HLT 362 Provide an example of experimental, quasi-experimental, and nonexperimental research from the GCU Library and explain how each research type differs from the others

HLT 362 Provide an example of experimental, quasi-experimental, and nonexperimental research from the GCU Library and explain how each research type differs from the others

HLT 362 Provide an example of experimental, quasi-experimental, and nonexperimental research from the GCU Library and explain how each research type differs from the others

Experimental Research: Bagarić et al. (2022) conducted an experimental research study to investigate the nocebo effect. This type of research involves manipulating a variable (in this case, expectations regarding potential side effects of a treatment) to assess its effect on another variable (in this case, the experience of side effects). Experimental research is distinguished from other types of research by its manipulation of the independent variable and its use of random assignment to groups.

Quasi-Experimental Research: Zhang et al. (2023) conducted a quasi-experimental research study to investigate the impact of distance education on nursing students’ course performance during the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic. Quasi-experimental research is similar to experimental research in that it involves manipulation of an independent variable. However, quasi-experimental research does not involve random assignment to groups, which makes it less rigorous than experimental research.

Nonexperimental Research: Kippenbrock et al. (2022) conducted a nonexperimental research study to investigate job satisfaction among nursing faculty in Canada and the United States. Nonexperimental research does not involve manipulation of a variable or random assignment to groups, and instead relies on existing data or information to draw conclusions.

Each type of research is different from another. Experimental research is a type of study in which the researcher has full control over the variables, manipulating them in a controlled environment to test a hypothesis or determine cause and effect. Quasi-experimental research is similar to experimental research but lacks the control of the variables. In this type of research, the researcher cannot control the environment or the variables, instead relying on natural occurrences to observe cause and effect. Non-experimental research is often conducted through surveys and interviews and does not involve manipulating any variables. This type of research focuses on describing the current behavior of a population or group rather than determining cause and effect.


Bagarić, B., Jokić-Begić, N., & Sangster Jokić, C. (2022). The Nocebo Effect: A Review of Contemporary Experimental Research. International Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 29(3), 255–265. https://doi-org.lopes.idm.oclc.org/10.1007/s12529-021-10016-y

Zhang, Y., Zhang, N., Liu, H., Kan, Y., & Zou, Y. (2023). The impact of distance education on nursing students course performance in a sino-foreign cooperative program during the onset of COVID-19: a quasi-experimental study. BMC Nursing, 22(1), 1–9. https://doi-org.lopes.idm.oclc.org/10.1186/s12912-022-01136-1

Kippenbrock, T., Rosen, C. C., & Emory, J. (2022). Job Satisfaction Among Nursing Faculty in Canada and the United States. Journal of Nursing Education, 61(11), 617–623. https://doi-org.lopes.idm.oclc.org/10.3928/01484834-20220912-03

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You have made a great comparison between the three types of research designs: experimental, quasi-experimental, and nonexperimental. Each design has its own strengths and weaknesses and is used for different purposes. For example, experimental research is used to assess cause-and-effect relationships, while quasi-experimental and nonexperimental research are used to describe existing behaviors. These research designs can be incorporated into health care settings in different ways. For instance, experimental research could be used to test the efficacy of treatments or interventions, such as a new medication or a new type of therapy. Quasi-experimental research can be used to investigate the effectiveness of policies or interventions, such as the impact of telemedicine on patient outcomes. Finally, nonexperimental research can be used to assess patient satisfaction with a particular health care setting or provider, or to assess the impact of a disease on a population. For example, Bhutani et al. (2020) used nonexperimental research to assess the impact of COVID-19 on hospital resources and patient outcomes in India. This type of research can provide valuable insight into the needs of a health care setting and the best ways to address those needs.

