HCA 620 Assignment Business and Project Plan Evaluation and Development
HCA 620 Assignment Business and Project Plan Evaluation and Development
Description of Product
The hospitals new outpatient orthopedic ambulatory surgery center will serve patients who are in need of treatment immediately, regardless of the stage of their illness. It will provide quality care through an extensive team of approved surgeons who are board certified all while providing nearly painless surgeries. The team will use top-notch machinery and equipment which will be the best in their arsenal. Each patient will receive quality care with appropriate access at an affordable rate provided by the surgical team and other staff of the new orthopedic Ambulatory Surgery Center. Our facility seeks to afford patients the benefits of income savings because we provide surgical procedures at lower prices than full service hospitals. Our facility has adopted a value-based healthcare delivery and strategic business model that seeks to achieve competitive advantage and gain extensive market share to make us one of the most successful healthcare facilities within our jurisdiction of operation. The employees we hire, including nurses, physicians and health professionals, will be competent based on the Human Resource recruitment policies and credentialing processes for physicians. This will help to mitigate the risk of loss and civil lawsuits. We will provide sterilization and disinfection standards, surveillance and top-notch technological advancements as evidence-based best practices during infection control to provide quality of care for our patients. In the future, we expect to lead the nation as the primary ASC of choice for patients looking for surgical orthopedic interventions and the employer of choice for healthcare providers.
Located in the core of Arizona Medical Center, WCY Hospital, has garnered high opinion not only locally but worldwide as well. As an outstanding care facility consisting of primary care and specialty physicians along with an elite team of orthopedic surgeons, WCY Hospital has been servicing the community for 75 years.
WCY Hospital earned the American Heart Association/ American Stroke Association’s Get with the Guidelines-Stroke Gold Plus Target for its commitment and success in providing excellence in stroke care. In addition, WCY Hospital has earned The Joint Commission’s Gold Seal of Approval for our Hip and Knee Replacement Programs and our Spine Care Program. WCY Hospital has also been named to the nation’s 100 Top Hospitals list by IBM Watson HealthTM.
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Staffed by physician faculty and residents from the University of Arizona College of Medicine, WCY Hospital serves as a teaching facility to the generations to come of healthcare providers.
WCY Hospital opened in 1943, founded by Oscar W. Clayton and Melissa R. Clayton, developed from a thirty-bed hospital to a now massive 300-bed community hospital. As a hospital operating during World War 2, WCY Hospital struggled to survive in its earlier years. With the help of close friends, Oscar and Melissa Clayton were able to raise money that afforded them the ability to move to the core of Arizona Medical Center. To accommodate the growing population, WCY Hospital enlarged to a 150-bed by 1973. By 2005 WCY Hospital was able to further expand to 300-bed hospital with office buildings and a parking garage.
Prior to working for WCY Hospital Kaleena served as a Medical Billing Manager for a Crisis Center in Tempe, Arizona. She was responsible for overseeing a team of 50 employees that perform medical billing for doctor’s offices and other medical-related institutions. In addition, she worked relentlessly with other supervisors to make certain that a company’s billing and receivables operations maintain orderly cash flow for the enterprise. She has been an actively serving in behavioral health since 2008. Kaleena holds a bachelor’s in healthcare administration and a Master’s in Health Informatics.
Lori Jay Pangilinan
Originally from the sunny state of California, Lori has served in Human Resources for a family hospice practice. In this very demanding role, she exhibited a “will do” attitude towards her work and a willingness to tackle all administration tasks within Human Resources and volunteering. In addition, she provided administrative support and day-to-day guidance to managers, staff, and volunteers, to enable the effective recruitment, training and on-going support for volunteers across the Hospice.
Straight from the Philippines where he earned his bachelor’s in nursing, Arnel has acquired experience in the healthcare industry with leading teams, mentoring others, and financial planning as a clinical nurse manager. This position called for the combination of both clinical experience and leadership skills. In addition, to his bachelor’s in nursing Arnel also holds a master’s in health informatics.
We will provide compassionate and uncompromising outpatient surgical services while delivering the highest quality and safest care possible.
We will be a first-class Ambulatory Surgery Center that is the top choice for patients and surgeons for outpatient surgical services.
