DNP 815 Discuss the differences in approach based on inductive versus deductive reasoning
DNP 815 Discuss the differences in approach based on inductive versus deductive reasoning
The primary contrast between deductive and inductive research approaches is that where deductive approaches are rooted within a testing theory, an inductive approach is concerned with generating new theories emerging from the data (Mills, 2021). Deductive reasoning, also known as a deduction, is a basic form of reasoning. Moreover, this specific reasoning approach commences with a generalized hypothesis, thereby examining potentialities to reach a specified and logically based conclusion (Mills, 2021). Additionally, deductive approaches commence with the inclusion of a hypothesis, whereas inductive approaches will conventionally employ the usage of research inquiries to narrow the study’s capacity thereby. When concerning the deductive approaches, the emphasis is projected toward causality.
In contrast, for inductive approaches, the aim usually focuses on exploring new phenomena or looking at previously researched phenomena from a different perspective (Mills, 2021). Inductive reasoning extracts a likely (but not particular) premise from specific and limited observations. Inductive approaches conventionally possess associations alongside qualitative research, while deductive approaches are more commonly associated with quantitative research (Mills, 2021). However, within this specific reasoning approach, therein resides no existing boundaries, and some qualitative studies may have a deductive orientation.
Establishing this specific framework is significant, especially since holistic nursing believes in the relationships among body, mind, and spirit. Thus, the Transpersonal Nursing Care theory was conceptualized, which states that every person has holistic needs (Kaakinen et al., 2018). It forwards that to ensure the fulfillment of the patient’s needs fully, what first must be established is the triumvirate interconnection among the nurse, the external environment, and the holistic nursing care that the nurse may provide as a healthcare provider and the significant others or family as part of the external environment (Kaakinen et al., 2018). Although a high priority is placed on theory-testing in nursing, there continues to be minimal research that has undergone the challenge of adequate theories of nursing. Moreover, one study was conducted to contribute to theory-testing in nursing by testing an aspect of Watson’s (1988) theory of human care (Kaakinen et al., 2018). Watson believes nursing is an intersubjective human process and highly values the caring relationship between the nurse and the care recipient.
The transpersonal theory is deductive because Watson developed it as human-based care. Thus, therein resides an obligation of ethics, further cementing the bond between nurses and patients. This way, Watson considers the theory art and a science (Mettumpurath & Manoj, 2018). Behind this argument’s logic resides the in-depth comprehension that the more strengthened a nurse feels compelled to fully dedicate themselves to both their patients and the caregiving process, the better the outcome of the process (Mettumpurath & Manoj, 2018). Furthermore, within the transpersonal theory, the patient and nurse significantly contribute to their roles. Moreover, this pair undergoes the process of “being” and “becoming,” serving as the primary duo of processes within this theory. Using this analogy, Mettumpurath & Manoj (2018) equate the nurse to the “being” and the patient to the “becoming.” The transpersonal theory allows both parties to interact and learn from one another. Watson delves into a deepened cognizance of this pairing by asserting that the relationship between patient and nurse should instead reflect a merging of high compatibility (Mettumpurath & Manoj, 2018). Through this very comprehension, the transpersonal theory originates from inductive reasoning due to its possessions of cultivating feelings and convictions from a singular nurse, spreading towards a broadened audience of patients. Therefore, unlike deductive reasoning, which narrows down from generalized feelings to specific feelings, inductive reasoning stems from specific moral obligations (of nurses) to a more generalized outcome of specialized patient care (Mettumpurath & Manoj, 2018).
Kaakinen, J. R., Coehlo, D. P., Steele, R., & Robinson, M. (2018). Family health care nursing: Theory, practice, and research. FA Davis.
Mettumpurath Sathiyan, N., & Manoj, R. (2018). The Changing Role of The Nurse Professional In Health Care.
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I agree with you that inductive research focuses on generating new theories from the available theories. However, deductive research is difference since the study aims at verifying the existing theories. Therefore, inductive and deductive reasoning use difference approaches when handling data. Despite the difference, both reasoning are important in public health. Inductive reasoning is detailed due to the process of generating new theories (Armat et al., 2018). Therefore, most researchers use prolong time and their resources to generate new theories. Deductive reasoning examine these new theories to validate or discredit their application in different arguments. However, deductive reasoning commence with the inclusion of a hypothesis. However, inductive reasoning uses research inquiries to start verification of theories. Inductive research benefit nursing practice. Research is a vital engagement in inductive research (Noveria, 2021). Healthcare professionals use their skills and experience to obtain new information. Therefore, healthcare professionals use different research inquiries to build their argument in inductive research. Deductive research’s uniqueness compliment inductive reasoning.
