible patients who received general anesthesia at the University of Alabama at Birmingham and received either rocuronium or vecuronium along with a reversal medication of either sugammadex or neostigmine between Jan. 1, 2018 and Dec. 31, 2019.

2)    How can the results of this study be applied to practice?

The results of this study can be applied to the anesthesia practice through consideration of patient outcomes and cost-effectiveness. The author posits that if the patient and perioperative outcomes are superior with sugammadex, then the higher price of the medication compared to neostigmine may prove worthy of the increased upfront cost, and actually end up saving costs by reducing OR times.

3)    What barriers did the authors encounter and how could they be avoided if the study is repeated in the future?

The barriers encountered in this study include having a shorter timespan to choose from for a patient population due to the interruption of the COVIID-19 pandemic. Additionally, the author notes that one must also consider the possibility that sugammadex may have been preferred in shorter procedures to facilitate faster turnover times and accommodate a busier schedule. If this study is to be repeated, perhaps a randomized-controlled trial could avoid similar limitations.

These questions are important in considering the implications on patient care and outcomes. As is with most studies, the goal is to gain meaningful insight into current practice and compare against innovative or alternative hypotheses to provide support for evidence-based practice.


Moss, A. P., Powell, M. F., Morgan, C. J., & Tubinis, M. D. (2022). Sugammadex versus neostigmine for routine reversal of neuromuscular blockade and the effect on perioperative efficiency. Baylor University Medical Center Proceedings35(5), 599–603. https://doi-org.lopes.idm.oclc.org/10.1080/08998280.2022.2079921

Article: Staggs, V. S. (2019). Pervasive errors in hypothesis testing: Toward better statistical practice in nursing research. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 98, 87–93. https://doi-org.lopes.idm.oclc.org/10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2019.06.012

The first question I would ask when reading the research study is, “What specific errors in hypothesis testing does the author identify?” This question is important because the purpose of the research article is to identify pervasive errors in hypothesis testing, and understanding what errors the author has identified can help us to better understand the implications of the research.

The second question I would ask is “what are the implications of the research findings? This is an important question to answer when reading the research study because it tells us how the findings can be used in the future. It is essential to understand the implications of the research in order to determine how the findings can be applied to other situations, if the results can be replicated, and if the research can be used to inform decision-making. Additionally, this information can help to identify potential areas for further research (Staggs, 2019).

The third question I would ask when reading the research study is, “What recommendations does the author make in order to improve the accuracy of hypothesis testing?” This question is important because it can help us to understand how we can improve the accuracy of hypothesis testing in the future, by understanding what steps can be taken to improve the statistical practices used in hypothesis testing.

In conclusion, these three questions are important to understanding the implications of the research article, as they can help us to better understand the errors in hypothesis testing that the author has identified, the implications of the research for the field of nursing, and what recommendations the author has made in order to improve the accuracy of hypothesis testing.


Staggs, V. S. (2019). Pervasive errors in hypothesis testing: Toward better statistical practice in nursing research. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 98, 87–93. https://doi-org.lopes.idm.oclc.org/10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2019.06.012

Statistical can be hypothesis can be a clear distinction, we need to first understand the concept “distinction” itself. Howard writes:

A distinction describes a characteristic like a person’s sex or the weight of a table. These would be two different kinds of distinction. A distinction can have two or more degrees: The sex of a person has two degrees – male and female on a driver’s license, or 32 degrees according to the last conversation I had with a geneticist. Similarly, the weight of a table can have two degrees – like more than or less than 100 pounds – or many degrees corresponding to each pound of weight. The creation of distinctions and the definition of the number of degrees is an inventive act of the author of the characterization.

Howard goes on to discuss distinctions on distinctions, such as clarity, observability, usefulness, possibility trees, probability, relevance, measures and distributions. Of these, we will concern ourselves with the first – clarity. In order to know whether something is clear, decision analysts invoke an imaginary clairvoyant, who can tell us about anything that is physically determinable in the past, present, or future, as long as it does not involve any judgment in it. For instance, whether it will rain tomorrow can only be answered by the clairvoyant if we first define an acceptable standard for “rain” (e.g., at least 5 mm of rainfall) and an acceptable range for “tomorrow” (e.g., between 12:01 AM and 11:59 PM). The process of establishing the standards for what we mean results is what we call a “clarity test.” The clairvoyant cannot answer whether something will be good for us, for “good” would not pass the clarity test. The clairvoyant also cannot tell us what we will do in the future, for that would violate our free will. The clairvoyant can however tell us what others might do, if we can ask the question in a manner that passes the clarity test.

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