ENGL 147N Discussion 2 Source Incorporation & Academic Integrity
ENGL 147N Discussion 2 Source Incorporation & Academic Integrity
It is a false belief that death penalty deters crime. In the book, Deterrence and Death Penalty, Pepper and Nagin (2012) observe that “deterrence is but one of the many considerations relevant to deciding whether the death penalty is a good public policy” (p.12) which means that deterrence is one of the important reasons why death penalty is considered legal and good for the society. Proponents of death penalty have been unable to prove that death penalty deters and prevents crime. Pepper and Nagin (2012) have concluded that the hypothesis of deterrence is based on the idea that the government imposed punishment will definitely be severe and quick which will prevent others from committing crimes (p.29). Various studies have been published about death penalty and its effects and none have been able to conclusively prove that death penalty increases or decreases crime and more research needs to done in this regard. Death penalty is a cruel and inhuman form of punishment which grossly violates human rights and should be abolished.
I used the quote at the beginning of the paragraph to generate interest. The quote stood out because it was about deterrence and death penalty which was the central idea of the book. I had reviewed Turnitin plagiarism information through the link provided before writing this post. While paraphrasing, I used my own words to describe the author’s thoughts and I made sure that that i did an in text citation where I mentioned both the authors and year at the beginning of the paraphrase and ended with the page number so that the reader knows that I am using someone’s work and where to find the information. While quoting, I did an in text citation and used quotation marks for the exact sentence I used from the book. The plagiarism link provided was very useful and I incorporated my resources carefully with proper quotation marks, in text citations, reference and by making sure that I paraphrase the author’s thoughts and ideas using my own words. In my opinion I prefer quoting versus paraphrasing because paraphrasing is more difficult since you have to write the ideas of the author in your own words and that is not an easy task.
Nagin, D. S., & Pepper, J. V. (2012). Deterrence and the death penalty. Washington, D.C.: National Academies Press.
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This is my paragraph draft.
“Gun control advocates often cite the 11,000-gun murders in this country each year as justification for stricter gun laws. However, cancer kills fifty times that many people in the U.S. every year”. (Perry, 2013, para. 1) These are some of the statements and statics you will hear gun control advocates and pro-gun advocates. The argument is emotional and vague not offering facts to make logical decisions. Most people are very emotional about this topic and rarely look at the facts when voting. Perry (2013) stated that more regulations do not keep guns out of the hands of criminals. The media sensationalizes killings contributing to the hysteria. Social media circulates inaccurate and false information resulting in people making uninformed judgments. Choosing to focus on how many people are killed with firearms each year is ill-informed. Guns save many lives each year in the hands of legal gun owners.
This quote is significate because it reinforces the fact and research that shows how people come to decisions about gun control laws. I choose to quote and cite the passage with the statistical numbers because those can not be paraphrased. They were able to paraphrase other information but still give the author credit. I find paraphrasing much harder, re-wording something that has already been saying, and usually has been said well is difficult to summarize. Turnitin is helpful in addressing and improving paraphrasing and quoting skills.
Perry, C. (2013). Spring [Entire issue]. University of Main Farmington, 2. Retrieved from http://www2.umf.maine.edu/flyer/archives/2013-spring/issue-2-3-7-2013/why-gun-control-is-not-the-answer-and-what-we-can-do-to-stop-gun-violence/
Interesting quote. That’s a lot of cancer deaths! A lot! That quote makes me think more about the research that needs to continue to be done on cancer, so we can find better treatments and a cure. It sort of takes my focus away from gun control, which I assume is what the author intended. At the same time, the two are very different animals: cancer deaths vs. gun deaths. Gun deaths result as someone actively pulling a trigger. Cancer deaths result from disease. I think the opposition to that argument would immediately state that.
My concern here is that the source is from 2013. Have statistics changed much in the last seven years? That will be something to consider.
I agree that this is a very emotional topic for people. I personally am a pro-gun ownership person. My husband’s family lives in Iowa, when we go out there to visit, we go out to the gun range for fun. My kids have all been taught gun safety, and have gone with us to the range to go shooting. My brother-in-laws all hunt. My husband just purchased his first gun. I have no issue with people owning guns and using them in a safe and appropriate manner. The issue is when less law-abiding people get their hands on guns and seek to do harm. When something terrible happens, like a mass shooting, I completely understand the snap reaction to start calling for stricter gun laws. But when I stop to really consider this, I then ask myself, are laws really going to stop someone who is already planning on doing something illegal?
