ENGL147N Discussion Argumentative Strategies
ENGL147N Discussion Argumentative Strategies
Surrogate mothers 10 years on: a longitudinal study of psychological well-being and relationships with the parents and child.
- Claim: What was the article’s main point? What’s the thesis?
The author claims that most surrogate mothers do not experience any psychological problems or depression and tend to have a positive relationship with the parents and child even after 10 yrs. Thesis: Studies have shown that most Surrogate mothers continue to remain psychologically healthy. Even after a decade they continue to maintain a positive relationship with the child, parents and their spouse/partners.
- Grounds: What kinds of evidence did the author use to support his/her argument? Provide an example.
The author has used a study conducted by V. Jadva, S. Imrie, and S. Golombok in 2003 where 34 surrogates were interviewed one year after the surrogate baby was born. The original 34 surrogates were again interviewed 10yrs after the surrogate baby was born. Based on this study, it was concluded that majority of surrogate mothers do not experience psychological problems in the decade following the birth of the surrogacy child and maintain a healthy relationship with the surrogate child, parents and their own family.
- Warrants: Did the author(s) successfully connect the evidence to the main point? How so?
Yes, in my opinion the author has successfully connected the evidence to the main point. The evidence provided by the author is a detailed study conducted in 2003 of 34 surrogate mothers over a period of 10 yrs. The author has described how the study was conducted in great detail.
- Backing: How credible were the sources the author(s) applied? How does credulity affect your overall response?
The author has given a list of credible references to support his claim. He has explained the surrogate study in great detail and how they were conducted and how the data was acquired, analyzed and concluded. Credulity did not affect my overall response.
- Qualifiers: Did you notice any absolutes (all, every, each) or limiters (some, several, many)? How did they add or subtract from the argument?
Yes I did notice absolutes like all and each used a few times in the article. Limiter like some has been used few times whereas several and many has been used one time each in the article. Absolutes like all and each were used to make the argument sound more convincing and Limiters were used to let the audience know that it does not include everyone but a few.
- Rebuttal: Did the author(s) present any points of opposition and counterarguments? How did it influence your reaction?
The author’s point of opposition was about the small sample size of the surrogate study as well as the non-participation of some participants in the second phase of study. The author counter-argues by stating that the non-participation was because the research team was unable to contact them as they had changed residence in the 10 yrs. time. Another point of opposition is the low level of kappa value related to frequency of contact with father. The author counter-argues that this type of contact is difficult to classify and maybe sporadic. The author validates his argument by point to the high kappa value for contact between mother and child to prove that the scale was reliable. In my opinion the counter-arguments to the both the opposition points was very convincing and did not affect my perception of the article.
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I questioned the statement about “all” of the surrogates having positive outcomes. I would have expected there to be maybe a small percentage who were regretful. I suppose those who get into surrogacy go into it with the idea that this is not their baby, and when the time comes to have the child and give it to the parents, they have been preparing for it for some time. Still, I would think there would be some that unexpectedly felt sad about it. I do think that the fact that there were only 20 surrogates in this study really makes it quite limited. It does state that the extent to which the findings can be generalized is not known. I think that is a small sample. I would want to see some diversity among surrogates (more info on their religions, races, socioeconomic status, etc) to see if there were differences in their feelings based on cultural differences. At the same time, I do think that when someone goes into surrogacy, it’s a process, and they are likely prepared and do not ever see the child as their own. The surrogate, I’m assuming, is usually not a biological contributor. I do wonder, though, if it’s hard to feel the baby growing, kicking, etc and know they will not keep it. You would think that at least a few would feel sad after the event.
I think your absolutely correct that because of the small sample size of the surrogate mother it cannot be absolutely said that none of surrogate mothers felt sad or may have regretted their decision. But in my opinion it would be unfair to blame the researchers for the small sample size. This study was conducted back in 2003 when surrogacy was still not very popular, besides the social stigma of carrying someone else’s baby would have prevented many women to be surrogate mothers. I am sure some religious and cultural beliefs may have prevented some women to be surrogate mother back then. Besides some surrogate mother may not have wanted to be part of the research. These could be some of the reasons why the sample size of surrogate mothers was so small.
I am sure a few of the surrogate mother may have felt sad immediately after birth or later in life about separating from the surrogate baby but as per research study it did not affect their overall psychological well-being or their relationship with the child or the family over 10 yrs.
You did a great job with your analysis. This article is very interesting. I do have to wonder if the surrogates were given an initial Psych evaluation to determine their baseline. Also, I would think it would be interesting for the surrogates to have an evaluation sooner than 1 year after giving birth. Most mothers go through postpartum depression a week to a year after giving birth. I have to wonder if they were over any postpartum depression they experienced by the 1-year time frame. I have 2 friends who were surrogates. Both of them kept a close relationship with the families they were surrogates for. Both of the ladies even pumped and provided the mothers with breast milk for the babies. Both ladies who were surrogates had their own children and were able to have time with the babies and had their children meet the babies and the parents, because the surrogate’s family suffered loss, once the babies went to their intended families. I felt that to be very interesting. I feel this article was well written. Is there anything you felt the author could have included helping persuade the audience? Do you feel like the research that was provided seemed to be adequate to support their claim?
