DNP 810 Select an essential structural element of interest
DNP 810 Select an essential structural element of interest
An essential structural element of a functional eukaryotic chromosome of interest:
The study of systems biology, genetics, synthetic biology, and the functional analysis of genomes is the main focus in fields of chromosomal engineering. Eukaryotic cells contain chromosome ends which are protected by telomeres from incomplete DNA synthesis, inappropriate fusion, and degradation during DNA replication. Eukaryotic chromosome ends are divided into two, telomeres and adjacent sub-telomeric regions. Telomeres function is to protect the chromosome ends from external attacks and to avoid the loss of genetic information.
Telomeres: Telomeres consist of double-stranded repetitive G-rich DNA with Telomeres nucleoprotein structures at the ends of eukaryotic chromosomes. In order to conserve genetic information, chromosomal stability, and cell survival, maintenance of the proper structure and function of telomeres are crucial for the maintenance of genome integrity. The epigenetic regulators play an important role in controlling the chromatin state at the telomeres and the sub-telomeric regions. Telomeres are maintained by cellular activities associated with telomerase and telomere binding proteins which contribute to the maintenance of chromosomal homeostasis in yeast, animals, and plants.
The implications of Telomeres element for research: Research studies shows that the lengths of telomeres at birth are determined by genetic makeup. Other factors such as environmental and living conditions affect the telomere lengths during an individual’s lifespan. Extreme and long-term stress has also been shown to negatively impact telomeres and their protective function and some chromosomal abnormalities in offspring are influenced by the stress experienced by parents (Konečná, K., Lyčka, M., Nohelová, L., Petráková, M., Fňašková, M., Koriťáková, E., Sováková, P., P., Brabencová, S., Preiss, M., Rektor, I., Fajkus, J., Fojtová, M., 2019).
The implications of Telomeres element on health: The previous assumption shows that aging is a primary risk factor for neurodegenerative disease (ND), especially in Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s patients. Leukocyte telomere length (LTL) serves as a predictor of neurological disease because the Telomeres ribonucleoprotein complexes that cap eukaryotic chromosomes shorten in leukocytes with aging (Konečná, et al., 2019).
The implications of Telomeres element for life span: telomeres are most rapidly shortened during the first four years of life and the rate of telomere shortening differs with age. in humans, the telomere length at birth is determined mostly by genetics, environmental conditions, gender, and maternal stress during pregnancy. Modifiable factors that can affect Telomeres include low socioeconomic factors, and lifestyle status including obesity, cigarette smoking, and stress. Exposure to severe and long-lasting stress conditions is associated with shorter telomere length and notable symptoms of premature aging persisted after the stress subsided (Konečná, et al., 2019).
How can the doctoral-prepared nurse apply this information in practice? Explain.
Currently, I work with elderly demented patients and the study of eukaryotic chromosome with a focus on Tolemeres have shed light on some causes of Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s patients. Knowledge gained from this topic shows that individual personality which is difficult to express is a crucial factor in the capability of each person to cope with extremely stressful conditions. Resilient individuals with distinct personal qualities such as optimism, positive affect, self-efficacy, and high self-esteem are relevant parameters to survive post-traumatic stress symptoms Lee, W., K., & Cho, M., H., 2019).