HLT 362 Provide an example of experimental, quasi-experimental, and nonexperimental research from the GCU Library and explain how each research type differs from the others
HLT 362 Provide an example of experimental, quasi-experimental, and nonexperimental research from the GCU Library and explain how each research type differs from the others


Bhutani, A., Jain, S., Prakash, S., & Singh, S. (2020). Impact of COVID-19 pandemic on hospital resources and patient outcomes in India: A nonexperimental research study. BMC Research Notes, 13(1), 1–6. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13104-020-05269-y

Medical informatics, the quasi-experimental, sometimes called the pre-post intervention, design often is used to evaluate the benefits of specific interventions. The increasing capacity of health care institutions to collect routine clinical data has led to the growing use of quasi-experimental study designs in the field of medical informatics as well as in other medical disciplines. However, little is written about these study designs in the medical literature or in traditional epidemiology textbooks. In contrast, the social sciences literature is replete with examples of ways to implement and improve quasi-experimental studies.

In this paper, we review the different pretest-posttest quasi-experimental study designs, their nomenclature, and the relative hierarchy of these designs with respect to their ability to establish causal associations between an intervention and an outcome. The example of a pharmacy order-entry system aimed at decreasing pharmacy costs will be used throughout this article to illustrate the different quasi-experimental designs. We discuss limitations of quasi-experimental designs and offer methods to improve them. We also perform a systematic review of four years of publications from two informatics journals to determine the number of quasi-experimental studies, classify these studies into their application domains, determine whether the potential limitations of quasi-experimental studies were acknowledged by the authors, and place these studies into the above-mentioned relative hierarchy.

Mekhjian HS, Kumar RR, Kuehn L, Bentley TD, Teater P, Thomas A, et al. Immediate benefits realized following implementation of physician order entry at an academic medical center. J Am Med Inform Assoc. 2002;9:529–39.

Experimental research usually involves an experimental drug, treatment, and intervention (Helbig, 2020). This research calls for a couple of patients getting the experimental drug and the other patients getting a placebo drug which does nothing to the patient. An example of this I found in the GCU library is the “Genetics of Adverse Reactions to Haloperidol in a Mouse Diallel: A DrugPlacebo Experiment and Bayesian Causal Analysis” article. This article uses the halloo an anti-psychotic medication and the placebo medication on random subjects. A quasi-experimental research focuses more on finding the relationship between two different patients, one who may receive treatment and the other who does receive treatment (Helbig, 2020). One example I found of this was the “Evaluation of Basal Insulin Dose Reductions in Hospitalized Patients With Diabetes While Unable to Eat” Article. This article focuses on patients who are not in the ICU and wanted to determine if it made a difference if patients received more than half of their basal insulin or received less than half of the basal insulin. Hypoglycemic, hyperglycemic, and length of hospital stay was assessed (Petite, Huenecke, & Tuttle, 2020). A non experimental research is looks at the association between variables (Helbig, 2020). An example of this research I found is “Research on the Influence of Physical Exercise Health on the Mental Health of University Students” article. This article looks at the two variables which variable A would physical exercise and variable B being mental health. This non-experimental research already has research that existed, it is nothing new and assess the correlation between the two variables, which meet the criteria.


Crowley, J. J., Yunjung Kim, Lenarcic, A. B., Quackenbush, C. R., Barrick, C. J., Adkins, D. E., Shaw, G. S., Miller, D. R., de Villena, F. P.-M., Sullivan, P. F., & Valdar, W. (2014). Genetics of Adverse Reactions to Haloperidol in a Mouse Diallel: A Drug-Placebo Experiment and Bayesian Causal Analysis. Genetics196(1), 321–347. https://doi-org.lopes.idm.oclc.org/10.1534/genetics.113.156901

Helbig, J. (2020). Reader. BibliU. Retrieved February 22, 2023, from https://bibliu.com/app/#/view/books/1000000000581/epub/Chapter4.html#page_50 

Petite, S. E., Huenecke, J., & Tuttle, N. (2020). Evaluation of Basal Insulin Dose Reductions in Hospitalized Patients With Diabetes While Unable to Eat. Hospital Pharmacy55(4), 246–252. https://doi-org.lopes.idm.oclc.org/10.1177/0018578719841029

More recently, however, experts have concluded that reacting to a placebo is not proof that a certain treatment doesn’t work, but rather that another, non-pharmacological mechanism may be present.

