HLT 362 Describe how epidemiological data influences changes in health practices

Sample Answer for HLT 362 Describe how epidemiological data influences changes in health practices Included After Question

Topic 5 DQ 1

Describe how epidemiological data influences changes in health practices. Provide an example and explain what data would be necessary to make a change in practice.

A Sample Answer For the Assignment: HLT 362 Describe how epidemiological data influences changes in health practices

Title: HLT 362 Describe how epidemiological data influences changes in health practices 

The study of the causes and root causes of disease within a society is referred to as epidemiology. Within the realm of health practices, this kind of data is put to use in order to trace the genesis of an epidemic or other form of health problem. In order to find a solution to the problem, epidemiologists collect data on symptoms, the results of medical exams, laboratory testing, and recent therapies, and they review patient medical records. The data revolutionizes medical practice by providing an explanation of the health status, identifying risk factors, and analyzing relationships between health and a variety of potentially harmful substances (Gulis & Fujino, 2015). Take, for instance, an infection that occurs in a hospital. determining the source of the infection by doing qualitative and quantitative research in order to achieve a high level of precision. In this study, the effects of the hospital population as a whole are investigated as opposed to the illness triangle’s component parts—the agent, the host, and the environment. The data collected by the epidemiologist are then translated into therapies that seek to cure the condition or, at the very least, slow down the course of the illness. The information and the intervention are the primary components used in the process of transforming healthcare practices for the purpose of improving the quality of patient outcomes and maintaining their safety. 

Reference

Gulis, G., & Fujino, Y. (2015). Epidemiology, population health, and health impact assessment. Journal of epidemiology25(3), 179-180. https://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/jea/25/3/25_JE20140212/_article/-char/ja/

A Sample Answer 2 For the Assignment: HLT 362 Describe how epidemiological data influences changes in health practices

Title: HLT 362 Describe how epidemiological data influences changes in health practices 

The study of the causes and root causes of disease within a society is referred to as epidemiology. Within the realm of health practices, this kind of data is put to use in order to trace the genesis of an epidemic or other form of health problem. In order to find a solution to the problem, epidemiologists collect data on symptoms, the results of medical exams, laboratory testing, and recent therapies, and they review patient medical records. The data revolutionizes medical practice by providing an explanation of the health status, identifying risk factors, and analyzing relationships between health and a variety of potentially harmful substances (Gulis & Fujino, 2015). Take, for instance, an infection that occurs in a hospital. determining the source of the infection by doing qualitative and quantitative research in order to achieve a high level of precision. In this study, the effects of the hospital population as a whole are investigated as opposed to the illness triangle’s component parts—the agent, the host, and the environment. The data collected by the epidemiologist are then translated into therapies that seek to cure the condition or, at the very least, slow down the course of the illness. The information and the intervention are the primary components used in the process of transforming healthcare practices for the purpose of improving the quality of patient outcomes and maintaining their safety. 

Reference

Gulis, G., & Fujino, Y. (2015). Epidemiology, population health, and health impact assessment. Journal of epidemiology25(3), 179-180. https://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/jea/25/3/25_JE20140212/_article/-char/ja/

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A Sample Answer 3 For the Assignment: HLT 362 Describe how epidemiological data influences changes in health practices

Title: HLT 362 Describe how epidemiological data influences changes in health practices 

I agree with you that epidemiology is the study of the causes of diseases within a society. Healthcare stakeholders understand that there are preoccupying factors and environmental conditions that expose people with various health complications (Lim & Kim, 2020). As a result, epidemiology unravels the causes of diseases and the best solution to different illnesses. The kind of the data that is provided in epidemiology helps stakeholders to create an environment that is free from healthcare complications and illnesses. Epidemiologists collect data on symptoms, the results of medical exams, laboratory testing, and recent therapies (Wang et al., 2020). Therefore, epidemiologists obtain detail information. Different stakeholders rely on epidemiologists to have critical information on causes and solutions to different diseases. Qualitative and quantitative research are part of the assignment epidemiologists undertake. Therefore, epidemiology provides accurate and reliable information on diseases and prevention measures. The information may also be used to improve healthcare services. As a result, epidemiologists are critical players in creating a healthy society.

HLT 362 Describe how epidemiological data influences changes in health practices
HLT 362 Describe how epidemiological data influences changes in health practices

References

Lim, M., & Kim, J. (2020). Association between fruit and vegetable consumption and risk of metabolic syndrome determined using the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study (KoGES). European journal of nutrition59(4), 1667-1678.

Wang, J., Li, Y., Zhao, Z., Wei, N., Qi, X., Ding, G., … & Qian, X. (2020). School-based epidemiology study of myopia in Tianjin, China. International ophthalmology40(9), 2213-2222.

A Sample Answer 4 For the Assignment: HLT 362 Describe how epidemiological data influences changes in health practices

Title: HLT 362 Describe how epidemiological data influences changes in health practices 

Per the CDC, epidemiology is the study of the causes and frequency of health-related states and events within a specified population (What is epidemiology? 2016). Research produces epidemiological data when it examines health related information and produces results which are considered generalizable to the general public, or at least categories of the public. Since this data can be applied to the general public, it is used to guide health care professionals when considering risk management and treatment options. However, because this data is considered generalizable, it is only meant to serve as an informational foundation; it is critical for health care professionals to still consider the specific risks and benefits that each individual may experience when considering treatment options for patients (Hannaford & Owen-Smith, 1998). 