Konečná, K., Lyčka, M., Nohelová, L., Petráková, M., Fňašková, M., Koriťáková, E., Sováková, P., P., Brabencová, S., Preiss, M., Rektor, I., Fajkus, J., Fojtová, M. (2019). Holocaust history is not reflected in telomere homeostasis in survivors and their offspring. Journal of Psychiatric Research. V 117, pp. 7-14. doi: 10.5483/BMBRep.2019.52.3.047. https://www-ncbi-nlm-nih-gov.lopes.idm.oclc.org/pmc/articles/PMC6476486/
Lee, W., K., & Cho, M., H. (2019). Epigenetic aspects of telomeric chromatin in Arabidopsis thaliana. Korean Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. V52 (3), pp. 175-180. Retrieved from DOI: 10.5483/BMBRep.2019.52.3.047. https://www-ncbi-nlm-nih-gov.lopes.idm.oclc.org/pmc/articles/PMC6476486/
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Eukaryotic chromosomes are comprised of a DNA-protein complex that is organized in a tightly-knit manner, enabling a large amount of deoxyribonucleic acid to be stored in the cell’s nucleus (Nozawa et al., 2017). However, within eukaryotes, one’s genetic material situates itself within the nucleus and is thus also housed within chromosomes following a linear pattern. The primary significance behind chromosomes is their possession of DNA, otherwise recognized as deoxyribonucleic acid, which serves as the substance responsible for residing within any and every organism’s genetic coding (Nozawa et al., 2017). When a cell undergoes cell division, Its chromosomes must first undergo replication (Nozawa et al., 2017). Cells divide in two primary ways – mitosis and meiosis. Each cell possesses forty-six chromosomes, situated in a grouping of twenty-three pairs (Nozawa et al., 2017). When a chromosome possesses an irregular nature, it can prove detrimental and even induce bodily complications. The organism’s deoxyribonucleic acid is contained within the chromosome as a long series of nucleotides organized into genes (Nozawa et al., 2017). Moreover, it aids in the inheritance of parental characters with respect to their offspring.
Genetics are the essential framework that can assist the identification of certain diseases and illnesses, alongside their accompanying risks or illnesses when conceiving children, and facilitate drug dosage or selection for certain illnesses or specific patients (Lara et al., 2018). DNP learners possess an in-depth comprehension of genetic disorders, thereby proving crucial when addressing disease prevention and health promotion. In addition, DNP learners have intimate knowledge of the patient’s, families, and community’s perspectives; an understanding of biological underpinnings; experience with genetic/genomic technologies and information; skills in communication and building coalitions; and, most importantly, the public’s trust (Lara et al., 2018). Across the lifespan, nursing focuses on health promotion and disease prevention, an integral component of genetic/genomic health care practices. DNP learners recognize that prevention is the hallmark of genetic/genomic health care and will inform public policymaking groups as they address issues that affect health care practice in genetics/genomics (Lara et al., 2018). Policy making process will be informed with new insights gained by including nurses and professional nursing organizations. These policies can facilitate the ability of U.S. health care systems to use genetic/genomic knowledge to promote health and manage disease (Lara et al., 2018).
Lara-Otero, K., Weil, J., Guerra, C., Cheng, J. K. Y., Youngblom, J., & Joseph, G. (2018). Genetic counselor and healthcare interpreter perspectives on the role of interpreters in cancer genetic counseling. Health communication.
Nozawa, R. S., Boteva, L., Soares, D. C., Naughton, C., Dun, A. R., Buckle, A., … & Gilbert, N. (2017). SAF-A regulates interphase chromosome structure through oligomerization with chromatin-associated RNAs. Cell, 169(7), 1214-1227.
The eukaryotic chromosome’s structure includes a DNA-protein that is organized specifically. Within a eukaryotic chromosome, centromeres and telomeres are essential structural elements that provide unique functions to stabilize the chromosome. A telomere is the portion from the end of the DNA strand within a eukaryotic chromosome that is needed for replication and chromosomal stability (McClean, n.d.). Research has discovered that the length of a telomere can predict life expectancy. The length has also been shown to be significantly affected by lifestyle and environmental factors. Such examples include intrauterine unfavorable events, low socioeconomic status, and childhood abuse or neglect. The shortening of a telomere can cause telomere syndromes such as pulmonary fibrosis and dyskeratosis congenita (Vaiserma & Krasnienkov, 2021).
A DNP prepared nurse can utilize the research of telomere biology to understand and therefore assist with further research in anomalies caused by telomere in early life. The alteration to the structure of a telomere can lead to intrauterine growth restriction and therefore can cause low birth weight which may lead to further metabolic disorders as an adult. In adults, the shortening of the telomere was found to cause coronary heart disease (Vaiserma & Krasnienkov, 2021). A DNP-prepared nurse can educate a patient appropriately based on information discovered. Telomere maintenance and support can be increased by consuming legumes, nuts, fruits, seaweed, fruit juice and coffee. Furthermore, items that counteract telomere function are alcohol, processed meat, and red meat. Patient education is vital to extend telomere length and therefore increase lifespan (Balan, Decottignies & Deldicque, 2018).