Ambulatory surgery centers (ASCs) are modern facilities that focus on and offer patients same-day surgeries and procedures that include preventative procedures and diagnostics that are safely performed outside of hospital settings. ASCs demonstrate an alternative that provides quality and customer services at a reduced cost. ASCs stand apart from regular health care facilities because they are able to keep cost down while providing some of the same services. Ambulatory surgery centers, or ASCs, are facilities where there is not a required hospital admission done. They provide services in an opportune environment with less stress than a hospital setting. Patients only arrive on the day of surgery, where they have a surgical suite that is fully equipped along with a space for recovery with highly skilled nurses to care for them. Patients no matter their age can benefit from this comfortable environment. ASCs can and do perform surgeries that are specialties such as eye care or athletic medicine. Surgical centers also need to be certified like hospitals. ASCs need to be regulated and certified like hospitals. Surgical Centers also provide for Medicare patients, so they must meet the standards provided from Medicare and must also be approved by the federal government. ASCs also must meet specific state requirements and then obtain a license from that state. “To obtain Medicare certification, and usually to obtain a state license, an ASC must have an inspection conducted by a state official or a representative of an organization that the government has authorized to conduct that inspection (Study: Medicare Cost Savings Tied to ASC’s, 2008).” They have inspectors come out to the centers just like hospitals to make sure that standards are met and quality care is given. All ASCs must be accredited and meet certain standards that are assessed during the inspections. These centers are also requiring all of its members to be licensed and/or certified. The ASC Association will also assist in helping the center meet the standards that are associated with quality of care by guiding many different programs for education and monitoring outcome projects on a national level. A strategic business plan would be done when developing an ASC for an organization. Strategic plans will detail the needs of the organization and how to develop them at a cost that is down so that the service of surgery can be kept down for the community. A strategic plan will allow the business to review and know all the aspects of what is needed for starting and growing a new ASC. “A strategic business plan is necessary to optimize market research and to attain optimum market share for your business. The plan allows businesses to focus on a particular niche in the marketplace, which makes sales, advertising and customer management more effective” (Scott, 2017). This will enable the company to provide more targeted services to its clients.
Strategy and Implementation
The success of the proposed ambulatory surgical center begins with a strategic review that examines the current state of the organization’s business simultaneously recognizing the axes around which the future might evolve. The success of the venture would be contingent on the major stakeholders that contribute and refers patients in order to achieve a sustainable competitive advantage that will deliver healthy profits. Thus, it is imperative that a strategic planning process should begin with stakeholder’s analysis. While the organization has identified four well-known and valued orthopedic surgeons who contribute significantly to the hospital’s surgery volumes, these valued stakeholders are those who can affect or be affected by the business. Identifying the stakeholder’s primary or conflicting expectation, their business power, and capacity, and influence would be of significant advantage and benefit to the proposed business plan (Friend & Zehle, 2004). Another Stakeholder that is of vital importance in the day to day operation of the proposed ambulatory surgery center is the staff. Analyzing staff’s salary, job security and communicating the strategy and business plan to the staff in a way that makes them take ownership of the plan is critical for the strategy to succeed (Friend & Zehle, 2004). Incorporating a knowledge-based work to the employees creates value, aligning employees to organizational objectives and strategy that ultimately implements the task, generating innovative ideas that make strategies work (Kaplan & Norton, 2001). It is essential that leaders, managers, and executives must use communication process at the introduction of the new strategy through education to ensure that the staff and employees understood the message and testing employees to ensure the strategy is being followed. Defining team objectives and how employees process and comprehend the strategy can influence the successful implementation of the strategy (Kaplan & Norton, 2001). Thus, leaders should provide a clear strategic plan, its elements for employees and staff to reinforce efforts to implement the strategy. While leaders create a climate of change, it is vital to provide the organization vision, governance process, interactive discussion, and strategic learning in the achievement of change. Integrating the institution’s mission, vision and objectives to the organizational roster through education is essential for the entrepreneurial idea translated into reality, success measured, and should provide a consistent and coherent theme reflected throughout the business plan (Friend & Zehle, 2004).