I choose to talk about organ donation.
Even though a person may have a desire to donate their organs in a case of death, the procedure of doing it might be challenged with numerous obstacles and the perspectives of family members. David M. Shaw defines one of the obstacles as vagueness, which is present in the consent to organ donation. One of the examples of such vagueness is the pathways of the process of donation; the author claims that “there are two main donation pathways: donation after brain death (DBD) and donation after circulatory death (DCD)” (Shaw, 2017, p. 426). In other words, the process of donation can happen after the stop of heart function or after the stop of brain function – two types of deaths, which are different in time. The difference in timing is frequently omitted by the potential donors or their family members, who may refuse to consent. The other family perspectives were reviewed by Ralph and co-authors (2014), who identified such obstacles as suspicion and fear, reactions to the death of a close person, the motifs, decisional conflicts, donor’s will, and vulnerability. Thus, the process of donation is associated with numerous obstacles and family perspectives.
In the first sentence, I attracted the attention by highlighting the contradiction between the desires of a patient and the challenges of donation procedure. One such challenge, the donation pathway, is defined in the quote that was used (Shaw, 2017). The quote gives the definitions to the types of death, after which donation is possible; the quote is used as these definitions are challenging to paraphrase (Shaw, 2017). At the same time, the list of family members’ perspectives, which is a paraphrase from the second source, was a more manageable task (Ralph et al., 2014). Turnitin helped me paraphrase the sentence by finding synonyms and highlighting the information relevant to the paper. In my opinion, paraphrasing is a more flexible tool that allows the writers to smoothly incorporate the relevant information in the piece of academic text.
Ralph, A., Chapman, J. R., Gillis, J., Craig, J. C., Butow, P., Howard, K., … Tong, A. (2014). Family Perspectives on Deceased Organ Donation: Thematic Synthesis of Qualitative Studies. American Journal of Transplantation, 14(4), 923–935.
Shaw, D.M. (2017). The consequences of vagueness in consent to organ donation. Bioethics, 31(6), 424-443.
There are other treatment options available for children suffering with ADHD, such as neurofeedback, dietary changes, and behavior therapy (Baily & Carson-Dewitt, 2019; Hodge, 2019). Neurofeedback is a therapy in which brainwaves activity is monitored while the patient is watching live via computer. When desirable brainwave patterns are produced, there is a reward. Over time the brain becomes trained to self-regulate its activity and symptoms of ADHD are reduced (Hodge, 2019). Diet is largely overlooked when it comes to mental health. Nutrient deficiency and toxins from food or the environment can irritate the central nervous system and further impair one’s ability to focus (Hodge, 2019). “Changes in diet and nutrients can have a huge impact on focus and self-regulation” (Hodge, 2019). Behavior therapy is another option to consider prior to medications. Limiting a child’s screen time and quality of sleep are two additional areas experts believe can greatly affect a child’s behavior (Bailey & Carson-Dewitt, 2019).
When I am researching a paper, I use a notebook to take notes while reading through my sources. I try to write my notes using my own wording based on my interpretation of what I am reading. If I find that it is impossible to use my own wording to relay a particular point I want to lay out in my paper, I make sure to use quotations in my notes, so that I know when referring back, that it is a direct quote. When I am to the point of typing my paper, my research is already paraphrased and in my own wording, and direct quotes are clearly marked. This makes it easier to ensure I am citing things properly to avoid plagiarism. When reviewing the information on the Turnitin link, it further solidified that paraphrasing my notes beforehand is a good way to be certain I am turning in something that is indeed my own work, and not inadvertently copying someone else’s. There are times when I am unsure, and I will go back to my source while I am writing to reread it and double check that I am not copying wording and am using proper citations. I prefer to paraphrase and use my own wording to explain my interpretation of all the research I have done for a paper. However, there are times when a direct quote is necessary. Especially when it comes to quoting statistics and study findings. Other times, a point is relayed so flawlessly that paraphrasing simply will not have the same effect. In these instances, I prefer to use a direct quote and be certain to properly cite the source.
