ENGL 147N Discussion 2 Deceptive Arguments 

Sample Answer for ENGL 147N Discussion 2 Deceptive Arguments  Included After Question

Initial Post Instructions

Part 1: Research & Review

Review the two articles in Required Resources on the uses of logical fallacies and rhetorical appeals in the healthcare field.

The Krishen and Bui (2015) article discusses the active use of logical fallacies to manipulate obese consumers into making better health choices through two oppositional approaches: fear tactics and positive reinforcement.

The Giachino, Stupino, Peratulo, and Bertoldi (2017) article presents a study of fear tactics applied through social advertising, similar to the ads we discussed in our Week 3 discussion boards. Students were exposed to fear advertising in an attempt to reduce high speed driving.

Part 2: Application

Apply what you have learned about logical fallacies and rhetorical appeals to interpret and summarize the articles. Consider the following questions:

  • If the participants are aware of misleading manipulation techniques, are they immune to their effects?
  • What are the limitations of these types of fear inducing tactics?
  • How would you react if you were a subject in one of these studies?
  • What can we take away from these articles to apply in our own topics?
  • Where else have you seen these types of fear tactics applied (e.g., advertising, social media, word of mouth, etc.)? Are these other mediums effective? Why is that the case?

A Sample Answer For the Assignment: ENGL 147N Discussion 2 Deceptive Arguments 

Title: ENGL 147N Discussion 2 Deceptive Arguments 

In the first article, Fear advertisements: influencing consumers to make better health decisions, Krishen and Bui (2015) analyze whether people are more prone to make healthier choices through fear or hope. They analyze previously recorded research and build upon it. They conclude that people respond more to fear than hope. People will choose healthier foods if they feel fear from an advertisement rather than hope. 

I think if the participants were made aware of the manipulation tactic being used, they would distrust the advertisement entirely and would continue with their current choices. Using fear-inducing tactics has limitations because there also has to be a positive goal associated. Furthermore, the participant must have a goal they want to obtain in order to take the fear tactic into consideration and therefore change their behaviors or choices. 

In the second article, Fear appeals in social marketing: The case of anti-speeding video advertisement “Mistakes”, Giachino et al. (2017) analyzed 20 young Italian students. The research is to see if they drove within the speed limit after watching the anti-speeding video. It appears that the students were aware of the purpose of the study and the results may be biased due to that (GIachino et al., Spring 2017). I believe knowing they were being manipulated made them immune to the effects of this research. In the 10 females analyzed, some females actually increased their speeding after the video. Giachino et al. (2017) believe this may be due to them feeling like their freedom was infringed upon.

The limitations of this research are that the results are short term and do not show the long term effects of the fear tactics used. According to Giachino et al. (2017), the more one is exposed to the fear tactic the less effective it is. (Giachino et al., 2017) Another limitation is that they used a small group of young Italian students. In order to have a better understanding of the results of the fear appeal, they would have to increase the number of people analyzed as well as a more diverse audience. 

I think if I were a subject in one of these studies I would probably be induced to give the results they were looking for. For instance, I would drive within the speed limits while I was being watched but once the research was over, I probably would go back to my bad habits. I feel like normally I stay within the speed limit but in roads such as the parkway, where the normal is 10 miles above the speed limit, I tend to follow the crowd. I also noticed that personally, fear tactics have a short term effect on me. I tend to make changes but with time go back to what I used to do. I believe it’s because, like Krishen and Bui state, you must have a personal goal for making the choice in order for the fear strategy to work (Krishen and Bui, 2015).

I have seen many documentaries on Netflix that use fear tactics to manipulate the audience. There are documentaries on how bad sugar is for you, how bad meat is for, and other types of documentaries. I think a lot of the documentaries use fear appeal when manipulating their audience. Even the music used and the images are all to bring about fear to the viewer. I don’t think any of them worked long term on me or my family. Nonetheless, I have seen others make life changes after seeing the same documentaries. 

Reference

Giachino, C., Stupino, M., Petrarulo, G., & Bertoldi, B. (2017, Spring). Fear appeals in social marketing: The case of anti-speeding video advertisement “Mistakes”. https://eds-b-ebscohost-com.chamberlainuniversity.idm.oclc.org/eds/detail/detail?vid=0&sid=3e711d84-309d-441c-b43c-119c2ebc4d96%40pdc-v-sessmgr02&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWRzLWxpdmUmc2NvcGU9c2l0ZQ%3D%3D#AN=124409330&db=bth

Krishen, A. S., & Bui, M. (2015). Fear advertisements: Influencing consumers to make better health decisions. https://eds-b-ebscohost-com.chamberlainuniversity.idm.oclc.org/eds/detail/detail?vid=0&sid=c26a72fd-b85b-479c-9f98-1bc31f3e6fdf%40pdc-v-sessmgr05&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWRzLWxpdmUmc2NvcGU9c2l0ZQ%3D%3D#db=edswss&AN=000369954900008

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A Sample Answer 2 For the Assignment:ENGL 147N Discussion 2 Deceptive Arguments 

Title: ENGL 147N Discussion 2 Deceptive Arguments 

I could really relate to what you said about the effectiveness of those documentaries. I remember watching Supersize Me years ago. I was disgusted. I swore off the fast food industry, but that was short-lived.