I think you make a valid point about an initial psych evaluation and interviewing the surrogate mom earlier than one year. The article does not mention about any initial psych evaluation so i am guessing that they did not do it. Maybe the researchers did not have the time and resources to do all that.
I think the author should have given reason as to why they had a small sample size for the research. Also in my opinion 10 yrs was a long time to conduct the second interview. They could have done the second interview in 5 yrs after birth and another one after 10 yrs.
I am still skeptical about the research since the sample size was so small.
This article really surprised me with all the positive outcomes. I could not even imagine having a child out there and not being able to care for it like it was mine. I understand a lot of people do surrogacy for different reasons but when I was pregnant I felt so attached to the child before he was even here and then to just hand him over after 9 months would just kill me. I guess if you knew from the very beginning that the child would not be yours to care for it may be easier but like I said I was surprised most these experiences have positive outcomes. Considering the opposition of the sample size I am curious if the sample size was bigger if the numbers would have been different.
I’m always curious about why people choose the types of plastic surgery they do. For instance, I know a lot of women who have gone through breast augmentation. A couple of them have had reconstructive surgery after having cancer and mastectomies; however, the majority did it strictly for cosmetic purposes (to lift or to increase the size). I could probably name a dozen or more women that I speak to regularly who have had this done (a few in my family). A few have done this before choosing to spend money on something else cosmetic (like dental work), and I just wonder why this is such a huge thing.
I currently know two women who have gone back to have the implants removed. After getting them, they experienced years of strange symptoms (fatigue, stomach problems, aches, and other vague illness). After doing some research, they learned of something called Breast Implant Illness. I had never heard of this, but after having the implants removed (saline implants), they began feeling a lot better. It’s a bizarre, yet interesting thing.
Here’s a story about the implant illness:
Family Perspectives on Deceased Organ Donation: Thematic Synthesis of Qualitative Studies
1. Claim: The articles main point was doing research and study on barriers to meeting the needs of organ transplant consent from family members of the death of a patient. The thesis is “One of the major barriers to meeting the needs for organ transplantation in more than 50 countries of the world, including the United States, the United Kingdom and Australia, is that the consent of families is required. The family consent rate is 60% in the United Kingdom and 54% in the United States.
2. Grounds: The author used qualitive studies using 34 different articles for information. For example, he did a table showing characteristics of the included studies. He also used statistics in the thesis above showing 54% of families in the US consented to organ donation.
3. Warrants: Yes, the author connected evidence to the main point by showing the table of out of the 34 articles at least 1035 family members were included and their response to organ donation when a family member died which was the main point the writer was trying to prove. Almost half of the primary studies reported the use of member or investigator checking to ensure the findings reflected the data collected.
4. Backing: I think the sources the author applied were credible he gave a good sources description and described the study in detail. The fact that the studies gave so much detail on response rate % and sampling strategy. I think my overall response was that they must have done good research for the numbers and all aspects of the study were considered.
5. Qualifiers: Yes I did notice some absolutes like all and many when talking about all the different articles/studies the author used for the article and I think it subtracted from the argument because although more studies show more information it is coming from so many different sources so in my opinion it would make a person wonder how much of it is accurate.
6. Rebuttal: Yes, the author gave many different reasons why the numbers are so low and why families would choose not to do organ donation for their loved one. I was incredibly surprised that there were so many different reasons behind why a family would make that decision. I think it just added to the argument showing the reasons why is why the numbers are so low to begin with.
Ralph, A. (2014, March 10). Family Perspectives on Deceased Organ Donation: Thematic Synthesis of Qualitative Studies. Retrieved from https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/ajt.12660
Wow. I was really struck by the reasons that a family would decline, as well.
I really think some of it has to do with education and how it is approached. I can really see how this would feel almost offensive to some family members who have lost a loved one. Think about it: You are reeling from this death, from this unimaginable sudden devastation to your world. You have just lost a member of your family, and you are in shock. Then enter people asking for organs. While you know how important it is to give others a chance at life if your loved one can no longer use their organs, how can you shift from mourning that sudden death to making decisions to benefit someone else? Your mind isn’t even there. I cannot imagine.
I would like to think that I would want my loved one’s organs to be of use to someone else if they could no longer use them, but the truth is that I have no idea how I would feel in that moment. I have never been in that position. My license says “Organ Donor,” and I would definitely want someone to benefit from my organs if they could; however, I really don’t know how my family would feel. I believe they would honor my wishes, but we haven’t had that conversation. I think I am going to make it a point to have it in the near future.
I can certainly appreciate the position that so many families are in. How do you let go? How on earth can someone be expected to make such a decision in that moment of grief? How can you even think straight? I cannot even begin to imagine this. I hope I never have to experience it.
My father was recently hospitalized for some time, and he had to have brain surgery. I found myself spending time in the chapel, praying, begging. I walked the halls of the hospital, worried, scared. I found myself on one floor that had all these plaques with pictures of people who had died and donated organs, and then the pictures of the people who are now living and thriving with those organs. I just started crying. I just realized what a gift that was, and there were hundreds of people on that wall that were living because of those donations. It gave me chills.