How placebos work is still not quite understood, but it involves a complex neurobiological reaction that includes everything from increases in feel-good neurotransmitters, like endorphins and dopamine, to greater activity in certain brain regions linked to moods, emotional reactions, and self-awareness. All of it can have therapeutic benefit. “The placebo effect is a way for your brain to tell the body what it needs to feel better,” says Kaptchuk.

But placebos are not all about releasing brainpower. You also need the ritual of treatment. “When you look at these studies that compare drugs with placebos, there is the entire environmental and ritual factor at work,” says Kaptchuk. “You have to go to a clinic at certain times and be examined by medical professionals in white coats. You receive all kinds of exotic pills and undergo strange procedures. All this can have a profound impact on how the body perceives symptoms because you feel you are getting attention and care.”


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Experimental research is a Randomized Control Trial (RCT) research. This method is used by the research by randomly picking two variables (independent and dependent), and evaluating the effect that one variable has on the other. For example, the researcher randomly selects subjects to participate in a study that includes some type of intervention that suppose to have an effect on the participants. For this experiment, the participants are divided into two groups, the control group, and the experimental group. The control group is the one in which the not experiment occurs and the experimental group in which the experiment occurs (Helbig, 2021). One example of experimental research published in the article “Effects of Acute and Chronic Exercise on Immunological Parameters in the Elderly Aged: Can Physical Activity Counteract the Effects of Aging?” was conducted on October 2018. This study explains aging and its impact on the immune system and how physical activity counteracts the effects of Aging. One intervention included making participants participate in different types of activities such as running and walking for a certain period of time daily then data were collected to be analyzed.  

Quasi-experimental research is where an independent variable is manipulated but the participants of the study are not randomly assigned. A quasi-experimental study does not use randomization but looks for any relationship between receiving a treatment and not receiving a treatment  With the absence of randomization, the study can no longer be considered experimental (Helbig, 2021). This experiment method can unreliable due to extraneous variables that can jeopardize the internal validity (Helbig, 2021). The article “Estimating the impact of nutrition and physical activity policies with quasi-experimental methods and simulation modeling: an integrative review of methods, challenges, and synergies.” is an example of a quasi-experimental method that was done on November 2022 to study the effectiveness of policies addressing nutrition and physical activity is needed, quasi-experimental methods were used. It is done with non-numeric variables and data is collected through descriptive characteristics that cannot be measured with numbers. For this research, the recherche conducted an integrative review of assumptions, data requirements, strengths, and limitations to evaluate population-based nutrition and physical activity policies. 

Non-experimental research is a correlation study that looks at the relationship between the variables. This experiment can be simple, comparative, longitudinal, or cross-sectional. One example of how non-experimental research is used is to estimate treatment effects. The article “Using Non-experimental Data to Estimate Treatment Effects,” reports that physicians use when randomized controlled trials are unethical or infeasible, carefully constructed non-experimental study can be used to estimate treatment effects. While non-experimental studies are disadvantaged by lack of randomization, the study costs may be lower, the study sample may be broader, and follow-up may be longer, as compared to an RCT (Stuart, 2009). This article discusses the study completed to estimate the metabolic effects of antipsychotic medications in a sample of Florida Medicaid beneficiaries with schizophrenia and illustrates methods.