When I think of fear tactics, I automatically think of those anti-smoking commercials. They definitely use fear tactics. Seeing someone who has had part of their face removed due to cancer caused by smoking is pretty terrifying! I also believe that social media is a big place for the use of fear advertisements. Social media has really changed how we react to things. We see multiple people post. We see multiple people have certain reactions. It really does influence how we view issues. 

ENGL 147N Discussion 2 Deceptive Arguments 
ENGL 147N Discussion 2 Deceptive Arguments 

I do believe fear-based tactics work – to a degree. The issue is with getting people to not turn away when they realize it’s something that might frighten them into making better choices. 🙁 I know that when it comes to health, fear can make an impact. I know this from personal experience. For instance, I have an aunt who has been overweight and had bad knees for years. She had put off getting knee replacements and had avoided eating right and exercise.

In recent years her doctors began telling her that she may end up in a wheelchair if she didn’t have the surgeries and that it would be a much better recovery if she were strong and weighed less. For the past year, she did water aerobics and walked the pool. She ate better and lost weight. She has had one knee replacement and has the other scheduled. Sometimes, it takes fear to sort of force a person into making some hard decisions. In this example, it took years before she changed her habits. 

I think health-related fear tactics have always made an impact on me. I know that the advertisements that scared me are the ones I’ve always remembered: the ones about smoking, the ones about STDs and condoms, the ones about texting and driving.

I think it’s about knowing one’s audience. Even if I know the goal is to scare me into action, if it’s something that could really hurt me, I might just be scared into action!

A Sample Answer 3 For the Assignment: ENGL 147N Discussion 2 Deceptive Arguments 

Title: ENGL 147N Discussion 2 Deceptive Arguments 

I agree that the fear tactic works if you know your audience and know how to manipulate said audience. I also think fear tactics work depending on each person’s real fears. If I already have a vulnerability or an underlying fear and they build on that fear maybe it sits longer with me or really makes me change. For instance, as I get older my biggest fear is to have to depend on anyone. So if I was told I would end up in a wheelchair like your aunt was told, I would definitely be scared into making changes. When it comes to food though, I always struggle because I self indulge and that ends up overpowering any fear. LOL I think there may be some psychological issues there that I really gotta work on. Maybe if I work on those, the fear tactics may actually.

If the participants are aware of misleading manipulation techniques, are they immune to their effects?
No, the participants might not be immune to the fear tactics. It might do a good job to change people’s behavior after seeing the campaign.

What are the limitations of these types of fear-inducing tactics?
As mentioned by the participant, the limitations are related to future impact and generalization effects. By using fear tactics, people will be doing something to avoid unwanted results. They might be focusing too much on the unwanted results rather than its actual purpose. Second, short-term success might inspire other advertisement products to take a similar approach. The result could be different.

How would you react if you were a subject in one of these studies?
I agree with the participants; I would play with the script. After the study was done, I will go back to old habits.

What can we take away from these articles to apply to our own topics?
Considering the tendency of the study population to ignore the situated experiment conducted by the experts, I would try to find any journal that observed real-life situations. Thus, the evidence will be more acceptable to the target audience.

Where else have you seen these types of fear tactics applied (e.g., advertising, social media, word of mouth, etc.)?
I have seen many ads and health campaigns using this fear tactic.

Are there other mediums effective?
Yes, they are effective to make most people quiver in fear and re-think their current behavior.

Why is that the case?
The target audience will either accept or deny the fear factors used in the campaign. Then, they will decide whether they will change their behavior or not.

The first article is explaining if advertisements use fear, they can get people to want their product and if it is goal oriented people are more willing to participate. I do not think people are immune to these effects even if they are aware of the manipulation techniques because even though they may be manipulating people they use facts to make people fear what being unhealthy will do to a person. Knowing they are trying to make you fear these things can still make you fear the possibility of what they are scaring you with.

Everyday people make goals for themselves and I think people still want to reach that goal they make even if it is manipulation. The limitations have to also have a positive goal to work towards. If it is only using fear, they have no motivation factor. I think If I was a subject in the first study, I would definitely fall for the subject trying to be sold. I am a very goal-oriented person and love reaching those goals. I think it would be motivating for me.