Armat, M. R., Assarroudi, A., Rad, M., Sharifi, H., & Heydari, A. (2018). Inductive and deductive: Ambiguous labels in qualitative content analysis. The Qualitative Report, 23(1), 219-221.
Noveria, A. (2021). The Effects of Inductive-Deductive Grammar Instruction on Students’ Grammatical Accuracy. ELS Journal on Interdisciplinary Studies in Humanities, 4(3), 316-321. DOI: https://doi.org/10.34050/elsjish.v4i3.18123
Roy’s Adaptation Model (RAM) depicts nursing logically as science, but connections between mind and intuition show nursing as an art. RAM was developed and used in nursing education, nursing administration, and nursing research. One of the many values of using RAM as a foundational model for DPI projects is that it promotes exploration of the effectiveness of new interventions, theory testing, and development. (Roy, 2009) (Butt & Rich, 2018). Research requires analysis that often crosses between inductive and conventional reasoning. ((Armet, et al., 2018). Inductive reasoning takes a general rule from repeated observations of a fact. In deductive reasoning, a general rule has a theoretical basis and which are used to predict a result of a certain case. (Upmeier zu Belzen, et al., 2021). When the results follow each case fits this rule. Providing evidence of deductive reasoning is truth. Deductive reasoning shows the basis and cause are used to make predictable outcomes. that something must be inductive reasoning to show that something will work. (Upmeier zu Belzen, et al., 2021). Implementing a quality improvement that requires teaching, learning, and empirical investigations use different inquiry often interpreted as deductive reasoning, (Upmeier zu Belzen, et al., 2021). RAM, the process of nursing is based on human experiences and responses may be approached in a nontraditional way. Research methods using qualitative includes deductive and inductive reasoning. RAM provides a framework for describing human experiences and tools required to anticipate and control clinical outcomes to improve health outcomes. Roy’s adaptation model focuses on systematic controlled plans and providing holistic care. (Jennings, 2017). Healthy coping mechanisms are essential for patients with ESRD in their adaptation to dialysis and its challenges. In this study, coping or adaptation is the central concept used in the Roy Adaptation Model. Using deductive reasoning for a population such as patients with ESRD may show that coping and adapting require assistance, such as case management, mental health, etc. (Mbeje & Ntombifikile, 2021). Through deductive reasoning, qualitative measures show that patients with ESRD have an altered quality of life. RAM is an appropriate model to use because individuals diagnosed with ESRD are making and adjusting to multiple factors, internally and externally. Patients with ESRD may experience multiple physiological symptoms, altered self-concept, and lack of independence. The use of inductive reasoning may indicate that through case management and education the patient may have improved quality of life. (Nobahar, et al., 2020).