I do think we have to have better ways of getting the word out, educating people, approaching families.
I agree completely! I’ve never been a patient until having a baby five months ago and the next morning after giving birth I had people in my room asking me about how I was gonna pay my bill or what decisions on doctors and a million other things and I could not even believe that they expected me to make all these decisions after giving birth six hours prior. When in the hospital your mind is focused on the reason you are there and nothing else. I have not had any experience with a dying loved one but I see it everyday in my career and it makes me so embarrassed to go and ask about organ donation as the first thing I am supposed to say to a family who just lost a loved one. Like you said the problem is the education. When people don’t understand the importance of organ donation or reasons why we have to know at that time all they can think is how rude it is to ask that so quickly or they cant even focus enough to think about that decision. I would like to think people would want another human to benefit from organs that are no longer being used because it can be such a blessing to another individual but when grieving I am sure another human is the last thing on your mind.
There are so many interesting aspects of this article. I would imagine that people who have lower self-esteem who seek plastic surgery are doing so to improve self-image. So, it stands to reason that their self-esteem would be higher after a procedure. The group that interests me is the one who already had high self-esteem. Didn’t the article state their self-esteem was lower after surgery?
I was reading a USA Today article from 2017 that discussed the amount of money US citizens spend on cosmetic surgery:
“An American Society of Plastic Surgeons report found Americans spent more than $16 billion on cosmetic plastic surgeries and minimally invasive procedures in 2016, the most the U.S. has ever spent on such operations” (Rossman, 2017).
It went on to say that plastic surgery was once reserved for the rich and famous but is now more accessible and affordable.
I think of the number of people who I know personally who have either had surgery or a cosmetic procedure: breast implants, liposuction, cool sculpting, Botox. It’s become pretty common.
According to the article, these are the most common procedures:
– Breast augmentation: 290,467 procedures
– Liposuction: 235,237 procedures
– Nose reshaping: 223,018 procedures
– Tummy tuck: 127,633 procedures
– Buttock augmentation: 18,489 procedures
According to Rossman, “There was a time people would be “outed” for getting plastic surgery. Now many have embraced the procedures, often posting pictures of their recoveries on social media” (2017).
I found that interesting because I can think back to when people in Hollywood would deny they’d had any work done. I think that as it has become more popular and the technology has improved, people talk openly about it. I wonder if being open about the work one has had done factors into self-esteem issues.
I really like how you evaluated the information. I wondered about the comments regarding those who already had high self-esteem and that maybe they were not opting to do the procedures to raise self-esteem, but to look younger. If they were wanting to look younger, wouldn’t that be to help them feel better about themselves?
Amy Rossman, S. (2017). Americans are spending more than ever on plastic surgery. USA Today. Retrieved from https://www.usatoday.com/story/news/nation-now/2017/04/12/americans-spending-more-than-ever-plastic-surgery/100365258/
I believe the people with high self-esteem prior to surgery had a change of how they feel because they were looking for perfection. I grew up surrounded by Brazilians and Brazil is known for plastic surgery. I have family in Brazil. Most of the women in the family have had some procedures done. It’s so normal to get cosmetic work done in Brazil. I went on vacation and came back with a full tummy tuck and other procedures done. It was so easy and accessible. I feel like cosmetic procedures are growing in the US as well. Every doctor’s office that I have visited within the last year has had signs up saying they perform Botox. Some even had Botox parties. My mother’s cardiologist is doing cosmetic procedures in his office. My old gynecologist is doing cosmetic procedures! Funny story, I went to the gynecologist for a check-up and he told me he can lipo my back and abdomen. I was so upset! I didn’t ask and I also didn’t think I needed it! I never went back to him. I thought it was so unprofessional since I was just going for a gyno appt. I thought it was so odd but I guess that’s the world we are living in these days. Doctors are trying to profit from this new era of Botox.
Regarding those who felt they looked younger but their self-esteem was lowered, I wonder if it is because when you have procedures done there are always issues that you may not have thought of. For instance, the scar and how it shows. If you have makeup you may not see the scar but if you don’t you may be bothered by this new scar. Also, the areas that were cut will be numb. This may bother the person. I know it bothered me and still does years later. The way the face is tugged may have you looking odd. The person may think they were going to have the same appearance as when they were younger but then realize that didn’t happen. A lot of times when I see before and after pictures of procedures, I notice that they use filters and makeup for the after pictures. They take the worst before pictures, with the worst lighting, and the worst miserable face the person can do. For the after pictures they have the person with makeup, hair done, proper lighting, and the happiest human being. That may be where the self-esteem and perceived outcomes play a role. The person looks at that after picture and thought that’s how they’ll look. The truth is if all of that was removed and it was just the person’s clean face, the after picture would look similar to the before picture. The only difference would be the skin pulled and there would be a new scar. Once they realize they look the same, except a few years younger, the disappointment sets in, and their self-esteem is lowered.