The implementation of the strategy would depend entirely on the ability to create a strategy focused organization and leadership of the organization’s senior executive. Most senior leaders found that the significant challenge is through communication of the strategy to their cohorts whose task is to implement it. By motivating the managers and staff, gaining their trust, and developing the staff’s vision of what success and outcome would look like creates innovative ways to accomplish the strategic mission (Kaplan & Norton, 2001). Senior managers will present the strategy to the departmental managers who will cascade it down through the organization, providing detailed operational directions to ensure its successful implementation (Friend & Zehle, 2004). Therefore, it is critical that managers have detailed information on the strategic plan for comprehensive and thorough implementation of the task and better staff direction. Managers must know the overall organizational plan, access to the plan and information systems is an essential part of a successful implementation. Managers should have sight of and “subscribe to the mission, vision, and objectives of the business to be able to communicate these persistently to fellow staff, customers, suppliers, and the wider community” (Friend & Zehle, 2004). Successful implementation of the organization’s strategy will involve the allocation of adequate financial and personnel resources. Establishing an organizational structure and assigning specific leaders to specific tasks are the key factor to improved implementation strategy and business performance (Gladys et al., 2016). However, constant review and analysis are needed to avoid the pitfall and ineffective implementation. This unsuccessful implementation of the strategic plan may occur if employees within the organization are not aligned with the overall strategy resulting in difficulties in mobilizing the business plan at any level, local or organization-wide. Process failures another common cause of ineffective implementation is due to deficient senior management commitment and involvement, lack of organizational communication to employees, an over-long development process, and hiring inexperienced consultants. Therefore, it is critical for the organization’s senior executives and leaders to reorganize and restructure the decentralized nature of business in order to have a shared strategic vocabulary, and advance towards the management system as a single unit, resulting to a successful overall link of the group to the corporate strategies (Kaplan & Norton, 2001).
Marketing Analysis and Plan
The total market for WCY Hospital includes all adult and children who are being admitted in the core of Arizona Medical Center who needs to undergo for an immediate surgery and for those patients who cannot be seen in the main Surgery Center because of lack of surgery rooms. The addressable market that WCY Hospital is going to target patients’ needs an immediate surgery and patients who have specific scheduled procedures in the main surgery center but cannot be seen there because of lack of surgery rooms.
WCY Hospital is the first place to have an outpatient surgery in the core of Arizona Medical Center, that will perform immediate surgeries and will accept patient who have scheduled procedures in the main surgery center that cannot be seen right away because of the lack of surgery rooms. The collision of performing immediate surgeries and accepting patients who have scheduled procedures in the main hospital that cannot be seen because of lack of surgery rooms is the two hot trends that WCY Hospital will capitalize on.
Trend towards performing immediate surgeries.
There are different kind of surgeries and based on research, performing surgeries in ambulatory surgery centers are higher than performing in the main hospital.
Trend towards accepting patients who have scheduled procedures in the main hospital that cannot be seen right away because of lack of surgery rooms.
WCY Hospital is the first company to start this trend and we will see how it goes.
The trend on performing different kind of immediate surgeries in the ambulatory surgery setting is a national phenomenon. “Ambulatory Surgery Centers (ASCs) also add considerable value to the US Economy, with a 2009 total nationwide economic impact of $90 billion, including more than $5.8 billion in tax payments. Additionally, ASCs employ the equivalent of approximately 117, 700 full-time workers” (Oxford Outcomes ASC Impact Analysis, 2010).
Family, caregivers, and other significant other of the patient are very demanding when it comes to the care that the medical professionals will perform to them. They want the best quality care for their loved one and WCY Hospital will not disappoint them.
In 2017, $18 billion of outpatient surgeries were performed; up from 32% in 2005. The Ambulatory Surgery Center market is estimated to reach $36 billion in 2018 and is projected to increase to $40 billion by 2020 (Research and Markets, n.d.).
The Ambulatory Surgery Center industry is a $30 Billion industry in the United States.
NAICS Code 621493: Freestanding Ambulatory Surgical and Emergency Centers.
Threat of new entrants:
The threat of a new entrants is relatively low. “Over the past five years,the Ambulatory Surgery Centers industry has grown by 4.1% to reach revenue of $30 billion in 2018” (IBISWorld, n.d.). We believe that we will continue to rise with the trust our patients will give us and with the efficient patient care services we will give them.
Bargaining power of suppliers:
There are enough suppliers for the building and maintaining the foundation of WCY Hospital. We expect to improve margins as volume increases in the new outpatient surgery center. We have established a good rapport with our suppliers through our long-established business partners and through our company’s advisory board.
Bargaining power of patients:
There is a relatively large number of inpatient and outpatient who will undergo and need to undergo surgeries, immediate or non-immediate. These are proofs that the company should not witness any downfall with financial matters and any patient’s complaints.