Bailey, E. & Carson-Dewitt, R. (2019). Behavior Drugs and Children. Retrieved from https://web-a-ebscohost-com.chamberlainuniversity.idm.oclc.org/pov/detail/detail?vid=1&sid=ab89ed16-c9a5-4e2e-b39d-e4e485851f49%40sdc-v-sessmgr01&bdata=JnNpdGU9cG92LWxpdmU%3d#AN=23364394&db=pwhLinks to an external site.
Hodge, R.C. (2019). 5 Reasons Why You Shouldn’t Medicate Your Child With ADHD. Retrieved from: https://drroseann.com/5-reasons-to-not-medicate-adhd-in-children/Links to an external site.
Choosing to medicate a child with ADHD can be a frightening decision for most parents. Most parents fear their child will become chemically dependent on drugs. Stimulant abuse is a growing problem among teens and adults. According to March and Cabrera, there is a link between substance abuse and ADHD disorders. (March & Cabrera, 2018) Both substance abuse and ADHD disorders lack dopamine in the reward system of the brain. Psychostimulants regulate the chemical imbalances in the brain but also may cause dependency. To add, March and Cabrera also state that, ” in approximately 89% of adults diagnosed with ADHD, there is a history of another psychiatric disorder” (March & Cabrera, 2018). Hense why medications alone will not help the child suffering from ADHD. Changes in diet, exercise, and psychotherapy must be used in conjunction to medications in order to have an effect and positive change in the child’s life.
I have noticed during my research process that I prefer to print articles out and highlight the parts of the article that I find important. I place a star on facts that I need to quote. Most of the time I like to paraphrase but I also find myself using quotes when I find no way to paraphrase. I feel like some facts or percentages require a quote as to not come into problems with plagiarism. The Turnitin link helps to visualize the parts of the paper that my have notations that the writer doesn’t know are someone else’s. At times we paraphrase and in doing so we use someone else’s ideas without even realizing it. Turnitin helps catch those so the writer can either cite properly or change the wording used.
March, P., & Cabrera, G. (2018, December 7). Substance Abuse and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) (D. Pravikoff, Ed.). https://eds-a-ebscohost-com.chamberlainuniversity.idm.oclc.org/eds/detail/detail?vid=16&sid=c8b118ac-44db-4533-ad49-0eb07b3bd6b3%40sdc-v-sessmgr03&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWRzLWxpdmUmc2NvcGU9c2l0ZQ%3D%3D#AN=T701506&db=nup
Assisted Suicide has been a debate in healthcare for quite a while now. Many people believe if we allow assisted suicide in all states it could cause people to feel pressured to allow it if they are at the end of their life. “Many people who are disabled, elderly, or terminally ill are already made to feel that they are a burden to their families and society” (Pawlick,2016). According to Pawlick (2016) active euthanasia may affect these vulnerable groups. Causing a depressed or sick person feel they have no other choice at the end of their life or not being in the right emotional state to make that decision. Todays healthcare offers hospice and palliative care giving these patients another option therefore assisted suicide could be unnecessary.
My approach to paraphrasing vs quoting was to keep the quote the authors exact words and when it came to paraphrase, I changed the wording but kept the authors thought the same. The quote stood out because the quotation marks saying the words from the author were exact in the article. Using the Turnitin plagiarism link I ensured both the paraphrase and quote were properly cited to make it known the ideas and quote did not come from me, but I was using from the article. Reviewing the Turnitin plagiarism link made an impact on how I incorporated the resources because it explained how to replace the wording from the author to paraphrase. I prefer a paraphrase over a quote because I can add my own wording in the phrase.
Pawlick, P. (2016, September 30). Point: Active Euthanasia should be outlawed. Retrieved from https://web-b-ebscohost-com.chamberlainuniversity.idm.oclc.org/pov/detail/detail?vid=4&sid=fadf9168-b66c-474b-aade508b864b99ae%40pdcsessmgr01&bdata=JnNpdGU9cG92LWxpdmU%3d#AN=26608594&db=pwh