The second article is about using fear to reach an emotional aspect for 20 students to stop them from speeding. Some of the students actually went over the speed limit after watching the video using fear. The article explains sometimes when using fear if it is too intense it has little effect on people which I thought was very interesting. I also think the fact they are young and when you are young you may think you are invincible.

Using these two articles we can know using fear to get people to want to reach a goal or using fear to reach an emotional aspect of a person can get people thinking a certain way when used appropriately. I have seen these fear tactics in multiple advertisements on tv and online. There are lots of smoking advertisements trying to scare young adults and try to prevent them from starting the habit. Another example is all the gym advertisements showing you could be a couch potato and get obese or start working out at their gym.

Reference:


Giachino, C. Stupino, M., Petratulo, G., &Bertoldi, B. (2017). Fear appeals in social marketing: The case of anti-speeding video advertisement “Mistakes”. https://eds-a-ebscohostcom.chamberlainuniversity.idm.oclc.org/eds/detail/detail?vid=0&sid=4f254a52-b3ae4668b70b35df2475aaf2%40sdcsessmgr01&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWRzLWxpdmUmc2NvcGU9c2l0ZQ%3d%3d#AN=124409330&db=bth

Krishen, Anjala, S. (2015). Fear Advertisements: influencing consumers to make better health decisions. https://eds-bebscohostcom.chamberlainuniversity.idm.oclc.org/eds/detail/detail?vid=0&sid=7247b371-e9394445946e3c8910ce%40pdcsessmgr03&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWRzLWxpdmUmc2NvcGU9c2l0ZQ%3d%3d#AN=000369954900008&db=edswss

A Sample Answer 4 For the Assignment: ENGL 147N Discussion 2 Deceptive Arguments 

Title: ENGL 147N Discussion 2 Deceptive Arguments 

I really think it’s all about audience. Some people are affected by fear. Others, especially teens, are not necessarily influenced by fear as easily. They tend to see themselves as invincible.

I do think that seeing true stories or images from real-life tragedies can better move people to action.

This makes me think of anti-drinking and driving campaigns. When I was in high school, they used to place a wrecked car that had been involved in a drinking and driving accident on our school grounds. The idea was that we would see what damage could be done and choose to not drink and drive. I wondered if schools still did this, so I did a little searching.

I found this article about whether these tactics are effective or not. In this particular case, they hold a “mock car crash” with “bloody bodies”. That’s much more extreme, but I would imagine it would have some kind of impact.

Of course, kids do seem to see themselves as invincible. I know that fear tactics work a little better on me now that I am older. I’m not so invincible these days.

Boccella, K. (2018, May 5). Will mock car crash at Bucks high school keep kids from drinking and driving? The Philadelphia Inquirer. Retrieved from https://www.inquirer.com/philly/education/truman-high-school-mock-car-crash-proms-drunk-driving-students-20180505.html (Links to an external site.)

A Sample Answer 5 For the Assignment: ENGL 147N Discussion 2 Deceptive Arguments 

Title: ENGL 147N Discussion 2 Deceptive Arguments 

My high school held a mock crash simulation one day. Some students were selected to play various roles. We had students who were paired with emergency responders, I was one of those and rode to the “scene” on one of the ambulances. We also had students who were involved in the “crash”. One of the crash students parts involved them actually “dying” in the crash. The mock crash simulation lasted the entire day, starting with the crash sound being played over the intercom and ending with a mock funeral. I think this had a more profound effect on the majority of the school and was able to overcome a little of that invincibility that teens feel they have. I think the way the fear tactic is employed needs to be tailored to the specific audience that’s being targeted. 

The other day when reviewing this article it made me think of when I was in high school and they had all the students go to the auditorium the day before prom to watch these videos of students stories who drank and drove and ended up crashing and videos of crashes to show the outcome of the car and people inside. I will never forget these videos. I remember I was so scared to even get in a car unless it was my parents. I was always a worrier and I guess that stuff really worked on me as a teenager but I know a majority of teenagers it did not work on and like you said they think they are invisible. I have a cousin that is in high school currently and I was also curious if they still did these mock crashes and videos so I asked her and she said they did. I guess if it could help even a few students double think there decision making when drinking and driving it is worth it. 

If the participants are aware of misleading manipulation techniques, are they immune to their effects?
I don’t think people will be immune to fear tactics even after they know that they are being manipulated. As mentioned above, people might be touched on an emotional level and cannot ignore the message from the fear tactic campaign.