Availability of substitutes:
WCY Hospital is the first place that have an outpatient surgery center that will perform immediate surgeries and that will accept patients who have a scheduled procedure in the main surgery center but cannot be seen because lacking surgery rooms. We hope that by the hard work of our staff and the efficient care we are giving to our patients will be a strong motivation to retain patient’s loyalty.
WCY Hospital assumed that competitors will copy our offer for patients who will have referrals, which will increase competition. We hope that by establishing ourselves as the first hospital who will perform immediate surgeries and accept patients who cannot be seen in the main surgery center because of lack of surgery rooms, that we will divide market share.
WCY Hospital has two customers division to which they will serve and to satisfy their needs.
Admitted Adults and children who needs to undergo immediate surgery: Patients who is brought to the Emergency Room for vehicular accident issue can undergo for immediate surgery because asystole can happen any moment.
Admitted Adults and children who cannot be seen to the main surgery center: There are times that there are a lot of patient is scheduled for surgeries that is why delayed surgeries cannot be avoided, especially when there is for example five to ten surgery rooms or sometimes less inside the main hospital.
Marketing and Sales
The proposed business plan of WCY Hospital can handle immediate surgeries and can accept patients who have scheduled surgeries who cannot be seen in the main surgery center because of lack of surgery rooms. WCY Hospital will price all equipment to be use when building the addition outpatient surgery center and all equipment to be use comparable to nearby competitors.
WCY Hospital will offer a free Wellness Check Up for those patients who will have referrals in the first two weeks the WCY Hospital opens, promoting itself as the first to have an outpatient surgery that will perform immediate surgeries and will accept patients that have scheduled procedure in the main surgery center but cannot be seen because of lack of surgery rooms.
WCY Hospital has determined to use supplies that will be used in building the new ambulatory surgery center and company will spend certain amount of money for the good foundation of the building. Since WCY Hospital is the first place to perform immediate surgeries and accept patients who have scheduled procedures in the main hospital but cannot be seen because of lack of surgery rooms, its foundation should be good because the money spent will just put into waste, if discrepancies happens.
Internet Marketing. The objective is to spread the word to people who needs immediate surgeries and to physicians and main surgery center staff to be aware of the addition outpatient surgery center so that they can send their patients who have a scheduled procedure on a specific day because of lack of surgery rooms.
Traditional media. WCY Hospital will come up with marketing campaigns to spread the word and included in that campaign is to be launch in a television commercial. Printing of flyers will also be one way the WCY Hospital will spread the word. Having a one back to back page in the Outpatient Surgery Magazine about promoting services to offer by WCY Hospital will be done also.
The current focus is on the patients who need an immediate surgery and those patients who have scheduled procedures that cannot be done in the main surgery center because of lack of surgery rooms.
The operational plan is required in order to elucidate how the business will carry out its activity. While the operational plan is essential to the distribution of resources, it utilizes inputs from marketing plan to measure operations at all stages of activities as well as support activities and stipulate the day-to-day tasks and activities involved in running the organization. The operational plan also employs the goals and objectives contained in the strategic plan providing employees with a clear picture of the responsibilities and tasks assigned (Isaac, n.d.). In the context of the proposed ambulatory surgery center, the operational plan is the worksheet model that will examine most of the operational and capital expenditure items and the quantification of physical items (Friend & Zehle, 2004). While the organizational structure and management team are identified and described, integrating the organization’s vision and objectives is of vital importance as a source of competitive advantage. The organizational chart that is reflective of each management team’s responsibilities is essential for the success in delivering margin and take account of the elements of the value chain, identifying specialist skills that are necessary to deliver value to the customer. The organizational chart will perceptibly identify responsibilities, power and information flow that validates the management team’s right skills is in place (Friend & Zehle, 2004).