Balan, E., Decottignies, A., & Deldicque, L. (2018). Physical activity and nutrition: Two promising strategies for telomere maintenance? Nutrients, 10(12), 1942. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10121942
McClean, P. (n.d.). Eukaryotic Chromosome Structure. DNA structure, replication and eukaryotic chromatin structure. Retrieved June 11, 2022, from https://www.ndsu.edu/pubweb/~mcclean/plsc431/eukarychrom/eukaryo3.htm#:~:text=Centromeres%20and%20telomeres%20are%20two,the%20stability%20of%20the%20chromosome.
Vaiserman, A., & Krasnienkov, D. (2021). Telomere length as a marker of biological age: State-of-the-art, open issues, and future perspectives. Frontiers in Genetics, 11. https://doi.org/10.3389/fgene.2020.630186
Eukaryotes are the process of compartmentalization of how information is coded into the cells of humans. of humans. Essential structural elements of interest include the function of genes and the influence of variation of specific traits. Fluctuations in gene products through inherited factors or noninhibited factors such as environment and diet have little importance on some genes.
Preeclampsia is a clinical condition that can lead to multiple-organ dysfunction. Symptoms include maternal hypertension and proteinuria which appear usually after 20 weeks of gestation. Preeclampsia can cause fetal growth restriction, fetal malformation, and maternal death. (Chen, et al, 2021) If symptoms are not treated or labor is not initiated, it can cause liver enzymes to be elevated, low platelet count, and. Abnormal expression of a specific lncRNA on chromosome 12 has been shown in patients with a pregnancy-associated disease called HELLP syndrome. (Naussbaum et al, 2016)
HELLP syndrome is a rare pregnancy complication. It is a type of preeclampsia that causes elevated liver enzymes and low platelet count. (Cleveland Clinic, 2022)
Doctoral-prepared nurses are in a position to apply information obtained from detailed medical history, and specific labs, to establish policies and practices to improve monitoring of patients, and education for patients and health care providers. Doctorally prepared nurses, with required licensures and specialty certification are in a position to put research into practice -ex. Obstetrics/GYN, Obstetrics Clinical Nurse Specialist. through having knowledge and understanding of how genetic screening and monitoring of patients is crucial in quality of care and prevention of illness. Studies such as those done by Chen, et al, 2021, “proliferation, invasion, and migration of trophoblast cells to cell cycle progression, changes in described ncRNA expression may affect the functions of those cells and eventually lead to PE. Early detection of diagnostic markers is key to early pregnancy intervention. The development of sequencing technologies and methods for detecting differentially expressed ncRNAs in the placenta and plasma of PE patients are being established. Doctoral prepared nurses also play a valuable aspect in research to improve the quality of care. (Chen, et al, 2021)Results from studies to detect diagnostic markers to prevent escalation of preeclampsia to HELLP are able to be written into policy to improve the care of pregnant and postpartum women.
Chen, A., Yu, R., Jiang, S., Xia, Y., & Chen, Y. (2021). Recent Advances of MicroRNAs, Long Non-coding RNAs, and Circular RNAs in Preeclampsia. Frontiers in physiology, 12, 659638. https://doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2021.659638
Cleveland Clinic. (2022). HELLP syndrome. https://my.clevelandclinic.org/health/diseases/21637-hellp-syndrome
Naussbaum, R. L., McInnes, R. R., & Willard, H. F. (2016). Thompson and Thompson genetics in medicine (8th ed.). Elsevier. ISBN-13: 9781437706963
During cell division, eukaryotic chromosomes condense into highly coiled structures. The tight coiling and high degree of organization in this supercoiled DNA facilitate proper segregation during mitosis and cell division. One of the elements of the structure of the eukaryotic chromosome is the telomere.