Emmert-Fees, K. M. F., Capacci, S., Sassi, F., Mazzocchi, M., & Laxy, M. (2022). Estimating the impact of nutrition and physical activity policies with quasi-experimental methods and simulation modeling: an integrative review of methods, challenges, and synergies. European journal of public health, 32(Suppl 4), iv84–iv91. https://doi.org/10.1093/eurpub/ckac051

Helbig, J.  et al. (2021). Applied Statistics for Health Care. (n.d.). Statistical Analysis.  lc.gcumedia.com. Retrieved February 20, 2023, from https://bibliu.com/app/#/view/books/1000000000581/epub/Chapter4.html#page_50

Sellami, M., Gasmi, M., Denham, J., Hayes, L. D., Stratton, D., Padulo, J., & Bragazzi, N. (2018). Effects of Acute and Chronic Exercise on Immunological Parameters in the Elderly Aged: Can Physical Activity Counteract the Effects of Aging?. Frontiers in immunology, 9, 2187. https://doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2018.02187

Stuart, E. A., Marcus, S. M., Horvitz-Lennon, M. V., Gibbons, R. D., & Normand, S. L. (2009). Using Non-experimental Data to Estimate Treatment Effects. Psychiatric annals, 39(7), 41451. https://doi.org/10.3928/00485713-20090625-07

Experimental Article:

This article is experimental due to the randomized clinical trial. The study is looking at the efficacy of three types of Lidocaine, topical spray, topical cream, and injection for intrauterine device insertion. The women in the study were divided into three groups in a random method of closed envelope draw.

Bayoumy, H. A., El-Hawwary, G. E. S., & Fouad, H. A. E.-S. (2018). Lidocaine for Pain Control during Intrauterine Device Insertion: A Randomized Clinical Trial. The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine, (2), 6010.

Quasi-experimental Article:

This article is quasi-experimental due to the use of two different blanket temperatures for safety and comfort. The study randomized adult patients into two groups, a study group that received blankets at 155 degrees F, and a control group that received blankets at 110 degrees F. The results of the study concluded that it was safe for patients to receive blankets with a temperature of 155 degrees F and that these patients had a higher skin temperature within 10 minutes and thermal comfort. Although this study used randomization, it is still quasi-experimental as it is looking for a causal relation between blanket temperatures and patient comfort.

Sutton, L. T., Baker, F. S., Faile, N. J., Tavakoli, A. (2012). A Quasi-Experimental Study Examining the Safety Profile and Comfort Provided by Two Different Blanket Temperatures,Journal of PeriAnesthesia Nursing,Volume 27, Issue 3,Pages 181-192, doi.org/10.1016/j.jopan.2012.01.011.

Non-experimental Article:

This article is a non-experimental prospective study. It is a comparison of three pressure ulcer risk scales, Braden, Song and Choi, and Cubbin and Jackson scales. The purpose of the comparison is to evaluate the most appropriate calculator for predicting pressure ulcer risk in the surgical intensive care unit of a Korean hospital. The results from this study showed the Cubbin-Jackson scale was the most effective. This study has a correlation design.

Eun-Kyung Kim, Sun-Mi Lee, Eunpyo Lee, &Mi-Ran Eom. (2009). Comparison of the predictive validity among pressure ulcer risk assessment scales for surgical ICU patients. Australian Journal of Advanced Nursing, 26(4), 87-94

In experimental research, the researcher sets up the study to evaluate an experiment such as a drug, treatment, or an intervention. This type of research is also called a Randomized Control Trial (RCT). Some of the patients receive the drug, treatment, or intervention and some do not. Selection to each group is random. One group receives the experiment, and the other group receives the usual or routine treatment.

Quasi-experimental research identifies why things happen. There is not a form of randomization instead a causal relation is looked for between receiving a treatment and not receiving a treatment. There is a treatment group and a comparison group.

Non-experimental research is a correlation design. Correlation design looks at the relationship between variables. There is no new drug, treatment, or intervention instead the variables are manipulated to evaluate outcome correlations (Helbig, 2018).


Helbig, J. (2018). Statistical Analysis.In Applied statistics for health care (1 ed.). Grand Canyon University: Grand Canyon University.