The primary driver of operational cost in every business expansion is staffing. This includes the number of staffs in each department, recruitment, retention, training, salary, organization’s contribution to insurance, working hours, work environment, health and safety, pensions, redundancy, office space, and nurse workstation. Human resources department will be the primary driver to address this subject matter and issues for a seamless business operation (Friend & Zehle, 2004). The addition of eight operating room suite would positively support the twenty (20) surgeons of various specialties including four well known and respected orthopedic surgeons that significantly contributes to the hospital’s surgery volumes, profit, and future financial performance. Each operating room suites will be staffed with one registered nurse, and one pre-op registered nurse, one post-op registered nurse, one scrub technician, and one sterilization clerks. While operational cost and high-quality service are essential to the success of the new surgery center, it is vital that a qualified and experienced operating room manager and facility administrator should have a bachelor’s degree or higher, and a minimum experience as a manager of two years. The facility administrator / clinical manager oversees the day-to-day operation and coordinator of the facility. Two administrative assistants will be responsible for admitting, and tracking all physician and patient communication, records, billing, and updating electronic medical records. The orthopedic department will have three operating room suites available per day for emergent and scheduled surgeries. The five remaining operating room suites will be available for the rest of the team. Each of this operating room will have an active schedule from eight am to six pm. It is essential that the operating room schedule not exceed six pm because in this case, the medical staff could lengthen their working day. In order to prevent these situations, medical managers consider appropriated an occupancy rate of eighty (80) percent, being the remaining twenty (20) percent use for cleaning of operating rooms after each surgery and, simultaneously, absorb possible surgeries delays (Clavel et al., 2016).
The proposed ambulatory surgery center will be constructed to the newly acquired 20,000 square feet land located in the medical district of Phoenix, Arizona. The ambulatory surgery center will be physically attached to the current three hundred (300) bed community hospital owned and operated by Arizona Medical Center Inc. The location of the site will be strategic to the current availability of nearby qualified staff, current hospital transport links, and hospital emergency accessibility. Essential communication and IT services will be provided by the medical center IT department such as operating systems, databases, security tools, computing platforms, communication tools, and content management platforms, service desks, service support, and data back-up. Energy infrastructure such as solar panels and two backup generators will be installed for uninterrupted power supply. The main power supply will be provided by Arizona energy corporation. One thousand (1000) square feet will be provided for the surgery center’s lobby wherein admission, and the administrative staff will implement discharged procedures. Medical-surgical equipment will be provided and installed by Phoenix medical-surgical international including operating room equipment, ultrasound machine, MRI and CT scan machines as well as furnishings at the main lobby, conference room, and staff rooms. Thus, it is essential that stakeholders identify and comprehend the business structure, and the resources that are required and how it is employed to achieve the strategic objectives. By providing and describing a robust business plan to the stakeholders, operational expenditure and capital expenditure items will move as inputs into the business planning model (Friend & Zehle, 2004).
Source of Funds
|Total Equity Financing||$25,000.00|
|Banks and Lenders|
|Banks and Lenders||$100,000.00|
|Total Debt Financing||$100,000.00|
|Short Term Interest Rate||9.5%||9.5%||9.5%|
|Long Term Interest Rate||10.0%||10.0%||10.0%|
|Federal Tax Rate||33.0%||33.0%||33.0%|
|State Tax Rate||5.0%||5.0%||5.0%|
Profit and Loss Statements
|Proforma Profit and Loss (Yearly)|
|Cost of Goods Sold||$65,529||$71,427||$77,855|
|General and Administrative||$14,400||$14,976||$15,575|
|Professional Fees & Licensure||$25,000||$25,750||$26,523|
|Travel & Vehicle Costs||$15,000||$16,500||$18,150|