A link to an example epidemiology research study is provided below. This study, Towards phenotyping stroke: Leveraging data from a large-scale epidemiological study to detect stroke diagnosis, reviewed 8,131 ICD-9 codes from hospital events, along with the patient demographic data and clinical variables, and developed algorithms capable of learning how to predict stoke events and stoke subtypes. The algorithms’ basis for this capability is the analysis of epidemiological data. The algorithms were strengthened by analyzing such a broad spectrum of patient data. The performance of the algorithm was verified and determined by stoke physicians through comparison of the algorithms’ results with the stroke classifications of ICD-9 codes. Through analysis of epidemiological data, the outcomes of this study will allow the algorithm to be used to predict stroke diagnosis in patients through genetic and genomic studies (Ni et al., 2018). The change in practice that would come about from this data, is that patients who meet certain epidemiological criteria would be encouraged to participate in genetic screening/testing to assess their risk for stroke. 

Link to study: Towards phenotyping stroke: Leveraging data from a large-scale epidemiological study to detect stroke diagnosis | PLOS ONE 

References  

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2016, June 17). What is epidemiology? Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved August 23, 2022, from https://www.cdc.gov/careerpaths/k12teacherroadmap/epidemiology.html 

Hannaford, P. C., & Owen-Smith, V. (1998). Using epidemiological data to guide clinical practice: Review of studies on cardiovascular disease and use of combined oral contraceptives. BMJ316(7136), 984–987. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.316.7136.984 

Ni, Y., Alwell, K., Moomaw, C. J., Woo, D., Adeoye, O., Flaherty, M. L., Ferioli, S., Mackey, J., De Los Rios La Rosa, F., Martini, S., Khatri, P., Kleindorfer, D., & Kissela, B. M. (2018). Towards phenotyping stroke: Leveraging data from a large-scale epidemiological study to detect stroke diagnosis. PLOS ONE13(2). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0192586 

A Sample Answer 5 For the Assignment: HLT 362 Describe how epidemiological data influences changes in health practices

Title: HLT 362 Describe how epidemiological data influences changes in health practices 

Epidemiology is the backbone of public health. “In epidemiology, the patient is the community and individuals are viewed collectively” (CDC, 2016). As field of study epidemiology is a science and art to promote health and prevent disease by organized effort of society. Epidemiology utilizes methods from other scientific fields such as biostatistics and informatics, biologic, economic, social, and behavioral sciences. The research and data analysis of a public health issue involves a scientific method, experiment, and expertise. As an art the determinant, collective health, community needs to be treated and using clinical judgment and understanding of the patient.

Sexually transmitted infections (STI) are a notifiable group of infectious diseases that present a global challenge. People 15-24 years of age represent roughly 25% of the sexually active population but represent 50% of newly acquired STIs (Da Ros & da Silva, 2008). Roughly 60% of new HIV infections occur in people aged 15-24 years of age (Da Ros & da Silva, 2008). Tracking, treating, and teaching people about the STIs that they are being treated for can reduce the spread STIs and HIV. From global reporting, tracking, and treating STIs is a way epidemiology can act in the prevention of further spread of STIs.

References

Center for Disease Control. (2016). What is Epidemiology?.Center for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/careerpaths/k12teacherroadmap/epidemiology.html

A Sample Answer 6 For the Assignment: HLT 362 Describe how epidemiological data influences changes in health practices

Title: HLT 362 Describe how epidemiological data influences changes in health practices 

the most relevant data for meaningful results and how to combine data from various sources that might not be standardized or interoperable to enable analysis. Epidemiologists need to determine quickly whether existing data can be analyzed to inform the investigation or whether additional data need to be collected and how to do so most efficiently and expeditiously.

Epidemiologists working in applied public health have myriad potential data sources available to them. Multiple factors must be considered when identifying relevant data sources for conducting a field investigation. These include investigation objectives and scope, whether requisite data exist and can be accessed, to what extent data from different sources can be practically combined, methods for and feasibility of primary data collection, and resources (e.g., staff, funding) available. Sources of data and approaches to data collection vary by topic. Although public health departments have access to notifiable disease case data (primarily for communicable diseases) through mandatory reporting by providers and laboratories, data on chronic diseases and injuries might be available only through secondary sources, such as hospital discharge summaries. Existing data on health risk behaviors might be available from population-based surveys, but these surveys generally are conducted only among a small proportion of the total population and are de-identified. Although some existing data sources (e.g., death certificates) cover many disease outcomes, others are more specific (e.g., reportable disease registries).

Accessing or collecting clean, valid, reliable, and timely data challenges most field epidemiologic investigations. New data collected in the context of field investigations should be evaluated for attributes similar to those for surveillance data, such as quality, definitions, timeliness, completeness, simplicity, generalizability, validity, and reliability. Epidemiologists would do well to remember GIGO (garbage in, garbage out) when delineating their data collection plans.

References

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2018, December 13). Describing epidemiologic data. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved August 24, 2022, from https://www.cdc.gov/eis/field-epi-manual/chapters/Describing-Epi-Data.html 

Gozzi, N., Perrotta, D., Paolotti, D., & Perra, N. (2020). Towards a data-driven characterization of behavioral changes induced by the seasonal flu. Ploss computational biology16(5), e1007879. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1007879

Fujino,Y., Gulis G.,(2015). Epidemiology, Population Health, and Health Impact Assessment https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4340993/#!po=70.8333