Armat, M. R., Assarroudi, A., Rad, M., Sharifi, H., & Heydari, A. (2018). Inductive and Deductive: Ambiguous Labels in Qualitative Content Analysis. The Qualitative Report, 23(1), 219-221. https://lopes.idm.oclc.org/login?url=https://www.proquest.com/scholarly-journals/inductive-deductive-ambiguous-labels-qualitative/docview/2122314268/se-2DP 2
Butts, J. B., & Rich, K. L. (Eds.). (2018). Philosophies and theories for advanced nursing practice (3rd ed.). Jones & Bartlett. ISBN-13: 9781284112245
Jennings K. M. (2017). The Roy Adaptation Model: A Theoretical Framework for Nurses Providing Care to Individuals with Anorexia Nervosa. ANS. Advances in nursing science, 40(4), 370–383. https://doi.org/10.1097/ANS.0000000000000175
Mbeje, Pretty N., & Mtshali, Ntombifikile. (2021). Perceived predictors of quality of life in patients with end-stage renal disease on dialysis. Curationis, 44(1), 1-11. https://dx.doi.org/10.4102/curationis.v44i1.2251
Nobahar M, Saffari M, Babamohamadi H, Sotodehasl N, Mirmohammadkhani M. The effect of a care plan based on the Roy adaptation model on general health in hemodialysis patients; a randomized controlled clinical trial. J Renal Inj Prev. 2020; 9(2): e11. doi: 10.34172/jrip.2020.11
I agree with you that nursing is logically science. However, the connection between the mind and intuition shows another aspect of nursing. The link between intuition and mind depicts nursing as an art. Hence, nursing can be defined as both art and science depending with the people’s viewpoint. Nursing thrives on various theories (Moranski & Zalbidea, 2022). However, changes have rendered some theories less significant. Therefore, healthcare providers are involved in generating new ideas. At the same time healthcare professionals are considered with validate the credibility of the existing theories. Therefore, healthcare experts are important in shaping nursing practice. Inductive reasoning goes beyond repeated observations to generate new insights. The research exploits new avenues in obtaining information that can be used to support new theories (Tsai et al., 2019). Still, generating new theories is not enough since deductive research assess these theories. Mistakes in the public health practice may be detrimental to various stakeholders. As a result, Healthcare professionals insist on using credit theories and information. Deductive and inductive reasoning are important in nursing practice.
Moranski, K., & Zalbidea, J. (2022). Context and generalizability in multisite L2 classroom research: The impact of deductive versus guided inductive instruction. Language Learning, 72(S1), 41-82. https://doi.org/10.1111/lang.12487
Tsai, K. J. (2019). Corpora and dictionaries as learning aids: Inductive versus deductive approaches to constructing vocabulary knowledge. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 32(8), 805-826. https://doi.org/10.1080/09588221.2018.1527366
Reasoning, or the act of looking at something in a sensical or logical manner, can be divided into both inductive and deductive approaches (Butts & Rich, 2022). The difference in approaches mainly relies on the manner in which the understanding is achieved. When using inductive reasoning, the learner uses specific observations to make a generalized conclusion. In research, inductive reasoning is termed “the generating theory”, where –in a visual sense – the thinking would begin at the foundation of the pyramid and move upwards (Butts & Rich, 2022). On the contrast, when using deductive reasoning, the learner uses generalized understandings to draw a specific conclusion. In research, deductive reasoning is termed “the testing theory”, where –in a visual sense – thinking comes from the top of a pyramid down to the base (Butts & Rich, 2022). Both reasonings can be used in science and theory, which the type selected being based on the situation itself.
In the “Theory of Caring”, Jean Watson discusses her theory that the nurse/patient relationship is the foundation of a healthy patient (Butts & Rich, 2022). Her theory, that providing compassionate care aids in positive patient outcomes, combines Watson’s foundational knowledge of both science and psychology to create a theory for nurses to practice within clinical settings (Butts & Rich, 2022). In her theory, Watson uses inductive reasoning to draw her conclusions. After decades of making specific observations of nursing care and patient outcomes, she was able to make a generalized conclusion (Wei & Watson, 2019). From her years of being a bedside nurse, Watson noted that patients who felt supported in their healing and finding their own wellness often felt empowered to control their own health. The nurse/patient relationship directly contributed to this empowerment and patient wellness. Utilizing these specific observations, Watson concluded the theory that positive nurse/patient relationships, where patients felt cared for by the nurse, led to better care management and positive patient outcomes (Wei & Watson, 2019).
This type of inductive reasoning can be applied to the manner in which this theory is being utilized, such as when being applied to different clinical settings, changing practices and educating clinical nurses (Wei & Watson, 2019). Nursing theory can successfully guide changes in nursing practice because it allows the practice to be driven by the nurses, allowing them a voice in patient care and the improvement of quality in care (Younas & Quennell, 2019).
Butts, J. B., & Rich, K. L. (2022). Philosophies and theories for Advanced Nursing Practice. Jones & Bartlett Learning.
Wei, H., & Watson, J. (2019). Healthcare Interprofessional Team Members’ perspectives on human caring: A directed content analysis study. International Journal of Nursing Sciences, 6(1), 17–23. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijnss.2018.12.001 Younas, A., & Quennell, S. (2019). Usefulness of nursing theory‐guided practice: An integrative review. Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, 33(3), 540–555. https://doi.org/10.1111/scs.12670