Telomeres are extremely conserved tandem nucleotide repeats that consist of proximal double-stranded and distal single-stranded regions that in complex with shelterin proteins afford safety at chromosomal ends to preserve genomic integrity. As a result of the inherent restrictions of DNA replication and telomerase suppression in most somatic cells, telomeres undergo age-dependent incremental attrition. Short or dysfunctional telomeres are recognized as DNA double-stranded breaks, triggering cells to undertake replicative aging. Telomere shortening, therefore, acts as a counting mechanism that drives replicative aging by limiting the mitotic potential of cells. Telomere length, a complex hereditary trait, is associated with aging and age-related diseases. Epidemiological data, generally, support involvement with varying magnitudes between constitutive telomere length and several disorders, including cancers. Telomere attrition is also influenced by oxidative damage and replicative stress caused by genetic, epigenetic, and by environmental factors. Many single nucleotide polymorphisms at different loci, found through genome-wide association studies, influence inter-individual variation in telomere length. In addition to genetic factors, environmental factors also influence telomere length during growth and development. Telomeres hold potential as biomarkers that reflect the genetic predisposition together with the impact of environmental conditions and as targets for anti-cancer therapies (Srinivas et al., 2020).
Telomere attrition causes a wide range of age-related diseases. The transfer of genes crucial for telomere maintenance can be a promising strategy to combat these illnesses and restore the regenerative capacity of aging tissues. The first human use of telomerase gene transfer was reported in 2015. As a DNP I could implement experimental evidence from researchers supporting the transfer of the essential genes of telomere maintenance as a promising strategy to combat aging and restore cellular regenerative function for therapeutic benefits in patients (Hong & Yun, 2019).
Maintaining the integrity of the genome in all cells is vital to the survival of all organisms. Cells are thus required to separate their replicated genome equally during each cell division. The centromere is the DNA locus of each chromosome that creates the location of this linkage. A brief history of centromere research looks at our current knowledge of the establishment, maintenance, composition, structure, and function of centromeres in mitosis (Westhorpe & Straight, 2014).
Nurses trained through research and practice-based doctoral programs make an essential contribution to the development and implementation of the science that shapes nursing practice. Nurses prepared by the NHP develop an understanding of nursing. The impact of translational research, implementation science, and improvement science on healthcare quality is explored, as well as the opportunities offered by data (Trautman et al., 2018).
Trautman, D., Idzik, S., Hammersla, M., & Rosseter, R. (2018). Advancing scholarship through translational research: The role of Phd and DNP prepared nurses. OJIN: The Online Journal of Issues in Nursing, 23(2). https://doi.org/10.3912/ojin.vol23no02man02
Westhorpe, F. G., & Straight, A. F. (2014). The Centromere: Epigenetic control of chromosome segregation during mitosis. Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology, 7(1). https://doi.org/10.1101/cshperspect.a015818
Telomeres, the specific DNA protein structures found at both ends of each chromosome, protect genome from nucleolytic degradation, unnecessary recombination, repair, and intrachromosomal fusion. Telomeres therefore play a vital role in preserving the information in our genome. As humans age, the telomeres shorten in organs and tissues and promote genetic instability and increase the risk for malignancy. The so-called telomere syndromes, a number of degenerative disorders presenting from childhood to adulthood in patients with abnormal telomere shortening due to defects in components of telomerase. Telomere length shortens with age. Progressive shortening of telomeres leads to senescence, apoptosis, or oncogenic transformation of somatic cells, affecting the health and lifespan of an individual. Shorter telomeres have been associated with increased incidence of diseases and poor survival.
Lifestyle factors such as smoking, lack of physical activity, obesity, stress, exposure to pollution, etc. can potentially increase the rate of telomere shortening, cancer risk, and pace of aging. Dietary restriction, appropriate diet (high fiber, plenty of antioxidants, lean/low protein, adding soy protein to diet), and regular exercise can potentially reduce the rate of telomere shortening, disease risk, and pace of aging.
The study of the telomere length has many implications for research and correlation with chronic diseases. Efforts are being made to enhance health and the human lifespan through the understanding of genetic research. The doctoral-prepared nurse has the opportunity to be closely involved in the study, understanding, treatment and management of these patient conditions. The benefits of new discoveries in research can be useful in helping clients make informed decisions of care. As nurses become more competent in performing comprehensive histories that include genetic conditions, they can be more proficient in referring at risk clients for appropriate specialized care.
Adwan Shekhidem, H., Sharvit, L., Leman, E., Manov, I., Roichman, A., Holtze, S., M Huffman, D., Y Cohen, H., Bernd Hildebrandt, T., Shams, I., & Atzmon, G. (2019). Telomeres and Longevity: A Cause or an Effect?. International journal of molecular sciences, 20(13), 3233. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20133233