What are the limitations of these types of fear-inducing tactics?
The fear tactic might not work for people with strong goals. It is because they are aware of these fear factors and have prepared for the consequences. Since fear tactic works better when it could trigger an emotional reaction, some campaigns that pick the wrong situation will fall.

How would you react if you were a subject in one of these studies?
I agree with the participants; I will judge the fear tactics campaign with a logical explanation and common sense first. Unless I share the same concerns, I will not change my behavior.

What can we take away from these articles to apply to our own topics?
As the participants mention about emotional attachment, it would be great to find resources that discuss this aspect. The findings will be compared with the other variables in terms of message delivery and effectiveness.

Where else have you seen these types of fear tactics applied (e.g., advertising, social media, word of mouth, etc.)?
There are a lot of product ads that use fear tactics. They mention several fear factors and lead the audience to buy their products to prevent those factors.

Are there other mediums effective?
I would say it is half-half. Several people accept the offer in an instant, while others are not interested at all.

Why is that the case?
Some people are interested to try because the products are offered as the solution. The other groups pay no attention as they are not concerned about the issue.

References:

Seyler, D., & Brizee, A. (2018). Read, Reason, Write: An Argument Text and Reader (1st ed.). McGraw-Hill Education.

A Sample Answer 6 For the Assignment: ENGL 147N Discussion 2 Deceptive Arguments 

Title: ENGL 147N Discussion 2 Deceptive Arguments 

The first article, Fear advertisements: influencing consumers to make better health decisions, introduces two types of advertising techniques: those designed to inspire fear, and those designed to inspire hope. A study was conducted to evaluate consumer responses to health advertisements and how hope and fear influence lifestyle choices. The study conducted tested both advertising techniques in regards to food choices. While the results showed that both had a positive impact on food choices and exercise intentions, the effects were more pronounces in those exposed to fear-based advertising (Krishen & Bui, 2015)

The second article, Fear appeals in social marketing: The case of anti-speeding video advertisement “Mistakes”, evaluates the influence of a fear-based message on viewers’ average driving speed. Fear tactics can be an effective communication tool and assist in raising awareness on a topic (Giachino et. al., 2017).

The study conducted did prove a slight positive change in behavior, which the majority of the participants having a decrease in their average driving speed after being exposed to a fear-based advertisement. However, the authors did state that the study was conducted over a short time frame of two months, which is not long enough to prove a long-term behavior change (Giachino et. al., 2017).

I would think that if people were aware that these fear-based advertisements were designed in an attempt to manipulate their behavior, they may not all respond the same way. Fear can also lessen over time and repeated exposure, as was hypothesized in the study done of driving speed. The initial shock factor, coupled with the fear, is more effective the first time around than the 20th time. Fear can be a powerful motivator, but it has to relate to something that the consumer cares about. In the case of the driving speed study, the video used involved a parent and child.

As a parent myself, this is something that would speak to me on a more personal level, and would likely result in a stronger response, causing me to be more aware of my speed when driving. This can be applied to my chosen topic of medications used for children with ADHD. Parents will respond to the fear of what could happen should they choose to medicated their child, as well as what could happen should they choose not to medicate their child.

These fear tactics are seen on a daily basis. I think especially recently with the COVID-19 situation. I cannot listen to the radio, even on my short 15-minute drive to work, without hearing “wash your hands”. Every time I leave the house I am confronted with signs telling me to wear a mask and distance myself from other. The television has countless advertisements that now include messages about social distancing and staying healthy. The media has shown infection rates and deaths at every opportunity. In this situation, other mediums may not be as effective. The goal was to keep people distanced and at home. The constant fear-based messaging was so overwhelming, that it was incredibly effective at instilling an emotional response, and desired outcome was achieved.

Giachino, C., Stupino, M., Petrarulo, G., & Bertoldi, B. (2017, Spring). Fear appeals in social marketing: The case of anti-speeding video advertisement “Mistakes”. https://eds-b-ebscohost-com.chamberlainuniversity.idm.oclc.org/eds/detail/detail?vid=0&sid=3e711d84-309d-441c-b43c-119c2ebc4d96%40pdc-v-sessmgr02&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWRzLWxpdmUmc2NvcGU9c2l0ZQ%3D%3D#AN=124409330&db=bthLinks to an external site.

Krishen, A. S., & Bui, M. (2015). Fear advertisements: Influencing consumers to make better health decisions. https://eds-b-ebscohost-com.chamberlainuniversity.idm.oclc.org/eds/detail/detail?vid=0&sid=c26a72fd-b85b-479c-9f98-1bc31f3e6fdf%40pdc-v-sessmgr05&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWRzLWxpdmUmc2NvcGU9c2l0ZQ%3D%3D#db=edswss&AN=000369954900008