|Rent and Utilities||$17,500||$18,375||$19,294|
|Total Operating Costs||$377,526||$391,666||$424,768|
|Federal Income Tax||$70,038||$78,862||$87,359|
|State Income Tax||$10,612||$11,949||$13,236|
Cash Flow Analysis
|Proforma Cash Flow Analysis – Yearly|
|Cash from Operations||$152,225||$222,217||$289,262|
|Cash from Receivables||$0||$0||$0|
|Operating Cash Inflow||$152,225||$222,217||$289,262|
|Other Cash Inflows|
|Sales of Business Assets||$0||$0||$0|
|Total Other Cash Inflows||$187, 902||$43,587||$50,125|
|Total Cash Inflow||$340,127||$265,804||$339,388|
|Repayment of Principal||$8,079||$8,837||$9,666|
|Total Cash Outflows||$252,034||$249,820||$320,317|
|Net Cash Flow||$88,093||$15,985||$19,071|
|Proforma Balance Sheet – Yearly|
|Amortized Development /Expansion Costs||$52,500||$58,055||$65,287|
|Liabilities and Equity|
|Long Term Liabilities||$116,921||$108,084||$99,247|
|Total Liabilities and Equity||$192,558||$256,061||$339,411|
|Break Even Analysis|
Personnel Plan – Yearly
|Tax Staff (Seasonal)||$45,000||$46,350||$63,654|
Financial Ratios of Year 2018-2020
|Gross Profit Margin||90%|
|Operating Profit Margin||34.42%|
|Net Profit Margin||32.72%|
|Inventory turnover Ratio||1.09|
|Sales to receivables Ratio||0|
|Return on assets||89.18%|
|Debt to worth Ratio||1,239.82%|
Expanded Profit and Loss Statements
|Profit and Loss Statement (First Year)|
|Cost of Goods Sold||$6,738||$6,755||$6,773||$6,790||$4,474||$4,485||$4,497|
|General & Administrative||$1,200||$1,200||$1,200||$1,200||$1,200||$1,200||$1,200|
|Professional Fees & Licensure||$2,083||$2,083||$2,083||$2,083||$2,083||$2,083||$2,083|
|Travel & Vehicle Costs||$1,250||$1,250||$1,250||$1,250||$1,250||$1,250||$1,250|
|Rent & Utilities||$1,458||$1,458||$1,458||$1,458||$1,458||$1,458||$1,458|
|Total Operating Costs||$31,460||$31,460||$31,460||$31,460||$31,460||$31,460||$31,460|
|Federal Income Tax||$7,201||$7,220||$7,238||$7,257||$4,781||$4,794||$4,806|
|State Income Tax||$1,091||$1,094||$1,097||$1,100||$724||$726||$728|
|Profit and Loss Statement (First Year Cont.)|
|Cost of Goods Sold||$4,508||$4,520||$6,895||$4,543||$4,554||$65,529|
|General & Administrative||$1,200||$1,200||$1,200||$1,200||$1,200||$14,400|
|Professional fees & Licensure||$2,083||$2,083||$2,083||$2,083||$2,083||$25,000|
|Travel & Vehicle Costs||$1,250||$1,250||$1,250||$1,250||$1,250||$15,000|
|Rent & Utilities||$1,458||$1,458||$1,458||$1,458||$1,458||$17,500|
|Total Operating Costs||$31,460||$31,460||$31,460||$31,460||$31,460||$377,526|
|Federal Income Tax||$4,8181||$4,830||$7,369||$4,855||$4,867||$70,038|
|State Income Tax||$730||$732||$1,117||$736||$737||$10,612|
Clavel, D., Mahulea, C., Albareda, J., Silva, M., (2016). Operation planning of elective patients in an orthopedic surgery department. Retrieved from https://webdiis.unizar.es/GISED/sites/default/files/2016_M2H.pdf
Friend, G., Zehle, S., (2004). Guide to business planning. The economist. Retrieved from http://library.uniteddiversity.coop/Business_Plans/Guide_to_Business_Planning.pdf
Gladys, R., Odero, C. O., (2016). Factors influencing strategy implementation on the performance of commercial banks in Kenya. Strategic journal of business and change management. Retrieved from http://strategicjournals.com/index.php/journal/article/view/284/300
Isaac, L., (n.d.). Introduction to operational planning. http://www.leoisaac.com/operations/ops003.htm
IBISWorld. (n.d.). Ambulatory Surgery Centers Industry in the US. Retrieved from https://www.ibisworld.com/industry-trends/specialized-market-research-reports/life-sciences/health-practitioners/ambulatory-surgery-centers.html on December 4, 2018.
Kaplan, R. S., Norton, D. P., (2001). The strategy focused organization. Retrieved from https://www.uaservice.com/pdf/The_Strategy-Focused_Organization.pdf
Oxford Outcomes ASC Impact Analysis. (2010). Retrieved from https://www.ascassociation.org/advancingsurgicalcare/aboutacs/industryoverview/apositivetrendinhealthcare on December 4, 2018.
Research and Markets. (n.d.). 2018 Ambulatory Surgery Center (ASC) Market: Projected to increase from $36 Billion in 2018, to $40 Billion by 2020. Retrieved from https://www.businesswire.com/news/home/20181011005301/en/2018-Ambulatory-Surgery-Center-ASC-Market-Projected on December 4, 2018.
Scott, S. (2017, November 21). What Is a Strategic Business Plan? Retrieved November 26, 2018, from https://smallbusiness.chron.com/strategic-business-plan-2716.html
Study: Medicare Cost Savings Tied to ASCs. (2008). Retrieved November 26, 2018, from https://www.advancingsurgicalcare.com/reducinghealthcarecosts/costsavings/medicarecostsavingstiedtoascs